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Romantic composers samk

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This powerpoint investigates the influences of the Romantic age as seen through music.

This powerpoint investigates the influences of the Romantic age as seen through music.


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  • Finney, Theodore M. A History of Music . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935. 407-423. Ludwig Van Beethoven, String Quartet Op. 132 in a Minor, Measure 1-12 . In Celebration of Ludwig van Beethoven’s 225th Birthday . Schiller Institute. 3 June 2007 <http://www.schillerinstitute.org/graphics/fidelio/beethoven-225/fig1.jpg>.
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  • Lockwood, Lewis. The Music and the Life of Beethoven . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. 181-187.
  • Lockwood, Lewis. The Music and the Life of Beethoven . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. 202-214.
  • Richard Wagner . Great Scores . Great Scores Ltd. 1 June 2007 <http://www.greatscores.com/assets/Biographies/Richardwagner1.jpg>.
  • Boynick, Matt. "Richard Wagner (1813-1883)." Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html>. Finney, Theodore M. A History of Music . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935. 485-498.
  • Hitler Speech . Opera Chic . University of San Diego. 4 June 2007 <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/filmnotes/images/triumph5.jpg>. Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1941. 875-882.
  • Wagner, Richard. My Life . Ed. Mary Whittall. Trans. Andrew Gray. New York: Da Capo P, 1992. 39-42.
  • Wagner, Richard. My Life . Ed. Mary Whittall. Trans. Andrew Gray. New York: Da Capo P, 1992. 391-404.
  • Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1941. 875-882.
  • Boynick, Matt. "Richard Wagner (1813-1883)." Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html>. Budapest Symphony Orchestra. Lohengrin: Prelude . Delta Music Inc, 1998. Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1941. 875-882.
  • Works Cited "A Classical Violin." Cartoon. Webweaver's Free Clipart . 24 May 2007 <http://www.webweaver.nu/clipart/img/entertainment/music/violin.png>. Boynick, Matt. "Ludwig Can Beethoven (1770-1827)." Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/beethoven.html>. Boynick, Matt. "Richard Wagner (1813-1883)." Classical Music Pages . 1 Feb. 1996. Macmillan Press Ltd. 27 May 2007 <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html>. Budapest Symphony Orchestra. Lohengrin: Prelude . Delta Music Inc, 1998. Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 1812 Overture, Op. 49 . Rec. 7 Jan. 1956. John Pfeiffer. David. Napoleon At the St. Bernard Pass . 1803. Paintings to Go . 28 May 2007 <http://www.paintingstogo.com/david/napoleon.jpg>. Delacroix, Eugène. Liberty Leading the People . 1830. Art History Club . 29 May 2007 <http://www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/upload/thumb/4/4e/400px-Liberty_Leading_the_People.jpg>. Delacroix, Eugène. The Sultan of Morocco and His Entourage . 1845. ABC Gallery . 27 May 2007 <http://www.abcgallery.com/D/delacroix/delacroix25.JPG>. Einstein, Alfred. Music in the Romantic Era . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1947. 14-317. Felicien-Cesar David . NNDB tracking the entire world . Soylent Communications. 1 June 2007 <http://www.nndb.com/people/092/000096801/felicien-david-1-sized.jpg>. Ferguson, Donald N. A History of Musical Thought . New York: F.S. Crofts and Company, 1935. 337-346. Finney, Theodore M. A History of Music . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935. 407-498. Georges Bizet . Composers . Naxos Digital Services. 29 May 2007 <http://www.naxos.com/images/paintings/Bizet/Bizet1.jpg>. Giuseppe Verdi . Italian Language and Culture for foreigners . Eurocentres. 2 June 2007 <http://www.ecfi.it/corsi_speciali/verdi1.jpg>. Hitler Speech . Opera Chic . University of San Diego. 4 June 2007 <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/filmnotes/images/triumph5.jpg>. Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Celeste Aida . Rec. Dec.-Jan. 1999. Clive Bennet, 2000. Lang, Paul H. Music in Western Civilization . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1941. 750-951. Lockwood, Lewis. The Music and the Life of Beethoven . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. 69-214. Ludwig Van Beethoven . Composers . Naxos Digital Services. 24 May 2007 <http://www.naxos.com/images/paintings/Beethoven/Beethoven.jpg>. Ludwig Van Beethoven, String Quartet Op. 132 in a Minor, Measure 1-12 . In Celebration of Ludwig van Beethoven’s 225th Birthday . Schiller Institute. 3 June 2007 <http://www.schillerinstitute.org/graphics/fidelio/beethoven-225/fig1.jpg>. Orchestra of the Theatre National De L'Opera. L'Amour Est Un Oiseau Rebelle . 0EMI Records Ltd, 1970. Philharmonia Baroque. Sinfonia Eroica . Rec. 2005. Portrait of Frederic Chopin . 18th & 19th Century Western Art Music . Dartmouth College. 3 June 2007 <http://www.dartmouth.edu/~music33/Mus33projects/nodes/Chopin/images/chopin4.jpg>. "Revolutionary" Etude Op. 10, No. 12 . Rec. 1977. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc, 1977. Richard Wagner . Great Scores . Great Scores Ltd. 1 June 2007 <http://www.greatscores.com/assets/Biographies/Richardwagner1.jpg>. Schonberg, Harold C. The Lives of Great Composers . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1970. 164-364. Tchaikovsky . The Concerto of Concerti . James Wegg & Associates. 