GIS for Economic Development - Incorporating Economic and Census Data into Geospatial Analysis
GIS for Economic DevelopmentIncorporating Economic and Census Data into Geospatial Analysis Matt Kures Center for Community & Economic Development University of Wisconsin-ExtensionWisconsin Land Information Association Fall Regional Meeting October 27, 2011 Neenah, WI
Defining Economic Development“The process of retaining, expanding, and attracting jobs, income andwealth in a manner that improves individual economic opportunities and the quality of human life.” Geography Sociology Economic Economics Development Design Planning Real Estate
Eras or Waves of Economic Development Approaches Cost Competition Regional Industrial Recruiting Era (Early 1980s to Early Competitiveness (1950s to 1980s) 1990s) (Early 1990s to Present) • Innovation & Driver • Export Base • Scale Economies Entrepreneurship • Financial incentives to • Industrial consolidation • EntrepreneurshipStrategies firms and cost cutting • Clusters • Industrial parks • Deregulation • Commercial research • Government funds for • Distinct regional assets subsidies and tax such as industry Keys to • Health of existing breaks specializations, human Success industries capital, higher • Industrial infrastructure education & amenities Source: Drabenstott, 2005
Center for Community & Economic Development (CCED)Working with UW-Extension county and campus partners we create, apply and transfermulti-disciplinary knowledge to help people understand community change and identify opportunities.Communities often ask:• What types of comprehensive economic development strategies can we pursue?• What challenges and opportunities are facing our local and regional economies?• How can we create sufficient jobs with livable wages to support families?• How can we improve the competitiveness of our community’s downtown, neighborhood shopping district, regional economy, etc?• How can we build stronger capacity in our community to deal with change?
GIS in Community and Economic DevelopmentExamples of how we use GIS in community and economicdevelopment:• Policy Analysis and Strategy Development;• Asset Mapping and Monitoring/Benchmarking;• Business Attraction, Retention and Expansion Analysis;• Market Research;• Labor Market Analysis;• Applied Research
Creating a Geographic Profile of CustomersMSA All Spring Summer Fall Winter(drive time) SeasonsChicago, IL 28.7% 23.9% 31.1% 31.4% 21.2%(4.2 hours)Milwaukee, WI 19.1% 23.5% 16.1% 16.8% 26.8%(2.5 hours)Madison, WI 5.9% 6.2% 5.8% 5.7% 6.1%(3.2 hours)Appleton, WI 5.6% 8.3% 4.3% 4.3% 9.2%(1.5 hours)Green Bay, WI 5.3% 7.8% 3.8% 3.5% 10.0%(0.8 hours)Minneapolis, MN 4.3% 3.3% 5.2% 5.2% 1.3%(5.5 hours)
Creating a Demographic Profile of CustomersDemographic Study Area Spring Summer Fall Winter TotalCategory AverageAverageHousehold Size 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5Median Age 36.3 36.7 36.7 36.2 36.5 36.0Average FamilyIncome $64,171 $72,018 $66,845 $65,149 $68,630 $47,351Executive orProfessional 18.5% 21.0% 18.9% 18.8% 19.8% 12.0%OccupationCollege 31.3% 34.2% 31.9% 31.7% 32.8% 25.4%DegreeHome 72.1% 75.5% 73.9% 72.3% 74.2% 68.1%Owner
Customer Prospecting - What Demographic Criteria Differentiate Customers from the General Population?1. Logistical Regression: Customer (yes/no) = β0 + β1 median age + β3 median household income + β4 educational attainment + βn2. Conditional Means or Distributions of Demographic Variables
Assessing Accessibility andSpatial Mismatches in Supply and Demand
Typical Questions Asked as Part of a Regional Industry Analysis• What assets do we have in our region that might be a source of competitive advantage for certain industries?• How do various industries contribute to the regional economy?• What industries are either currently aligned or could be aligned with assets in the region?• How does the region compare to the other regions that may be competitive locations?• What factors might encourage or discourage industries or entrepreneurs to consider the region as a location? Are these factors controllable or uncontrollable at the local level?• How can we work with local industries to better understand their needs?
