1. 4.01 Student Notes
I. Spreadsheets and Components of Spreadsheets
A. A workbook is a file which contains one or more spreadsheets.
B. A spreadsheet (or worksheet) is an arrangement of cells in columns and rows
used to organize, analyze, calculate, and report information, usually in numerical
form.
• For the remainder of this objective, the term spreadsheet will be used.
C. Cells are individual locations on a spreadsheet.
1. Cell address – Cell A4 refers to one specific location.
2. Cell range – A4:A16 refers to a group of adjacent cells.
3. Column A refers to all of the contents in a vertical range of cells in the first
column of the spreadsheet.
4. Row 3 refers to all of the contents in a horizontal range of cells on Row 3.
5. 'All Years'!A6:E16 refers to a range of cells in a specific spreadsheet.
D. Cell data is classified according to its intended purpose.
1. The label classification is used for cells that contain text or for numbers
that will not be used in calculations.
2. A value classification indicates that the data has the potential to be used
in calculations.
3. A formula instructs the software to perform a calculation.
a. Formulas begin with an equal sign (=). When the equal sign (or in
some cases a plus sign (+)) is keyed in a cell, the software
“knows” that the data will be used in a calculation.
b. Formulas use the following:
i. Addition
ii. Division
iii. Multiplication
iv. Subtraction
c. Calculations are performed according to the Order of
Operations:
i. Parentheses
ii. Exponents
iii. Multiplication and division (from left to right)
iv. Addition and subtraction (from left to right)
2. A basic function is a shortcut for a formula.
a. Components of a Function
i. Cell reference – indicates a cell’s location and provides
instructions for how cell data is copied or used in
calculations.
(a) Relative - cell value changes as the formula is copied
(b) Absolute - cell value remains static when copied to
other locations
(c) Mixed - combination of an absolute and a relative cell
2. 4.01 Student Notes
ii. Parentheses – control the Order of Operations
iii. Conditions or criteria tell the function how to calculate
the results and what data to use.
b. Functions
i. Sum, for example, =Sum(C4:C18) adds the range of cells
from C4 through C18
ii. Average, for example, =Average(C4:C18) determines the
average of the range of cells from C4 through C18
iii. Maximum, for example, =Max(C4:C18) finds the highest
number in the range of cells from C4 through C18
iv. Minimum, for example, =Min(C4:C18) finds the lowest
number in the range of cells from C4 through C18
II. Formatting is applied to spreadsheet components for the purpose of organizing and
clarifying information. Data that is presented in a uniform and consistent format is much
easier to understand than data presented with random formats. Formatting can be
applied to pages, columns, rows, cell ranges, and cells. Formatting features include:
A. A header/footer
B. Font Size and Style
C. Justification
• Left, right, or center justification can be applied globally to columns or
rows.
• The format painter can also be used to apply global formats.
1. Left – by default, cells formatted as labels are left justified
2. Indent is a format applied to cell data to emphasize subcategories, such
as the itemized list of expenses in a budget.
3. Right – by default, cells formatted as values are right justified
a. Values should be formatted uniformly, such as using two decimal
places for all like data or currency for total amounts.
b. Values can be formatted for a set number of decimal places with
or without a comma separator.
c. Values can be formatted in a variety of date formats.
d. Other formats include time, percentage, fraction, and scientific.
4. Center – formatting usually applied to titles and column headings
D. Adjusting Height, Width, and Size of Cells, Columns, and Rows
1. Wrap is used to align multi-line text within a cell.
2. Merge is used to combine two or more cells; default alignment is center.
3. Column width is adjusted to fit the longest entry.
E. Borders and Shading
F. Editing
1. Columns and rows can be inserted, copied, pasted, or deleted.
2. Cell data can be cleared, copied or pasted.
G. Renaming a spreadsheet adds a descriptive identifier to the spreadsheet tab.
3. 4.01 Student Notes
H. Reordering of spreadsheets
III. Spreadsheet Operations increase the efficiency of data entry, the performing of
calculations, and the presentation of information.
A. Spreadsheet operations
1. Sort is used to arrange data in alphabetical or chronological order.
a. A primary sort indicates the primary sort range of data.
b. A secondary sort indicates the next range.
2. Freeze panes allows the user to work in multiple areas of a large
spreadsheet and focus the view on specific cell ranges
3. Fill Series is used to fill a column or row with consecutive data
4. Print is used to provide a hard copy
a. Print preview – used to view how data is represented on paper
b. Print a selection – used to print a portion of a spreadsheet
5. Linking and embedding is used to integrate spreadsheet data with other
software applications
a. A word processing document (target) may contain a link to a
spreadsheet (source) that will update anytime the spreadsheet
data is edited
b. An embedded spreadsheet is converted into a graphic image
when placed in a target document and does not change to reflect
edits made at the source
II. Advanced Functions are used in higher-level operations, such as in conditional and
comparison equations to compute interest rates, due dates and payment terms, and
financial projections.
A. IF statements - conditional operators
1. Results are returned IF the data specified in an equation meets conditions
set by the formula
2. IF statements can be written to carry out an action, such as: IF a value in
a cell is greater than or equal to another value, insert the word “Pass” in a
cell
B. Date functions - used to calculate a period of time
1. NOW - returns the current date
2. Days360 - calculates difference in days between two dates
C. LookUp function - used to compare a cell value to an array of cells and return a
value that matches the location of the value in the array.
1. Lookup - used for two column vectors
2. VLookUp - used when there are more than two columns in the array
(lookup table).
D. List - used to assist in organizing spreadsheet information
1. Uses:
a. Control the size or content of data entries
b. Filter for specific content within a list such as displaying only the
Southeast region vice presidents
4. 4.01 Student Notes
2. Types of Lists
a. Validated - limits data entry to specific choices programmed into
the function
b. Non-validated - allows additional entries other than those
provided in the drop-down menu
E. Count - used to return the number of cells in a range
1. Count - number of cells in a range that contain numbers
2. CountA - number cells in a range that contain value or letter
3. CountIf - cells that meet a condition set forth in the formula
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