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Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development

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Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

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  • 1. Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility Support to infrastructure development in SADC
  • 2. What is CRIDF? Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility; DFID’s new infrastructure support programme in southern Africa; Delivering water related infrastructure in SADC Countries, building climate resilience for the poor; “Peaceful and climate resilient management of shared water resources in SADC for the benefit of the poor.”
  • 3. Being implemented by;Being implemented by; In association with;
  • 4. An introduction to SADC The Southern African Development Community 15 nation block in southern Africa - 12 mainland, and 3 island States. 281 million people Botswana GDP varies widely – wealthier south, rapidly developing north. South Africa’s economy is 2x the rest of SADC combined.
  • 5. Water in SADC Rainfall varies widely – from +2000 mm/a to < 100 mm/a. 15 Transboundary Basins hold 70% of surface waters. 5% of available water used. Water availability varies over time and space.
  • 6. Lead from SADC’s Vision for Infrastructure Development; Infrastructure development is seen as a central and key pillar to SADC’s RSAP III delivering on; Equitable and sustainable utilisation of water for social and environmental justice and regional integration and economic benefits for present and future generations.
  • 7. CRIDF Strategy informed by demand and climate vulnerability context: Working with SADC and RBOs to respond to demand for investments; Differentiating between well watered (northern) basins and water stressed (southern) basins; Pursuing a specific strategy in each basin –improving climate resilience according to context;
  • 8. Zambezi: Orange: Small scale storage and irrigation projects; Enhancing and maintaining natural storage infrastructure; and Introducing the ‘water, food, and energy’ nexus in policy. Stretching available resources further, and equitable sharing of the saved water; and Introducing strategic peace dividends into Basin Planning
  • 9. Virtual Water flows 4.14.14.14.1 km3333 1.21.21.21.2 km3333 Data Sources: Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011), SADC States & CRIDF Dry south Wet north 8.98.98.98.9 km333313.513.513.513.5 km3333 14.814.814.814.8 km3333 17.417.417.417.4 km3333
  • 10. Hydro north (uses 17%) Thermal south (uses 83%) Source: Southern African Power Pool (Musaba 2010) 74.3 % Coal 20.1 % Hydropower 4.0% Nuclear 1.6 % Gas / Diesel 97% domestic demand & 3 % bilateral trades Growth in demand > 5%
  • 11. 6.540 GWh/yr 8.280 GWh/yr Virtual Water in electricity trades Data Sources: ESKOM, SAPP, CRIDF – Year 2012/2013 1,936 Mill m3/yr (6%) 11.76 Mill m3/yr (3.5%)
  • 12. Source: World Bank 2010, Zambezi IWRM Strategy 2008, Beilfuss 2012 Drought of 1992: Reduced generation loss of U$ 102 million. Drought of 1992: Reduced generation loss of U$ 102 million. From 1981-2001 no overflow from Kariba Dam. From 1981-2001 no overflow from Kariba Dam. Drought of 1992: Reduced generation loss of U$ 102 million. From 1981-2001 no overflow from Kariba Dam. + 2,300 MW Inga III+ 2,300 MW Inga III+ 2,300 MW Inga III Evaporation off hydro reserviors: = 11-16% of MAR Evaporation off hydro reserviors: = 11-16% of MAR Evaporation off hydro reserviors: = 11-16% of MAR Climate Change: Firm Power down 43% Average down 25% Climate Change: Firm Power down 43% Average down 25% Climate Change: Firm Power down 43% Average down 25% Installed Hydro: 5000 MW (10%) Planned: additional 13000 MW Installed Hydro: 5000 MW (10%) Planned: additional 13000 MW Installed Hydro: 5000 MW (10%) Planned: additional 13000 MW The Zambezi
  • 13. Source: World Bank 2010 Cooperating on hydropower: Increase generation by 23% Cooperating on hydropower: Increase generation by 23% Cooperating on Irrigation and hydropower Expanding irrigation: • Potential 184% expansion • Firm Power decrease 21% • Average decrease 9% Expanding irrigation: • Potential 184% expansion • Firm Power decrease 21% • Average decrease 9% Expanding irrigation: • Potential 184% expansion • Firm Power decrease 21% • Average decrease 9% Moving 30,000 ha of irrigation: • 0.03 km3/a in Zambia, 0.08 km3/a in Mozambique (if sugar). • Firm Power increase 2% • Net Present Value U$ 140 million Moving 30,000 ha of irrigation: • 0.03 km3/a in Zambia, 0.08 km3/a in Mozambique (if sugar). • Firm Power increase 2% • Net Present Value U$ 140 million Moving 30,000 ha of irrigation: • 0.03 km3/a in Zambia, 0.08 km3/a in Mozambique (if sugar). • Firm Power increase 2% • Net Present Value U$ 140 million
  • 14. The Orange-Senqu > 85 % of water used in Power Generation in South Africa from the Orange-Senqu ≈ 280 million m3 at high assurance (2% of total use)
  • 15. Water in energy: Move towards sovereign security and regional surplus through investment in generation and transmission infrastructure and bilateral agreements Provide for growing rural demand through micro- and mini-hydropower When water is available ramp down thermal- and ramp up hydro-power In drought ramp up thermal- and ramp down hydro-power.
  • 16. Water in agricultural products: Establish variable assurance of supply based on usufruct rights Manage energy and irrigation conjunctively and regionally For regional companies;;;; • When water is available ramp up production • In drought ramp down production, and meet demands through regional trading

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