New Generation Language Standards(Interpretative-Listening) & 21st CenturyTechnology When: January 18, 2012 Time: 4:30-7:30 p.m. Where: ESC Room 224
Interpretive Listening Standard:The student will be able to understand and interpret information, concepts, and ideas orally from a variety of culturally authentic sources on a variety of topics in the target language.
Remember: According to research in Second Language Acquisition;Language learning takes place in stages. Interpretive skills (listening, reading) develop much more quickly than expressive skills (speaking, writing)Question: How much opportunity is there for interpretive listening in your classroom?
Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening. Listening and Speaking go hand in hand! Often, however, language learners do not recognize the level of effort that goes into developing listening ability.
Two-Way Communication In authentic two-way communication, the listener focuses on the speakers meaning rather than the speakers language. The focus shifts to language only when meaning is not clear. Note the difference between the teacher as teacher and the teacher as authentic listener in the dialogues that follow
Authentic two-way communicationTeacher as Teacher T: Hello, Sam! We missed you in class yesterday. What happened? S: I go to doctor for my tooth. T: Oh, you WENT to the DENTIST? A doctor for teeth is called a dentist. S:Yes, dentist. T: What happened at the dentist? S: He have to take out tooth. After my mouse hurt too bad. T: Oh, he HAD to take out your tooth? Remember, the past of "have" is "had." And it wasnt your mouse that hurt, it was your mouth.Is this how we communicate in the “real world?” How would a student feel after having this conversation?
Authentic two-way communicationTeacher as Authentic Listener T: Hello, Sam! We missed you in class yesterday. What happened? S: I go to doctor for my tooth. T: For your tooth? Did you have a problem with your teeth? S:Yes, the doctor have to take out tooth. After my mouse hurt too bad. T:Your mouse . . . oh, your mouth hurt. Does it hurt now? Will you be okay in class today? S: No, not hurt now. Well, maybe a little. T: Okay, well, if it hurts too much and you need to leave, just tell me.
Goals for Interpretive listening: We want to produce students who can fend for themselves in communication situations, even if they do not have complete control of the grammar.
What “Real Life” Situations Might astudent find themselves in?
To accomplish this goal, instructors focuson the process of listening rather than onits product.
Best Practices in Teaching Listening: Teachers develop students awareness of the listening process and listening strategies by asking students to think and talk about how they listen in their native language. They allow students to practice the full repertoire of listening strategies by using authentic listening tasks. They behave as authentic listeners by responding to student communication as a listener rather than as a teacher. When working with listening tasks in class, they show students the strategies that will work best for the listening purpose and the type of text. They explain how and why students should use the strategies. They have students practice listening strategies in class and ask them to practice outside of class in their listening assignments. They encourage students to be conscious of what theyre doing while they complete listening tape assignments. They encourage students to evaluate their comprehension and their strategy use immediately after completing an assignment. They build comprehension checks into in-class and out-of-class listening assignments, and periodically review how and when to use particular strategies. They encourage the development of listening skills and the use of listening strategies by using the target language to conduct classroom business: making announcements, assigning homework, describing the content and format of tests.
Listening for Meaning To extract meaning from a listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
Step 1-What is the Purpose? Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6fcjum_8-U&feature=player_detailpage
Importance of Background Knowledge
Step 2: Selective Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short- term memory in order to recognize it. Example: listening to see what to wear tomorrow versus listening for weather in specific location for sightseeing purposes
Step 3: Select top-down and bottom-up strategiesthat are appropriate to the listening task SelectStrategy Top-down strategies Bottom-up strategies Top-down strategies are listener based; the Bottom-up strategies are text based; listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or the listener relies on the context, the type of text, and the language in the message, that language. This background knowledge is, the combination of sounds, activates a set of expectations that help words, and grammar that creates the listener to interpret what is heard and meaning. Bottom-up strategies anticipate what will come next. Top- include down strategies include listening for specific details listening for the main idea recognizing cognates predicting recognizing word-order patterns drawing inferences summarizing
Step 4: Comprehension Checks•Check comprehension while listening and when thelistening task is over.•Monitoring comprehension helps students detectinconsistencies and comprehension failures,directing them to use alternate strategies ifnecessary.
Let’s Plan a Listening activity about weatherNovice Mid: Demonstrate understanding of simple information supported by visuals through a variety ofmedia.Novice High: Demonstrate understanding of key points on familiar topics presented through a variety ofmedia.Intermediate Low: Identify key points and essential details on familiar topics presented in a variety ofmedia.Intermediate Mid: Identify essential information and supporting details on familiar topics presentedthrough a variety of media.Intermediate High: Confirm understanding of the message and purpose of a variety of authentic sourcesfound in the target culture such as TV, radio, podcasts, and videos.Advanced Low: Demonstrate understanding of information obtained from authentic sources such as TV,radio, interviews, podcasts, and videos in order to function for personal needs within the target culture.
Step 1: Activate Background Knowledge/PurposeMay include:•looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs•Watching something similar in native language•reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structures•reading something relevant•constructing graphic organizers•predicting the content of the listening text•going over the directions or instructions for the activity•doing guided practice
Step 2: Selective ListeningSample while-listening activities•listening with visuals•filling in graphs and charts•following a route on a map•checking off items in a list•listening for the gist•searching for specific clues to meaning•completing cloze (fill-in) exercises•distinguishing between formal and informal registers
Step 3: Strategies
Step 4: Comprehension ChecksIn order to provide authentic assessment of students listening proficiency, apost-listening activity must reflect the real-life uses to which students mightput information they have gained through listening.•It must have a purpose other than assessment•It must require students to demonstrate their level of listeningcomprehension by completing some task.
Brainstorm Ideas for Authentic ListeningExperiences What could you use and for what purpose?
Web 2.0 and Listening ActivitiesSpanish Proficiency Exercises is a compilation of brief video clips in which native speakers ofSpanish from various locations throughout Latin America and Spain demonstrate variouslanguage tasks.Estudio.net - http://www.esaudio.net/recordings/MerlotWorld Languages Portal: http://worldlanguages.merlot.org/http://langmedia.fivecolleges.edu/lm_collection.htmlYoutube!!! www.youtube.com Example: MacDonald’s Commercial Spanish, French , GermanGoogle in target language (Ex.Trailers, ads)Music!
Resources National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). (n.d.). The essentials of language teaching. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://nclrc.org/essentials.