Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species in Eau Claire County, WI

3,456

Published on

Terrestrial invasive plant species, or non-native plant species that are successful outside their natural range, cause a multitude of problems: they have been estimated to cause $137 billion of damage …

Terrestrial invasive plant species, or non-native plant species that are successful outside their natural range, cause a multitude of problems: they have been estimated to cause $137 billion of damage each year, decrease biodiversity, deteriorate ecosystem services, decrease agricultural productivity, and can even change geomorphic processes like sedimentation and runoff. Understanding where and why terrestrial invasive plant species thrive, thus, is an important step towards controlling the economic and environmental damage that they cause. By collecting terrestrial invasive species field data with a unique method, creating a descriptive model in ArcGIS which depicts which environmental and human factors cause a high intensity infestation for six indicator species, and writing a predictive model using Python to create a surface that prioritizes areas for control, this project creates a number of outputs which can cut monitoring costs and elicit policy changes in Eau Claire County, WI.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,456
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • TIPS = non-native, established and successful beyond their native range
  • Put photos here
  • Put photos here
  • Put photos here
  • Transcript

    • 1. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin David Hon 1
    • 2. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Outline• Introduction to Python• Applications of Python to GIS• Primer to the project• Research questions• Data• Descriptive analysis• Predictive analysis with Python• Conclusions 2
    • 3. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Introduction to PythonWhat is Python?“Python is designed to be an easy-to-use,easy-to-learn dynamic scripting language”(Butler, 2005) 3
    • 4. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Applications of Python to GISWhy Python?• Increase efficiency• Reduce error• Customize processes• Create script tools• Formalize a process 4
    • 5. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Introduction to PythonHow to use Python in GIS (or at least how I did!): • Learn Python basics • Learn Python the Hard Way, by Zed Shaw • Plan • Psuedocode • Get help, or Help • Import modules (gp. and arcpy. important) • Define variables • Execute tools • Go crazy with comments • Make it work • Make it better • Make your tool and use it! 5
    • 6. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Project Primer• Document impacts of terrestrial invasive plants (aka TIPS) • Forest productivity • Biodiversity • Endangered species• Create a scientific collection process (yes, we made it up!)• Gather rich baseline data• Engage citizen scientists• Describe human and environmental characteristics of TIPS• Create a basic predictive habitat suitability model to prioritize areas for future monitoring 6
    • 7. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Literature Review• Terrestrial invasive plant species = TIPS• Defining TIPS• Long natural history (Maron et al, 2004)• Many negative effects (Pimental, 2000; Chornesky et al, 2003; Hedja et al, 2009; Lodge et al, 2006; Mascaro et al, 2007; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2010) • Humans facilitate invasions (Robbins 2004) • Invasions exist through a process (Lodge et al, 2007; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2010; Theoharides et al, 2007; Blumenthal, 2005) • TIPS difficult to control (Anderson et al, 2003; DiTomasao et al, 2006; Kirby et al, 2000; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2010) • Policy change best for controlling TIPS (Hauser et al, 2009; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2009; Shine and Doody, 2011) 7 Lodge et al, 2007
    • 8. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Research Questions 8