Assessing Factors of Regional Competitive Advantage• Industry Structure - Differentiation, competitiveness and concentration;• Human Capital – Knowledge and skills of the labor force;• Natural Assets – Quantity, quality and uniqueness;• Research and Educational Institutions – Drive innovation and train the labor force;• Physical and Information Infrastructure – Allow for information sharing and decreases friction;• Social Capital – Professional relationships and networks for knowledge sharing and spillovers;• Quality of Life – Quality of life matters, particularly in economies based on knowledge and innovation;• Cost of Doing Business – Financial capital, regulatory environment, etc.
Measuring Spatial Association and Significance• Spatial Lag and Other Neighborhood Weighting Functions – Weighted averages or other statistics based on values in neighboring areas;• Local Measures of Spatial Autocorrelation - Indicate the presence or absence of significant spatial clusters or outliers for each location;• Locational Correlations and Spatial Regression – Used to determine if activities or industries are co-located in space; Good overview of spatial analysis, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression through the GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation (http://geodacenter.asu.edu/eslides)
Using Spatial Analysis to Examine Supply Chains Ag-Processing Ag-Production Support Support Supporting Educational, Research andFarm Machinery Sales Development Organizations Plastic, Metal and & Repair Paperboard Packaging Agricultural Agricultural Transportation Production Processing Packaging Machinery Animal Support Food and Beverage Grain, Services (Vets, Manufacturing Vegetable Printing Breeding Services) (Animal Processing Dairy and Fruit Products, Animal Food, Production Machinery and Animal Feed Bakeries, Beverages, Machinery Repair Production Fruit, Vegetable and Dairy, Grain, Processing, etc.) Plastic and Plumbing Professional, Poultry and FixturesTechnical & Financial Livestock Services Production Future Bio-Ag Value Wholesale Added Industries Wholesale Warehousing Customers (Food Service, Utilities, Utilities Retail, Institutions, Wholesale, etc.) Transportation
WI Department of Workforce Development – WORKnet http://worknet.wisconsin.gov/worknet/default.aspx• Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (ES-202) – Data on employment, wages and number of establishments by industry. Quarterly/Annual data by state and county starting with 1990. Figures are based on UI filings. Some data will be suppressed;• Large Employers – Up to 25 largest employers in each industry for counties, cities, towns and villages;• Plant Closings and Mass Layoffs - Businesses employing 50 or more persons in the State of Wisconsin must provide written notice 60 days before implementing a "business (plant) closing" or "mass layoff" in the state (with some exceptions)• Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) – Monthly/Annual figures for U.S., Wisconsin, counties, metropolitan/micropolitan areas, certain cities, etc. (1990 to present).• Top 5/Bottom 5 – Industries that are growing/declining the fastest in each county; highest and lowest paying industries by county (2009 to 2010);
Occupational Information Network - O*NET OnLine http://www.onetonline.org/
Bureau of Economic Analysis – Regional Economic Accounts http://www.bea.gov/regional/index.htm• National, State, Metro/Non-Metro, and County Data - Population, personal income, transfer payments, farm income and expenses, proprietors’ income, employment and compensation by industry and more. Starting with 1969 for most measures;• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by industry for states and metropolitan areas• Consistent source of farm production employment and income – Farm employment is not fully available through the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages;• Employee compensation and earnings by industry - Employee compensation includes the sum of wage and salary disbursements and supplements to wages and salaries. Earnings include employee compensation as well as proprietors’ income;• Important differences from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data: 1. Employment by industry includes proprietors; 2. Government employment includes government employees across all sectors (public administration, education, health care, etc.)
