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4.02a Student Notes
 

4.02a Student Notes

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    4.02a Student Notes 4.02a Student Notes Document Transcript

    • 4.02 Student Notes Understand charts and graphs used in business. I. What is the difference between a graph and a chart? II. What is the purpose of a chart? III. Which charts are used commonly in business and why? IV. How is the type of chart determined? V. Charts and Graphs used in Business A. Purpose of charts and graphs 1. Charts and graphs are used in business to communicate and clarify spreadsheet information 2. A graph is a pictorial representation of data. It includes the plot area, gridlines, and values. A graph is used in a chart. A chart is an enhancement of a graph that includes labels, legend information, titles, and color and adds meaning to the graph. 3. Whereas spreadsheet data is often filled with numbers, labels, and values that require time consuming analysis, a chart emphasizes and categorizes the spreadsheet information into a format that can be quickly and easily analyzed. 4. A chart is to a spreadsheet as a picture is to a thousand words B. Examples of charts used in business 1. Represent sales trends within different departments of a store 2. Represent the contribution of individual employee sales to the total sales for a company 3. Represent the percent of each expense to total expenses 4. Analyze stock prices and explain the fluctuations to stakeholders VI. Components of Graphs and Charts A. Graph 1. The y-axis is the left vertical side of the graph. It contains the numerical data. 2. The x-axis is the bottom horizontal side of the graph. It contains the category information. 3. Data markers are used in a graph to indicate data values. 4. A data series is a collection of related values, such as one row or column from a spreadsheet. 5. A gridline is a horizontal or vertical line that extends across the plot area of the graph for the purpose of adding clarification to the data. 6. The plot area is the background portion of a graph. It is the area bound by the values (y) and categories (x) axes. 7. A tick mark is used in a graph to clarify data categories or values. B. Chart 1. A legend is an object that explains the symbols, colors, or patterns used to differentiate the data. 6411 – Computer Applications I Summer 2008, Version 2 Unit B – 4.02 – page 60
    • 4.02 Student Notes Understand charts and graphs used in business. 2. A data label is a single value or text explanation used to explain the data in a series. 3. A chart title is the main heading, which describes the purpose and content. 4. The x-axis title describes the horizontal data. 5. The y-axis title describes the vertical data. C. Embedded and linked 1. An embedded chart is one that appears on the same sheet as the spreadsheet it represents; otherwise, it is referred to as a separate chart. 2. A linked chart is one that will reflect changes made to the spreadsheet it represents. VII. Common Charts Used in Business A. A column chart is used to make comparisons and generalizations about groups of data, such as to compare the number of students from each class (Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors) to their attendance at assemblies. B. A stacked bar chart is used to represent the sum of more than one value and compare the contribution of individuals to the whole, such as the total sales for three components to the whole sales for a store. C. A line chart is used to show trends or changes in data over time, such as growth in sales over several quarters. D. An XY scatter chart is used to show the correlation of two or more data sets, such as the correlation between stress rates and wait time in a doctor’s office. E. A pie chart is used to represent the contribution of each component of one series of data to the whole, such as the percentage of expenditures to the total budget. F. An exploded pie chart is a pie chart in which the individual components are enhanced. 6411 – Computer Applications I Summer 2008, Version 2 Unit B – 4.02 – page 61
    • Chart Components Notes Student Activity Name: Period: Date: Chart Components Notes Directions: Take notes as you view the Chart Components PowerPoint 1. What does a chart do that a spreadsheet does not? 2. What is the difference between a chart and a graph? 3. List examples of charts used in business. Components of Graphs and Charts 1. Y- axis 2. X-axis 3. Data marker 4. Data series 5. Gridline 2 6. Plot area 1 7. Tick mark 5 8. Legend 3 4 9. Data label 10. Chart title 11. Axis titles 7 6 Label the Chart Parts 10 . 9 8
    • Chart Components Notes Student Activity Name: Period: Date: 1. What is an embedded chart? 2. What is a linked chart? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
    • Types of Charts graphic organizer Student Activity Name: Period: Date: TYPES OF CHARTS Directions: Complete the table below as you view the Types of Charts PowerPoint. The first item has been completed for you as an example. Chart Name Description Best Used For: 1. Making comparisons and Series of vertical columns generalizations about groups of Column Chart that represent each data data, such as the attendance of series. each group of upperclassmen at assemblies 2. 3.