2 June 2007 <http://www.jamesweggreview.org/images/liveperform/orchestra_2004_nsa_04_25_Tchaikowsky_image_04.jpg>. Turner, Joseph M. The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken Up . 1839. Fine Art Prints on Demand . 3 June 2007 <http://www.fineartprintsondemand.com/images/prints/400/444.jpg>. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. "Felicien David." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 2nd ed. 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. "Georges Bizet." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Tyrrel, John, and Stanley Sadie, eds. "Giuseppe Verdi." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 2nd ed. 29 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Wagner, Richard. My Life . Ed. Mary Whittall. Trans. Andrew Gray. New York: Da Capo P, 1992. 39-739.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Romanticism in the Lives and Works of Romantic Composers
    • 2. Essential Question: How were the ideals of Romanticism evident in the lives and works of composers of the Romantic Era?
    • 3. Ideals Being Expressed
      • Fascination with exotic lands
      • A growing sense of nationalism
      • The idea of an individual having unlimited power
      • Increase in emotion and drama in art
      • The emergence of an artist as a true philosopher
      • Obsession with the French Revolution and other political uprisings
    • 4. Exoticism in Music
    • 5. F élicien David (1810-1876)
    • 6. Origin and Travels Abroad
      • Born in Cadenet on April 13 th , 1810
      • Interested in music at a very young age
        • Very religious, first compositions were church music
      • Joined a French socialist group named the Saint-Simonians in 1831
        • The group was outlawed in 1832
        • David went with some members to Egypt to preach Saint-Simonian gospel in 1833
          • Wrote piano music while abroad
          • Returned in June of 1835 with a fascination about the Middle East
    • 7. Influential Works
      • Le d ésert (1844)
        • Three movements describing a desert storm, a prayer to Allah, and a traveling caravan
        • A long repeated pedal note is used to represent the vast wastes of the desert
      • La perle du Brésil (1851)
        • Opera about a storm off the coast of Brazil
      • Lalla-Roukh (1862)
        • Opera set in India
    • 8. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
    • 9. Origin and Involvement in Italian Unification
      • Born in Roncole on October 10 th , 1813
        • Always spoke of his humble “peasant” beginnings in Roncole
      • Became a member of the Chamber of Deputies (the newly formed Italian parliament) in 1862
        • His fellow revolutionary, Count Camilo Benso di Cavour, dies in June of 1861
          • The pain of his friend’s death is too much to bear and he resigns from office in 1865
          • Cavour’s death makes Verdi turn back to music and change his focus away from Italy
    • 10. Influential Works
      • Nabucodonsor (1841)
        • First example of Verdi having non-Italian inspiration
        • Fascinated by the chorus of the Hebrew exiles
      • Aida (1871)
        • Written for the first season of Khedvial Opera House in Cairo
          • NOT for the opening of the Suez canal as commonly thought
        • Makes aspects of old Egyptian images into major spectacles
          • Uses the pyramids, temple of Isis, gate of Thebes, and the Nile river as settings
        • Adapts Egyptian characters to an old Italian love story
    • 11. Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
    • 12. Origin and Involvement in the Franco-Prussian War
      • Born in Paris on October 25 th , 1838
      • Won the Prix de Rome in 1857
        • France’s highest honor in music
        • Winner gets to study in Rome for 3 years
      • Enlisted as a national guard during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870
        • Ended up deserting the army
        • Happy that France was losing the war
          • Marks the beginning of Bizet’s search for inspiration outside of France
    • 13. Influential Works
      • Chants de Pyrénées
        • About the Pyrenees mountains
        • First sign of interest in Spanish culture
      • Carmen (1875)
        • Opera about a gypsy named Carmen that seduces a soldier
        • Bizet refused to visit Spain
          • Uses the harmonic, rhythmic, and instrumental procedures of flamenco music as well as old Spanish folk songs for musical inspiration as a substitution to visiting
        • Exotic aspects of the score were put in only for dramatic effect
    • 14. Conclusions on Exoticism in Romantic Music
      • Imperialistic desires to westernize foreign lands
        • F élicien David’s trip to Egypt to spread Saint-Simonian gospel
      • Fascination with the newly colonized and explored regions
        • Verdi’s interest in the Middle East and desire to distance himself from his simple past
      • Looking towards other places for inspiration
        • Bizet and Verdi’s desire to look away from their own respective countries
      • Adapted these foreign stimuli to their own classic European operatic style
    • 15. Nationalism in Music
    • 16. Fr édéric Chopin (1810-1849)
    • 17. Origin and Personality
      • Born in Zelazowa Wola on March 1 st , 1880
      • Considered the greatest Polish nationalist composer but was half French
      • Didn’t want to be showy and only performed for small audiences
      • Lived in constant misery due to a lifelong chronic lung condition
        • Contemporary composer Hector Berlioz said that Chopin was, “dying all his life” (213).
