Dialogue Session: Ecosystem Services and Resilience of three basins (Volta, Nile, and Mekong)


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Bioversity International scientist Fabrice DeClerck presents on WLE's work in the Volta, Nile and Mekong basins, with a focus on ecosystem services and resilience. Found out more about WLE and Resilience: http://bit.ly/Q0hOtu

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Dialogue Session: Ecosystem Services and Resilience of three basins (Volta, Nile, and Mekong)

  1. 1. Dialogue Session: ES and Resilience of three basins (Volta, Nile, and Mekong)
  2. 2. What’s poverty got to do with it? M Sanjayan P. Kareiva
  3. 3. Where are conservation efforts most needed and most likely to improve the human condition? Can we identify “life raft ecosystems” ? = Areas with: •high rates of poverty (% undernourished) •large portion of economy dependent upon nature (agriculture, fisheries, logging) •severely degraded ecosystem services Slide by Kareiva and Sanjayan
  4. 4. Water Land and Ecosystem Vision: A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems, where communities have higher incomes, improved food security and the ability to continuously improve their lives
  5. 5. 6 Rockstrom et al. (2009) Nature 461:472-475 Challenges
  6. 6. Foley et al. 2011
  7. 7. Minimum Goals for 2050 Environmental Goals Development Goals Total Agricultural Production Nutritionally Complete Production Biodiversity Conserved Carbon Sequestered Improved Water Quality Water Conserved Soil Formed Food Security Goals Food Distribution and Access Conserve agrobiodiversity Increased Farmer Livelihoods And Resilience Improve Human Health Increase Farm Self Reliance Adapted from Foley et al 2011 Production Goals
  8. 8. Ecosystem Conservation as a result of poverty alleviation
  9. 9. Ecosystem Conservation as means to poverty alleviation
  10. 10. Trade- offsSocial structure, demand, accessibility Financial mechanisms Land and governance decisions, processes and investments Landscapes Food, energy, fiber Income ES benefits Temporal processes Climate Knowledge and information availability Economy Markets, PES Farming practices Ecosystem services Biophysical Access and use Social needs (demography, preferences) Livelihood Impact Livelihood Impact Livelihood impacts People Trade- offs system state, structure and processes tate, structure and processes (Agro)-ecosystem state, structure and processes Agriculture Ecosystem services Ecosystem services Time
  11. 11. Principles • People are fundamental • Human and Natural systems are tightly coupled. • Ecological processes in the portfolio of options. • Multifunctionality: trade-offs, synergies, interactions • Resilience: shocks, transformation and feedbacks • Recognize we might have to modify ecosystems • Multi-scale: basin as maximum extent + Global Processes
  12. 12. 0 20 40 60 80 100 1-Oct-80 1-Nov-80 1-Dec-80 1-Jan-81 1-Feb-81 1-Mar-81 1-Apr-81 1-May-81 1-Jun-81 1-Jul-81 1-Aug-81 1-Sep-81 Flow(m3s-1) Daily flow with and without floodplain Without floodplain (simulated) With floodplain (observed) Flow Regulation in the Luswishi Floodplain Understanding how ecosystems affect livelihoods M. McCartney (IMWI)
  13. 13. Ecosystem Services by whom and for whom? Rainfall less than 900 mmyr-1 Greater than 900 mmyr-1 F. Kizito (CIAT)
  14. 14. Facilitating intervention decisions: what and where?
  15. 15. Recognizing the value of Ecosystem Services Provided by Farming Communities M.Quintero(CIAT);W.Zhang(IFPRI);F.DeClerck(Bioversity) My farm participates in the Management of the Reventazon River Watershed (ICE)
  16. 16. Through targeted impact pthways in focal regions and at the global level
  17. 17. South East Asia: Mekong Focal Region
  18. 18. GOAL: better targeted investments in water, land, energy and agriculture writ large so they are sustainable and socially inclusive, and national growth and poverty goals can be met by supporting the natural resource base
  19. 19. What is the nature, distribution and value of ES in an increasingly commercialized agricultural system & how is it going to affect local livelihoods in the future? How would management of water, land and other ecosystem need to be adapted to improve food and nutrition security in the least food-secure GMS countries? What policies and institutions can communities & policymakers use to enhance the resilience of the GMS ES in the long term under pop & ec growth, CC & globalization? To move toward resilient ecosystems in the Greater Mekong Region while also achieving growth and poverty reduction goals will require tradeoff analysis at the regional, basin-wide, GMS-wide and global level under alternative development pathways that consider investments and policies across water, land and energy; in food and nutrition; and associated governance and institutions.
  20. 20. West Africa: Volta Niger Focal Region
  21. 21. Resource degradation, poverty, climate change sensitivity, emigration Crop-livestock competition, ethnic and religious conflicts Urbanization, immigration, poverty re-distribution*; environmental degradation Humid forest Sahara *In 12 years from now, the majority of the poor in Africa will be living in urban as opposed to rural areas.
  22. 22. Main questions for WLE Can WLE guide investors and decision makers to (i) Better target sustainable agricultural investments (in the rural north)? (ii) value and manage ecosystem services under increasing demands on water, food and energy in both, the fragile north, and the growing peri- urban landscapes of the south?
  23. 23. Small Reservoirs
  24. 24. East Africa – Nile Basin Countries
  25. 25. The Opportunity • Huge development investments in most countries, affecting land use  Include growth corridors, commodity corridors, irrigation and hydropower dam development, upper watershed conservation, food security programs • Multiple futures are possible in this evolving context The challenge is to support a sustainability agenda within existing and evolving processes and investments to achieve green, resilient and equitable growth in the countries of the Nile Basin.
  26. 26. Trends and Intervention Areas • Huge diversity in resources, political and economic development • Strong dependence on agriculture, especially rainfed, and natural resources • Rapid population growth and other demographic pressures, urbanization, feminization, marginalization • Degradation of natural resources and ecosystem functioning is pervasive 1. Negotiating trade-offs in ecosystem services during infrastructure development 2. Achieving sustainable land management in degradation hotspots 3. Strengthening equity and the role of women during sustainable intensification
  27. 27. wle.cgiar.org wle.cgiar.org/blogs