    • Types of Charts graphic organizer Student Activity Name: Period: Date: Chart Name Description Best Used For: 4. 5. 6.
    • Types of Charts graphic organizer Teacher Key TYPES OF CHARTS KEY Directions: Complete the table below as you view the Types of Charts PowerPoint. The first item has been completed for you as an example. Chart Name Description Best Used For: 1. Making comparisons and Column Series of vertical columns each generalizations about groups of data, Chart representative of a data series such as the attendance of each group of upperclassmen at assemblies 2. Series of horizontal or vertical Comparing the contribution of bars that are each divided into individual items to the whole, such Stacked Bar two or more parts. Each bar as the contribution of each represents the contributions of department’s sales to the total sales one data group to the whole for a quarter 3. Series of data points connected Comparing trends, such as the Line Chart by horizontal lines, each trends in sales of three departments representing a series of data in a store over a period of time 4. Analyzing statistical or scientific data, Series of data points connected such as to determine a correlation XY Scatter by horizontal lines, each between stressors and pulse rate; the representing a series of data effect of one on the other 5. Indicating the relationship of one component or data element to the Pie Chart Represents only one data series whole, such as the percentage of sales contributions of printers, PDAs, and desktops to the total sales 6. An enhanced version of the pie Emphasizing one or more portions of Exploded Pie chart data
    • Name That Chart Student Activity Student Name Period Date NAME THAT CHART Directions: The spreadsheet for the Bars a Million Company is below. Use the spreadsheet and knowledge of the types of charts to decide which chart will best communicate the information described in the scenarios on the next page
    • Name That Chart Student Activity Student Name Period Date NAME THAT CHART SCENARIOS Choices: Column Chart, Stacked Bar, Line Chart, XY Scatter, Pie Chart, Exploded Pie What type of Chart? Scenario 1. Compare the contribution of each individual employee to total sales for Region 1 in January – February, with emphasis on the months. 2. Compare the total sales for each region for January – March. 3. Compare the contribution of each individual employee to total sales for Region 1 in January – February, with emphasis on the employee. 4. To compare the Region 3 sales trends of each sales associate over the 3 month period. 5. Determine the correlation between absences and sales for Karl, Leslie, and Martin in Region 3 over the period of January – March. 6. Display the percent contribution of all Region 2 Sales Associates to the total sales for the month of January. 7. Display the percent contribution of all Region 5 Sales Associates to the total sales for the month for March and enhance each associate’s contribution.
    • Name That Chart Student Activity Student Name Period Date
    • Name That Chart Teacher Key NAME THAT CHART SCENARIOS KEY Choices: Column Chart, Stacked Bar, Line Chart, XY Scatter, Pie Chart, Exploded Pie What type of Scenario Chart? 1. Column Chart Compare the contribution of each individual employee to total sales for Region 1 in January – February, with emphasis on the months. 2. Column Chart Compare the total sales for each region for January - March. 3. Stacked Bar Compare the contribution of each individual employee to total sales for Region 1 in January – February, with emphasis on the employee. 4. Line Chart To compare the Region 3 sales trends of each sales associate over the 3 month period. 5. XY Scatter Determine the correlation between absences and sales for Karl, Leslie, and Martin in Region 3 over the period of January – March. 6. Pie Chart Display the percent contribution of all Region 2 Sales Associates to the total sales for the month of January. 7. Exploded Pie Display the percent contribution of all Region 5 Sales Associates to the total sales for the month for March and enhance each associate’s contribution.
    • Name That Chart Teacher Key GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A COLUMN CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the charts that represent the data in Items 1 and 2 of the Name that Chart activity Notes for Creating a Column Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Column Chart Teacher Key GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A COLUMN CHART KEY In Example 1, sales totals for each region are compared on a monthly basis from February – March. In Example 2, the total sales for each region over a three month period are compared. 1. 2.
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Stacked Bar Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A STACKED BAR CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the chart that represents the data in Item 3 of the Name that Chart activity. Notes for Creating a Stacked Bar Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Stacked Bar Chart Teacher Key GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A STACKED BAR CHART KEY In this example, the monthly contribution of each employee to total sales is represented. Notice how easily the employees’ sales contributions are compared. 3.