      • Had a long, turbulent relationship with author Aurore Duderant née Dupin
        • Ended in pain and made his work more intense
    • 18. Revolutionary Étude (1831)
      • The November Uprising in Warsaw in 1830 broke out three weeks after Chopin left Warsaw
        • The November Uprising was in response to Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich ignoring Polish Constitution by agreeing to help put down revolts in France
        • Polish government took over the region and declared war on Russia in 1831
        • The war ended in disaster with the deaths of thousands of Poles and no improvement in the situation with Russia
    • 19. Revolutionary Étude (1831) (continued)
      • Chopin wanted to go back and protect his family and his country
        • Couldn’t because of his lung condition
      • Instead, he used music to support the efforts in Warsaw
      • The piece caused many in Poland to join the cause
        • Contemporary composer and music critic Robert Schumann said that:
        • “ Beneath the flowers in Chopin’s work, there are hidden cannons” (217).
          • Refers to the nationalistic passion this piece evoked in its listeners
    • 20. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
    • 21. Origin and Personality
      • Born in Votkinsk on May 7 th , 1840
      • Studied at the St. Petersburg conservatory for 3 years
      • Had trouble interacting with people and got upset easily
        • Tchaikovsky was quoted saying:
        • “ Every new acquaintance, every fresh meeting with someone unknown, has always been for me a source of suffering” (354).
      • Was a very shy person
        • Couldn’t conduct his own works
        • Let his music speak for him
      • Closet homosexual
    • 22. Tchaikovsky’s Homosexuality
      • Source of Tchaikovsky’s insecurity
        • Was afraid anyone would find out
      • Married Antonia Ivanova Miliukova in 1877 to try to hide his homosexuality
        • Angst from trying to hide his homosexuality led to a failed suicide attempt
      • Tchaikovsky’s homosexuality comes out in his music
        • His ballets are very aesthetically pleasing and delicate
    • 23. Slavonic March (1876)
      • Tchaikovsky was asked to write a piece in memoriam of Christian slavs that had recently been murdered by Turkish soldiers
      • Only took five days to write
      • Tchaikovsky uses Serbian folk songs as inspiration for different movements
      • The Slavonic March unified a nation over a tragedy
        • This sense of nationalism is foretelling of the Russo-Turkish war of the following year
    • 24. 1812 Overture (1880)
      • Based on Russia’s defeat of Napoleon’s army at the Battle of Borodino
        • Battle occurred on September 7 th , 1812
        • Napoleon’s army had lost its supply lines and was unable to defeat Russia troops
      • The piece follows a story, starting with the battle and ending with the return of the troops
      • Tchaikovsky scored parts of the piece for a cannon to simulate the feeling of being on the battlefield
    • 25. Conclusions on Nationalism in Romantic Music
      • Tragic events inspired composers to write pieces honoring the victims and rallying their country of origin to stop any injustice present
        • Chopin’s Revolutionary Étude and Tchaikovsky’s Slavonic March
      • Painful personal lives made their music have even more passion
        • Chopin’s lung condition and Tchaikovsky’s insecurity about his homosexuality
      • Let their music express their opinions
    • 26. Individual Power and Revolutionary Fervor in Music
    • 27. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
    • 28. Origin and Personal Life
      • Born in Bonn, baptized on December 17 th , 1770
      • Went to Vienna in 1787 to pursue his music career
        • Left immediately to tend to his ailing mother
      • Had trouble with women and never married
      • Began going deaf in 1802
        • Wrote a will-like manuscript thinking that he was going to die
        • Along with his naturally belligerent personality, going deaf made him focus more on his music
    • 29. Sketchbook Method
      • Beethoven was very meticulous when writing his music
        • Wrote all his music in sketchbooks where he would constantly cross out work, making him work into the wee hours of the night and lengthening the composition process by a significant amount
    • 30. Beethoven vs. Aristocracy
      • Beethoven relied heavily on noble patronage
        • These patrons were horrible people
        • Resented the nobles because he felt that he was more talented and more deserving of their wealth
          • Knew he would never reach their status
      • Would do many things to disrespect his benefactors
        • Made them beg him to play
        • Dressed and acted inappropriately
    • 31. Beethoven vs. Aristocracy (continued)
      • Frau von Bernhard, one of Beethoven’s piano students, had this to say about an encounter between Beethoven and one of his patrons:
        • “ I myself saw the mother of Princess Lichnowsky, countess Thun [one of Beethoven’s patrons] go down on her knees to him as he lolled on the sofa, begging him to play something. But Beethoven did not…”(78)
    • 32. Beethoven and Napoleon
      • Beethoven admired many aspects of Napoleon’s traits and accomplishments including:
        • His endorsement of the merit system
        • His talent, determination, and strength
        • His belief in equality and democracy
      • Beethoven felt hurt and betrayed when Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France in 1804
        • This act dissolved all of Napoleon’s positive qualities that Beethoven admired
      • Beethoven’s work output dramatically decreased with the exile and eventual death of Napoleon
    • 33. Beethoven and Napoleon (continued)
      • When asked in 1802 to write a sonata about the events and ideas of the French Revolution, Beethoven said:
      • “… you suggest I should compose such a sonata? …Well, perhaps at the time of the revolutionary fever… [but] now that Bonaparte has concluded his Concordat with the Pope…to write sonata of this kind? …you won’t get anything from me” (184).
