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Comma Sense
 

Comma Sense

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Hour-long presentation on simple comma rules, followed by a few tips on the use of italics.

Hour-long presentation on simple comma rules, followed by a few tips on the use of italics.

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    Comma Sense Comma Sense Presentation Transcript

    • Bellringer: Compose a short paragraph of at least 40 words about what you’re doing this upcoming weekend. Use at least five or six commas correctly.
    • Comma Understanding & Using Commas Sense
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1 List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. comma comma 1 The controversial “Oxford” or “Serial” comma I say: Use it! Others say: Don’t!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. comma comma 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. List of things that happened: He hit the ball. He dropped the bat. He ran to first base. Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas List of things to buy: Bread Milk Cheese Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Buy me some bread, milk, and cheese. List of things to buy: Bread Milk Cheese Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Buy me some bread, milk, and cheese. List of things to buy: Bread Milk Cheese comma comma Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. 1
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. 2 Exceptions Alert! Two Independent Clauses: He hit the ball well. He ran toward third base.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Independent clause 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Independent clause Independent clause 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. FANBOYS Conjunction Independent clause Independent clause 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Coordinating Conjunction (one of the FANBOYS) Independent clause Independent clause comma 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. 2 Exceptions Alert! Exception Alert: If the two independent clauses are short and well balanced , the comma may be dropped if no confusion is created.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better. 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better. Independent clause Independent clause 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better. FANBOYS conjunction Independent clause Independent clause No comma 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better. 2 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material. Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. 3 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material. Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. Introductory phrase 3 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material. Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. comma Introductory phrase 3 Exceptions Alert!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Exception Alert: If the introductory material consists of one word or is very, very short , then the comma may be dropped, if no confusion or difficulty in reading is created. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! After his short nap in the clubhouse before the game, the pitcher felt better. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! After his short nap in the clubhouse before the game, the pitcher felt better. Introductory phrase (kind of a long one, actually) Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3 comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! After his nap, the pitcher felt better. Introductory phrase (and this one is much shorter!) comma Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! After his nap the pitcher felt better. Introductory clause (and this one is much shorter!) Okay to omit this comma Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! After his nap the pitcher felt better. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside the gym was warm and comfortable. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside the gym was warm and comfortable. This is confusing and awkward to read because the writer did not use a comma to set off the introductory material. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3 Introductory word
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3 Introductory word comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Exceptions Alert! Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. That’s much better. Use a comma to set off introductory material. 3
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. Fine. But what’s “parenthetical” mean? 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. Fine. But what’s “parenthetical” mean? 4 That’s a good question. Let’s take a look.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas The stadium , built in 1953, was small but comfortable. Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas The stadium, built in 1953, was small but comfortable. Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas The stadium, built in 1953, was small but comfortable. Parenthetical (extra) information Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas The stadium, built in 1953, was small but comfortable. comma Parenthetical (extra) information comma Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas The stadium, built in 1953, was small but comfortable. comma Parenthetical (extra) information comma Parenthetical means extra information not needed to understand the sentence. Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. 4 That’s the way you handle it.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 distinguished gentleman... That tall,
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 distinguished gentleman... versus That tall,
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 distinguished gentleman... That little old lady... versus That tall,
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 distinguished gentleman... That little old lady... versus That tall, comma No comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Lots of times, we make phrases like this:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Lots of times, we make phrases like this: Adjective noun…
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Lots of times, we make phrases like this: Adjective noun… Adjective adjective noun…
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Lots of times, we make phrases like this: Adjective noun… Adjective adjective noun… Adjective adjective adjective noun…
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Lots of times, we make phrases like this: Adjective noun… Adjective adjective noun… Adjective adjective adjective noun… That question is, when do you use commas between the adjectives?
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 Here’s a easy way to tell if you need commas between all those adjectives: If you can put the word and or but between the adjectives, then you (almost certainly) need commas between them.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 He is a tall and distinguished gentleman.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. OK!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. OK! So,
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. OK! So, He is a tall, distinguished gentleman. comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. OK! So, He is a tall, distinguished gentleman. comma is OK too!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady. No!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady. No!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady. No! So, She is a little, old lady comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady. No! So, She is a little, old lady comma is not OK either!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 She is a little and old lady. No! So, She is a little, old lady comma is not OK either! She is a little old lady No comma It has to be like this:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 I live in an old, run-down house. OK?
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 I live in an old, run-down house. OK! I live in a little, purple house. OK?
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. 5 I live in an old, run-down house. OK! I live in a little, purple house. Not OK! I live in a little purple house. OK!
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off quoted material. 6 “ I want you to stop at second base this time,” the coach said. comma This comma separates the quote from the rest of the sentence.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off quoted material. 6 “ I’ll stop at second,” the batter said, “but I can keep going if you want me to.” First comma If the “split” is in the middle of the sentence, then two commas are needed. Second comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases. 7
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases. 7 The puppies were cute, but messy.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases. 7 Cute and messy contrast with each other. The puppies were cute, but messy.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases. 7 Cute and messy contrast with each other. The puppies were cute, but messy.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases. 7 Cute and messy contrast with each other. The puppies were cute, but messy. comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8 For most the year was already finished.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8 For most the year was already finished. What? It’s not clear what this is supposed to mean.
    • For most, the year was already finished. Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8 Make it clear by using a comma to set off the introductory material.
    • For most, the year was already finished. Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8 Make it clear by using a comma to set off the introductory material. comma Introductory phrase
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. 8 That’s much better! For most, the year was already finished.
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last Issue:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last On June 14, 1845, the first baseball game was played. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last On June 14, 1845, the first baseball game was played. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue: comma comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last In June 1845, the first baseball game was played. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last In June 1845, the first baseball game was played. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue: comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last I lived in Dallas, Texas, for many years. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last I lived in Dallas, Texas, for many years. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue: comma comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last About $15,600 was spent on the highway this year. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue:
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas. One Last About $15,600 was spent on the highway this year. There is an understanding and agreement to use commas in certain ways for certain constructions: Issue: comma
    • Comma Sense Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules ● Use a comma to separate elements in a list ● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses ● Use a comma to set off introductory material ● Use commas to set off parenthetical information ● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives ● Use commas to set off quoted material ● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases ● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
    • Italics In your Writing What are Italics? ● Italics are those “leaned-over” letters you see sometimes: These are just regular, non-italic letters. These are italic letters! And these are also italic letters!
    • Italics In your Writing What are Italics? ● Italics are those “leaned-over” letters you see sometimes. ● If you’re handwriting, you can underline instead of try to hand-write italic letters.
    • Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? ● Titles of works that “stand on their own”: books, magazines, newspapers
    • Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? ● Titles of works that “stand on their own”: books, magazines, newspapers ● When referring to words and letters as words or letters: The word the is an article.
    • ● Names of ships: Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? The Queen Mary sailed last night.
    • ● Names of ships: Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? The Queen Mary sailed last night. ● When using foreign words in English: The lawyer did the work pro bono .
    • Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? ● When defining technical words or terms: An even number is a multiple of 2.
    • ● Occasionally in novels to indicate a character’s thought process instead of quotation marks: Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? ● When defining technical words or terms: An even number is a multiple of 2. Oh, what shall I do now? Belinda wondered.
    • ● Occasionally in novels to indicate a character’s thought process instead of quotation marks: Italics In your Writing What Are Italics Used For? ● When defining technical words or terms: An even number is a multiple of 2. Oh, what shall I do now? Belinda wondered.
    • And now... Recompose your bellringer to check for and correct comma problems! And I’ll collect both versions, please!