    • 9. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Other thanks to: Matt Moris Aaron McEachern Judy Schwarzmeier Josh Ruttschow Anna Mares Jeanette Kelly Paula Kleinjes-Neff Sean Hartnett 9 (Hon, 2011)
    • 10. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Region of Interest 10
    • 11. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Reed Canary Species Used Grass In Analysis Orange/Yellow HawkweedLeafy Spurge Common St. John’s Wort Spotted Knapweed Bush Honeysuckles 11 (Hon, 2011)
    • 12. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Data Understanding the Field Data (Summer 2011) 12
    • 13. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Data: Base Layers 13
    • 14. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Data: Invasive Species in GISOrange/Yellow Hawkweed Spotted Knapweed Leafy Spurge Common St. John’s Wort Reed Canary Grass Bush Honeysuckles 14
    • 15. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Human Environmental Data: Controls Factors Factors Mixed Factors Based on field observations! 15
    • 16. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Methods: GIS Data Flow for Descriptive Model Generate factor layers Split species by infestation Merge with intensity pointsLines topoints Join point data with factor layers 16
    • 17. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Results Total Number % Infestations % Infestations % Infestations Used in % Infestations Classified as Classified as Classified asSpecies Analysis (n) Classified as Rare Infrequent/Occasional Locally Abundant DominantOrange and YellowHawkweed 729.00 13.44 52.81 33.33 0.41Leafy Spurge 114.00 1.75 29.82 59.65 8.77Common St. JohnsWort 46.00 36.96 34.78 28.26 0.00Bush Honeysuckles 137.00 43.80 25.55 30.66 0.00Spotted Knapweed 412.00 20.63 30.58 41.50 7.28Reed Canary Grass 123.00 13.01 53.66 31.71 1.63 17
    • 18. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Results Mean Mean Mean Mean Distance Distance Road Distance Mean Soil Mean from from Density fromSpecies Drainage Slope Cities (m) Roads (m) (m/m^2) Rivers (m) Mode Land CoverOrange and YellowHawkweed 27.8 1.20 9401.4 452.3 0.001042 248.0 Coniferous ForestLeafy Spurge 20.8 1.15 9431.3 99.0 0.001256 277.8 Coniferous ForestCommon St. Johns Wort 43.0 1.85 11219.1 632.8 0.000655 230.7 Deciduous ForestBush Honeysuckles 40.3 1.36 5896.4 278.3 0.003204 113.1 Deciduous Forest Forest Edge orSpotted Knapweed 25.3 1.31 9054.5 361.0 0.001152 221.0 Forest TransitionReed Canary Grass 48.2 1.29 10216.4 536.7 0.000959 277.8 Deciduous Forest 18
    • 19. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Results Distance from Rivers 600.00 500.00 400.00Distance (m) 300.00 200.00 Rare Infrequent/Occasional 100.00 Locally Abundant Dominant 0.00 Terrestrial Invasive Species 19
    • 20. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Results Summary of Controls on Infestation Species IntensityOrange/Yellow Hawkweed Slope, distance from rivers, road density Soil drainage, distance from rivers, distance fromLeafy Spurge roads, land cover Soil drainage, slope, distance from rivers, distance fromSpotted Knapweed roads, distance from cities, road density, land coverCommon St. Johns Wort Soil drainage, distance from cities, road density, land cover Soil drainage, slope, distance from rivers, distance fromBush Honeysuckles cities, road density, land cover Soil drainage, slope, distance from rivers, distance fromReed Canary Grass cities, road density, land cover 20
    • 21. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Timeline: Predictive Habitat Suitability ModelThe “Hon Method”• Learn Python basics (Sept. to Nov.) • Learn Python the Hard Way, by Zed Shaw• Plan (Week 1 Nov.)• Psuedocode (Week 1 Nov.)• Create a simple mimic-tool (Week 2 Nov)• Get help, or Help (Week 2 Nov.)• Import modules (gp. and arcpy. important) (Week 2 Nov – Dec)• Define variables (Week 2 Nov – Dec)• Execute tools (Week 2 Nov – Dec)• Go crazy with comments (Week 2 Nov – Dec)• Make it work (Week 1 Dec.)• Make it better (Weeks 1-2) Dec.)• Make your tool and use it! (Week 3 Dec.) 21
