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  • 1. Walker Ligon Adrian Martinez Hillary Barr Albert Gorenn Alex Beverley
  • 2. • The Nucleolus is the organelle in a eukaryote cell that produces ribosomes in plant and animal cells. • The nucleolus is roughly rounded, and is surrounded by a layer of condensed chromatin. No membrane separates the nucleolus from the nucleoplasm. • Most plant and animal cells have one or more nucleoli, but some cell types do not have any. • The structure of the nucleolus is mainly concentrated on its RNA (Ribonucleic acid) synthesis area.
  • 3. • A ribosome is a small, dense, functional structure found in all known cells that assemble proteins. It enzymes the assembly of protein chains by reading messenger RNAs and binding amino acids that are attached to transfer RNA molecules. • In prokaryotic cells, ribosomes are formed in the cytoplasm with the transcription of many ribosome gene operons.
  • 4. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells. Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is kept separate from the cytoplasm by a double membrane layer. The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions. The cytosol is the gooey, semi- transparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended. The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities are done. All the functions for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • 5. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. It is connected to the nuclear envelope. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant).
  • 6. A centriole is a barrel shaped organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, though absent in higher plants and fungi. The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules. The centriole is a stick like organelle found only in an animal cells. It gives the cell its basic shape.
  • 7. Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. Microtubules serve as structural components within cells and are involved in many cellular processes including mitosis, cytokinesis, and vesicular transport. Another important feature of microtubule structure is polarity.
  • 8. Microfilaments are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. microfilaments are formed by the head-to-tail polymerization of actin monomers (also known as globular or G-actin). They are also referred to as filamentous actin. Each microfilament is made up of two helical interlaced strands of subunits.
  • 9. Vacuoles are membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells that can serve a variety of secretory, excretory, and storage functions. Vacuoles and their contents are considered to be distinct from the cytoplasm, and are classified as ergastic according to some authors. Vacuoles are especially conspicuous in most plant cells. Removing unwanted structural debris, Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell, Containing waste are few functions the vacuoles have
  • 10. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars, the raw material for energy and biomass production in all green plants and the animals that depend on them, directly or indirectly, for food.
  • 11. Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane surrounding a lysosome prevents the digestive enzymes inside from destroying the cell. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents. They are built in the Golgi apparatus.
  • 12. Plastids are responsible for photosynthesis, storage of products like starch and for the synthesis of many classes of molecules such as fatty acids and terpenes which are needed as cellular building blocks and for the function of the plant. They function as synthetic and storage structures.
  • 13. Cilia is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers outwards from the cell body. Cilia are rare in plants, occurring most notably in cycads. Protozoans possess motile cilia exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to simply move liquid over their surface.
  • 14. Nucleus • The nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the genes and to control the activities of the cell by controlling them
  • 15. mitochondria • Mitochondria are the cells' power sources • They are distinct organelles with two membranes. • They are rod-shaped but sometimes they can also be round. • The outer membrane limits the organelle while the inner membrane is folded like shelves that project inward
  • 16. Cell Membrane • The cell membrane is semi permeable barrier found in all cells • It contains a variety of molecules, mostly proteins and lipids
  • 17. rough endoplasmic reticulum • The function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is to bled and export proteins. • The rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is a series of connected vesicles and flattened sacs.
  • 18. Mitochondria • Is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. • Mitochondria is described as a cellular power plants because they generate most of the cell's energy. • The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. • Many cells possess only a single mitochondrion, while others can contain several thousand mitochondria.
  • 19. Cell Wall • A cell wall is a rigid layer surrounding a cell located outside the cell membrane • It provides the cell with structural support, protection, and acts as a filtering mechanism. • The cell wall also prevents over-expansion when water enters the cell. • They are found in plants, bacteria, fungi, and algae. • Animals do not have cell walls.
  • 20. Golgi Agpparatus • The Golgi body is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells • The function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesised by the cell. • The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells.
  • 21. flagella • flagella is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. • In prokaryotes, they function to move the cell
  • 22. Cytoskeleton • It is contained in all eukaryotic cells and recent research has shown it can be present in prokaryotic cells • It is structure that maintains cell shape, and also has been known to protect the cell • It enables cellular motion
  • 23. Bibliography • Wikipedia.com • Dictionary.com • Google.images.com