      • Shows his frustration and disappointment with his once beloved Napoleon
    • 34. Symphony No. 3: Sinfonia Eroica (1806)
      • Originally dedicated to Napoleon
        • Beethoven tore up the dedication when Napoleon crowned himself emperor
      • Subtitle of the symphony was, “composed to celebrate the memory of a great man”
        • Written as a funeral march
        • Supposed to symbolize the death of the egalitarian Napoleon
          • Beethoven wanted it to seem like Napoleon sealed his own fate by crowning himself emperor
    • 35. Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
    • 36. Origin and Personal Beliefs
      • Born in Leipzig on May 22 nd , 1813
      • Had strong anti-Semitic opinions
        • Said to be rooted in his relationship with composer and benefactor Giacomo Meyerbeer, who was Jewish
          • Meyerbeer’s career flourished while Wagner suffered in political refuge in Z ϋ rich
        • Wrote a pamphlet entitled Des Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music)
          • Wrote it under a pseudonym
          • Talks about the excessive control Jews had over the music scene during that time
    • 37. Hitler and Wagner’s Music Hitler would play some of Wagner’s music during his speeches to his Nazi followers
    • 38. Involvement in Revolution: Student Revolt in Leipzig
      • Wagner was obsessed with the French Revolution from reading history books
      • This student uprising in Leipzig was inspired by the July Revolution that was occurring in Paris at the same time
        • Jumped at the chance to participate in his own revolt and joined the Leipzig students on a march to the city hall
        • In his autobiography, Wagner said that, “the world of history came alive for me from that day on; and naturally I became a fervent partisan of the revolution” (39).
          • Shows his obsession with revolutions
    • 39. Involvement in Revolution: Uprisings of 1849 in Dresden
      • An abandonment of a constitutional monarchy under Fredrich Wilhelm IV caused riots all over Prussia
      • Almost got arrested and had to flee to Z ϋ rich for ten years
      • Wagner was even more involved this time around
        • Would lead people into the town square screaming, “To the barricades!” (393)
        • Put up anti-government propaganda posters all around Dresden
        • Ran through gun fire to be able to watch battles from atop a tower
    • 40. Wagner and Nietzsche
      • Nietzsche admired Wagner, believing he embodied his “superman theory” (society reaching perfection under a gifted leader)
        • Believed this because of Wagner’s ability to evoke emotion amongst those around him
        • Eventually lost respect for Wagner, realizing that his dramatic personality was superficial, later saying that:
          • “ [when] viewed from close proximity and without bias, Wagner’s life appears in many ways as a …grotesque comedy” (878).
      • Wagner’s anti-Semitism as well as his connection to Nietzsche’s “superman theory” would later be used by Hitler and the Nazis
    • 41. Lohengrin (1850)
      • Opera based on an old medieval story of a knight of the holy grail named Lohengrin and his conquests
        • Famous for its Bridal Chorus (“Here comes the bride”)
      • The knight is supposed to symbolize the rise to power of one man
        • Some compared the knight and his conquests to Bismark and his efforts towards German unification
          • Another example of Nietzsche’s “superman theory”
          • Possible explanation for the 2 nd Reich’s superiority complex
    • 42. Conclusions on Individualism in Romantic Music
      • Obsession with revolutions affected the way in which composers operated
        • Beethoven’s belief in Napoleon’s merit system when dealing with aristocracy and Wagner’s confidence from participation in revolution
      • Contradictory idea of individual power mixed with an assimilation with a mob
        • Wagner’s integration with the process of German unification
      • Personal opinion more present
        • Beethoven’s Sinfonia Eroica and Wagner’s Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music)
    • 43. The End