    • 22. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability Model The Plan• Use known locations of invasive species Data issues: • Points represent areas • Environmental and human influences all assumed to be equal • Samples not even across landscape • Samples not stratified• Python because of replicability• Use loops for point data• Find unique values of all factor data• Binary model (Yes/No)• Reclass by table• Add binary layers to create surfaceResult – deterministic index (0-7) model of invasive species habitat 22
    • 23. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability Model Mimic tool: multiclip 10.5.11# Import arcpy moduleimport arcpyimport os# Declared variables:inFCs = arcpy.GetParameterAsText(0) #input feature classesclip_FC = arcpy.GetParameterAsText(1) #clip featureoutput_WS = arcpy.GetParameterAsText(2) #output workspaceinFCs = inFCs.split(";") #splits features into multiple featuresfor inFC in inFCs: (filePath, fileName) = os.path.split(inFC) dotInd = fileName.find(".") #finds the extension name e.g. .shp if dotInd <> -1: #looks at what is before the extension name newFC = fileName[0:dotInd] #declares the filename that isbefore the extension filename outFC = newFC + "_clip" #adds "_clip" to the new features else: outFC = fileName + "_clip"# execute clip toolarcpy.Clip_analysis(inFC, clip_FC, output_WS + “//" + outFC) 23
    • 24. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability ModelPseudocode sample If: IP exists on LULC 1, 3, 5 Then: LULC layer 1, 3, 5 = 1 LULC layer 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 = 0 24
    • 25. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability Model Get Help! 25
    • 26. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability ModelImport modulesimport arcpyfrom arcpy import envfrom arcpy.sa import *import sys, osimport arcgisscriptinggp = arcgisscripting.create(9.3) 26
    • 27. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability ModelDefine variablesinvasives = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (0)#invasive species fcs;multivalue#variable#definition#commentdfc = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (1)dff = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (2)dfr = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (3)DI = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (4)slp = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (5)rdn = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (6)rlu = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (7)#inraster1-7 are the factors used forreclassingout_ws = arcpy.GetParameterAsText (8)#output workspace 27
    • 28. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Predictive Habitat Suitability ModelExecute toolsfor invasive in invasives: (filePath, fileName) = os.path.split(invasive) dotInd = fileName.find(".") #finds the extension name e.g..shp if dotInd <> -1: #looks at what is before the extensionname newFC = fileName[0:dotInd] #declares thefilename that is before the extension filename out_inv = newFC + "_" #adds "_" to the newfeatures filename else: out_inv = fileName + "_" #loops through all of the invasive species gp.addmessage("finding unique values for reclasstables...") freq_dfc = arcpy.Frequency_analysis(invasive, out_ws +“//" + out_inv + "dfc", "dfrmcities2_slice"... 28
    • 29. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, WisconsinResults: Predictive Habitat Suitability Model Eau Claire Altoona Fall Creek Augusta Fairchild 29
    • 30. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Conclusions• Disconnect between citizens, scientists, policymakers, and foresters• Leafy spurge• Improvements for next time• Python and predictive modeling for other projects • Location analysis • Hazard mapping • Population growth • Urbanization • What else? 30
    • 31. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin Any questions? 31 (Hon, 2011)