Census Bureau Local Employment Dynamics Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) http://lehd.did.census.gov/led/datatools/qwiapp.htmlQuarterly Workforce Indicators -Detailed county, WIA and MSAestimates of employment, earnings,gross job creation and destruction bydetailed industry, gender and age ofworkers. (Currently through Q3 2010)QWI avoids many of the datadisclosure problems associated withother data sets. However, it does so byintroducing noise (distortions) into thedata.Tutorial available at:http://lehd.did.census.gov/led/datatools/elearning/QWI_Online/index.htm
Census Bureau Local Employment Dynamics - Industry Focus http://bit.ly/epmCHbIndustry Focus Tool:• Determine the top industries for your local area and your local workers;• Focus on a particular industry to see how it ranks among top industries;• Examine characteristics of those who work in that industry;• Also relies on noise introduced into the data.Tutorial available at:http://lehd.did.census.gov/led/datatools/elearning/Industry_focus/index.htm
U.S. Census Bureau Local Employment Dynamics - OnTheMap http://lehdmap.did.census.gov/OnTheMap - Mapping and reportingapplication showing:• Where workers are employed and where they live;• Companion reports on worker characteristics;• Filtering by age, earnings, or industry groups;• Based on synthetic data that are statistically analogous to actual worker counts and locations but not exact. Tutorial available at: http://lehd.did.census.gov/led/datatools/elearning/OnTheMap/index.html
Other Notable Census Bureau Resources• Decennial Census and American Community Survey (ACS) Data…• Population Estimates - Annual estimates of total population; components of change; population by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. National, state, MSA and county level data. Some place level data also available;• County Business Patterns - Annual estimates of establishments, mid-March employment, first quarter payroll, and annual payroll by industry . National, state, county, zip code and metropolitan areas. 2009 is most current;• 2007 Economic Census – Data on establishments, payrolls, employment, sales, etc. by industry categories – Detailed data for small areas is likely suppressed;• Non-Employer Statistics - U.S. and sub-national economic data by industry for businesses that have no paid employees and are subject to federal income tax. All Available through American FactFinder
Data Sources for Quality of Life Indicatorswww.uwex.edu/ces/cced/communities/QualityofLifeDataIndicatorsDataSources.cfm
Some More Favorites• Headwaters Economics Economic Profile System - Detailed socioeconomic profiles for counties http://www.headwaterseconomics.org/eps/• WI DOA Demographic Services Center – Population and housing estimates, projections, and components of change for WI counties, cities, towns and villages http://bit.ly/hgUlLb• WI DWD Office of Economic Advisors – County workforce profiles and other datasets http://dwd.wisconsin.gov/oea/county_profiles/• Data.gov – Clearinghouse of government data sets. http://www.data.gov/catalog/raw• 2007 Census of Agriculture - National, state, and county data on a wide-variety of agricultural topics http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/• Private Data Providers - ESRI, Nielsen Claritas, AGS, InfoUSA, Dun and Bradstreet, etc
Some More Favorites• YourEconomy.org – Industry and business data from the Edward Lowe Foundation classified by composition, growth and industry (states, counties and MSAs) http://www.youreconomy.org/• StatsIndiana – Official Indiana data center with information on other geographic areas throughout the U.S. http://www.stats.indiana.edu/• Atlas of Rural and Small Town America - http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/RuralAtlas/index.htm• Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data http://www.ffiec.gov/hmda/ - Home lending data compiled by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).• National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) – Free census data and GIS files for areas between 1790 and 2000. http://www.nhgis.org/• IRS Statistics of Income Migration Data – Returns, Exemptions and Income http://www.irs.gov/taxstats/article/0,,id=212683,00.html
Sage Advice about Using Data “It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble. It’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so.” Mark Twain
For More Information on Today’s Presentation Matt Kures University of Wisconsin-Extension Center for Community & Economic Development www.uwex.edu/ces/cced twitter.com/uwexcced610 Langdon Street, Room 335, Madison, WI 53703Phone 608-265-8258 email@example.com
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