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Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Orange Senqu River Basin

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Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

Published in: Science

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  • 1. Workshop on Transboundary Water Management: Orange Senqu and Zambezi Basins. Johannesburg. 29th and 30th April 2014. Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Orange Senqu River Basin. by Lenka Thamae, Executive Secretary, Orange-Senqu River Commission (ORASECOM)
  • 2. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 1. Basin Area : 1 million sq km. 2. Rainfall : 1800mm in Lesotho highlands to 45mm at River mouth. 3. Population: 19 million (Earle et al. 2004). 4. Average annual natural runoff : 12,000 mill. cub. metres (quote flood and drought flows as well) less than half of the flow reaches the river mouth on the Atlantic Ocean. 5. Basin States: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa. Basin StatisticsBasin StatisticsBasin StatisticsBasin Statistics
  • 3. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Orange-Senqu sources in highlands of Lesotho at around 3000 metres above mean sea level (alpine wetlands “sponges”) – very important for sustaining flows especially in dry season and during drought periods.
  • 4. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Degradation of highland wetlands due to inappropriate land management practices
  • 5. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 09-Jun-14 Dry river bed on Molopo catchment - north west part of the Orange Senqu River Basin
  • 6. Confluence of Vaal and Orange-Senqu Rivers
  • 7. 09-Jun-14 The River Mouth along the border between Namibia and South Africa has been declared a Ramsar Site on both sides of the border.
  • 8. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Sasol Petrochemical Plant Secunda Produces >30% of SA’s Petrol/Diesel from coal
  • 9. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Commercial Irrigation and Hydropower generation are some of the main developments in the river basin. 09-Jun-14
  • 10. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Thank YouThank You Export grapes Aussenkehr Namibia
  • 11. Basin Challenges
  • 12. Basin Challenges – Water Stress
  • 13. ClimateClimateClimateClimate –––– temperature changetemperature changetemperature changetemperature change 14 By 2050
  • 14. ClimateClimateClimateClimate –––– precipitation changeprecipitation changeprecipitation changeprecipitation change 15 By 2050
  • 15. Changes in AgricultureChanges in AgricultureChanges in AgricultureChanges in Agriculture 16
  • 16. TRANSBOUNDARY WATER COOPERATION IN THE ORANGE SENQU RIVER BASIN
  • 17. 1975 2000 Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa Joint Permanent Technical Committee 1983 Joint Permanent Technical Commission 1986 Joint Technical Commission 1987 Joint Permanent Water Committee 1990 Permanent Water Commission & Joint Irrigation Authority 1992 Lesotho Highlands Water Commission 1999 Joint Technical Committee 1978 History of Trans-boundary Cooperation in the Orange-Senqu Basin ( … LHWP Phase II and the Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa MOU)
  • 18. The Orange-Senqu River Commission (Est. 2000)
  • 19. ORASECOM Institutional Structure Task Teams: technical, legal, communications, finance, hydrogeology.
  • 20. Institutional establishment Situation Assessment Specific Studies Future Development Scenarios Management Response Options Basin-level IWRM Plan Implementation Monitoring & Review Sub-basin Plans Institutional Common understanding Future scenarios Strategy formulation Implementation and Monitoring Delivery Schematic
  • 21. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Lesotho Highlands Phase 2 MAP 032Lesotho Highlands Phase 2 MAP 03237km 4.5mØ 40m3/s 46km 4.4mØ 5.6km 3.8mØ 32km 4.4mØ 33 m3/s 38km 5mØ 16 m3/s Mohale 145m h Katse 185m Polihali 164m
  • 22. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 (Katse dam: Central collection point for transfer of water to South Africa (Gauteng).
  • 23. Katse Tunnel (85km @ 4.5m Diameter)Katse Tunnel (85km @ 4.5m Diameter)
  • 24. DWAF (May 2006) RUSTENBURG 25 Bloemhof Dam Vaal Dam Vaal Barrage Proposed Polihali Dam Katse Mohale Orange River System
  • 25. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000
  • 26. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000
  • 27. Irrigation Efficiency RSA/Namibia (water conservation, stakeholder participation, climate change) • Noordoever-Vioolsdrift Joint Irrigation Authority, Namibia and South Africa • Water conservation and demand management, water quality issues • Survey: water requirements, crops, areas and irrigation systems • Field tests of irrigation efficiency • Technical training workshops with farmers • Review of applicable best practices • Installation of equipment (soil moisture probes, meteorology station, flow meters) • On line display of quasi real time data • Drafting of Water Management Plan with JIA.
  • 28. Emfuleni Water Conservation Project (PPP, Demand Management, Climate Adaptation, Stakeholder Participation)
  • 29. Reflections • In the Orange Senqu basin where options for new infrastructure are limited focus on optimising operation efficiency including joint operation of infrastructure and WC/DM are key. • RBOs need to build and maintain robust operational and monitoring systems (governance and field level) to maintain complementary function to individual State structures. • Exploring innovative partnerships and continuing to leverage funding for priority programmatic areas remains an ongoing effort. • Given the uncertainty faced as result of growing demand and climate change, alignment of planning time horizons by states sharing a transboundary river is critical and underpins joint action at basin level.
  • 30. ORASECOM BOTS W ANA LES OTHO NAM I BIA SOUTH A FRICA ORANGE - SENQU RIVER CO M MISSION Established 2000 Thank you. www.orasecom.org Thank you. www.orasecom.org