    • 32. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin ReferencesAnderson, G. L., E. S. Delfosse, N. R. Spencer, C. W. Prosser, and R. D. Richard. 2003. Lessons in Developing Successful Invasive Weed Control Programs. Journal of Range Management 56 (1):2-12.Blumenthal, Dana. 2005. Interrelated Causes of Plant Invasion. Science 310 (5746):243-244.Bonnet, Alastair. 2008. What is Geography? 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc.Butler, Howard. 2005. A guide to the Python universe for ESRI users. ArcUser Apr-May 2005.CareerOneStop, “Geospatial Technology Competency Model,” CareerOneStop, http://www.careeronestop.org/CompetencyModel/blockModel.aspx?tier_id=2&block_id=696 &GEO=Y (accessed 9/28/11).Chornesky, Elizabeth A., and John M. Randall. 2003. The Threat of Invasive Alien Species to Biological Diversity: Setting a Future Course. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 90 (1):67-76.Ditomaso, Joseph M., Matthew L. Brooks, Edith B. Allen, Ralph Minnich, Peter M. Rice, and Guy B. Kyser. 2006. Control of Invasive Weeds with Prescribed Burning. Weed Technology 20 (2):535-548.Hauser, Cindy E., and Michael A. McCarthy. 2009. Streamlining ‘search and destroy’: cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management: Wiley-Blackwell.Hawaii Geographic Alliance, “Geography for Life National Geography Standards 1994,” Hawaii Geographic Alliance, http://www.hawaii.edu/hga/Standard/Standard.html (accessed 9/28/11).Hejda, Martin, Petr Pyšek, and Vojtěch Jarošík. 2009. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. Journal of Ecology 97 (3):393-403.Henery, Martin L., Gillianne Bowman, Patrik Mráz, Urs A. Treier, Emilie Gex-Fabry, Urs Schaffner, andHeinz Müller-Schärer. 2010. Evidence for a combination of pre-adapted traits and rapid adaptive change in the invasive plant Centaurea stoebe. Journal of Ecology 98 (4):800-813.Jackson, Peter. 2006. Thinking Geographically. Geography 91(3): 199-204.Kirby, Donald R., Robert B. Carlson, Kelly D. Krabbenhoft, Donald Mundal, and Matt M. Kirby. 2000. Biological Control of Leafy Spurge with Introduced Flea Beetles (Aphthona spp.). Journal of Range Management 53 (3):305-308.Lewis, Peirce. December 1985. Beyond Description. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75(4): 465-478. 32
    • 33. Evaluating Terrestrial Invasive Plants in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin ReferencesLodge, David M., Susan Williams, Hugh J. MacIsaac, Keith R. Hayes, Brian Leung, Sarah Reichard, Richard N. Mack, Peter B. Moyle, Maggie Smith, David A. Andow, James T. Carlton, and AnthonyMcMichael. 2006. Biological Invasions: Recommendations for U.S. Policy and Management. Ecological Applications 16 (6):2035-2054.Maron, John L., Montserrat Vilà, Riccardo Bommarco, Sarah Elmendorf, and Paul Beardsley. 2004. Rapid Evolution of an Invasive Plant. Ecological Monographs 74 (2):261-280.Mascaro, Joseph, and Stefan A. Schnitzer. 2007. Rhamnus cathartica L. (Common Buckthorn) as an Ecosystem Dominant in Southern Wisconsin Forests. Northeastern Naturalist 14 (3):387-402.Pattison, William D. Late Summer 1990. The Four Traditions of Geography. Journal of Geography . September/October 1990: 202-206.Pimentel, David, Lori Lach, Rodolfo Zuniga, and Doug Morrison. 2000. Environmental and Economic Costs of Nonindigenous Species in the United States. BioScience 50 (1):53.Robbins, Paul. 2004. Comparing Invasive Networks: Cultural and Political Biographies of Invasive Species. Geographical Review 94 (2):139-156.Shine, Richard and Doody, J Sean. 2011. Invasive species control: understanding conflicts between researchers and the general community. Frontiers in ecology and the environment 9 (7):400-406.Solem, M., Chueng, I., and Schlemper, B.M. 2008. Skills in Professional Geography: An Assessment of Workforce Needs and Expectations. The Professional Geographer 60(3): 356-373.Theoharides, Kathleen A., and Jeffrey S. Dukes. 2007. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous (accessed October 11th 2011).Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.. 2011. Invasive Species. 2010. Available from http://dnspecies success during four stages of invasion. New Phytologist 176 (2):256-273.Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2009. Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Invasive Species. http://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/species.asp?filterBy=Terrestrial&filterVal=Y r.wi.gov/invasives/species.asp?filterBy=Terrestrial&filterVal=Y (accessed October 11th 2011).Zelinsky, Wilber. 2001. The Geographer as Voyeur. Geographical Review 91(1/2): 1-8. 33

    ×