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Line Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A LINE CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the chart that represents the data in Item 4 of the Name that Chart activity Notes for Creating a Line Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Line Chart Teacher Key GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A LINE CHART KEY In this example, the category information (January-March) is represented on the x axis and sales are represented on the y axis. This chart clearly emphasizes the sales trends over the three-month period. The regional manager can use this information to learn more about each employee as well as to analyze the market. Notice how the March sales declined for three sales reps and rose for two. He might ask the top sales rep to share pointers with the other reps. He also may decide to reassign the reps to determine if the trends are due to the economic status of the companies or the marketing abilities of the reps. 4. Region 3 Sales Trends 160,000 140,000 120,000 Sales (in Thousands) 100,000 King, Karl Lemmons, Leslie 80,000 Murdoch, Martin Neil, Nelly Ormond, Oprah 60,000 40,000 20,000 - y y ch r ar ua ar nu br M Ja Fe Month
    • Guided Practice: Creating an XY Scatter Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING AN XY SCATTER CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the chart that represents the data in Item 5 of the Name that Chart activity Notes for Creating an XY Scatter Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating an XY Scatter Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date
    • Guided Practice: Creating an XY Scatter Chart Teacher Key GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING AN XY SCATTER CHART KEY Which chart makes more sense? The chart on the top because it is progressing in a positive, left to right direction. When making the determination of which series should appear on each axis, ask the question, “What is the effect of the x on the y?” In this example, the question is, “What is the effect of absences (x) on sales (y)?” 5. The Effect of Region 3 Absences on Sales 90,000 80,000 70,000 Sales (in Thousands) 60,000 King, Karl 50,000 Lemmons, Leslie 40,000 Murdoch, Martin 30,000 20,000 10,000 - 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 Absences The Effect of Region 3 Absences on Sales Murdoch, Martin 8.0 King, Karl 7.0 Lemmons, Leslie 6.0 Absences 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 - 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 Sales
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Pie Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A PIE CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the chart that represents the data in Item 6 of the Name that Chart activity Notes for Creating a Pie Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating a Pie Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING A PIE CHART KEY In this example, we know that Jake Jackson and Ian Ingram achieved the highest sales percentages for Region 2 in January 6.
    • Guided Practice: Creating an Exploded Pie Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING AN EXPLODED PIE CHART Directions: For this activity, you will follow along with your teacher to take notes and create the chart that represents the data in Item 7 of the Name that Chart activity Notes for Creating an Exploded Pie Chart
    • Guided Practice: Creating an Exploded Pie Chart Teacher Demonstration Student Name Period Date GUIDED PRACTICE: CREATING AN EXPLODED PIE CHART KEY The exploded pie in this example puts a slightly different spin on the data by emphasizing the individual sales representatives 7 Region 5 Sales Contributions for March Unger, Ulyses 11% Zimmerman, Zack 25% Varner, Vince 25% Younts, Yolanda Webb, Wyat 25% 14%
    • Independent Practice: Creating Charts Teacher Key INDEPENDENT PRACTICE: CREATING CHARTS KEY 1 Sales Trends by Department 60,000 Sales (in Thousands) 50,000 40,000 Music 30,000 Shoes Clothing 20,000 10,000 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Period 8,000 ABC 4th Quarter 3,500 Computers 15,755 Quarterly 7,000 3rd Quarter 3,500 Sales Analysis 2009 Period 25,000 8,000 2nd Quarter 2,500 Printers 12,575 Computers 5,000 Monitors 1st Quarter 3,300 10,500 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 2 Stacked Bar Sales (in Thousands)
    • Independent Practice: Creating Charts Teacher Key
    • Independent Practice: Creating Charts Teacher Key 3 Wild River Expeditions Gross Pay Melton, Debra 8% Jones, Barry 16% Cotton, Donna 8% Love, LeAnn 9% Feree, Eileen 13% McKay, Amy 7% Miller, Kim Scott, Patrice 11% 8% Stevens, Nancy Pendergrast, Jane 10% 10% 4 Wild River Expeditions Net Pay per Employee $1,100.00 $1,000.00 $900.00 $800.00 Pay (in Hundreds) $700.00 $600.00 $500.00 $400.00 $300.00 $200.00 $100.00 y en cy ry e nn e a im na m ic an br ar an ile K on eA tr ,A De J ,B Pa r, ,E N D ,L t, ay e n, s s s, ill n, e t, ve ne ra cK to re en ot M to rg Lo Jo el Fe M Sc ot ev e M C nd St Pe Employee
    • Independent Practice: Creating Charts Teacher Key 5. Stress Analysis 140 120 100 Pulse Rate 80 60 40 Principal's 20 Office Doctor's Office 0 0 5 10 15 Wait Time (in Minutes)