Transboundary water management for food, energy, and environmental security in Africa

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Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

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Transboundary water management for food, energy, and environmental security in Africa

  1. 1. Transboundary Water Management for food, energy, environmental security in Africa: Selected Issues Jonathan Lautze, IWMI China-Africa Transboundary Water Management Workshop Johannesburg, 29-30 April 2014
  2. 2. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Overview • Key issues in transboundary water management in Africa • Linkages to food, energy, environment • examples • Entry points for engagement • Questions
  3. 3. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world TWRM & WRM in Africa • Much WRM in Africa in some way TWRM • Transboundary basins cover more than 60 percent of continent; also transboundary aquifers • Continent is big and diverse – Conditions and issues vary
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world WRM in Africa: Some Key issues • Continent big and diverse, but….3 points • Low WR Development/low irrigation
  5. 5. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Keys issues (2): Rainfall variability and Climate Change 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec m °
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Some key issues (3) • Sustainability (institutional)
  7. 7. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world So why add T to WRM ? • Transboundary issue is important with basin-level (bigger) issues • Large-scale development • Transboundary issues often manifested through variability – important to consider who gets what when (in which country) – With more water control, more options for who gets what – Seasonal and interannual water availability is key • Triggers the need for cooperation, institutions (what are institutions?—come back to this)
  8. 8. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world TWRM in Africa: highlighting links through examples • TWRM rarely end in itself; it is a means to food, energy environmental security Country Power Production Irrigation Navigation Recession Agriculture Guinea Potentially high None None None Mali High Low Very Hgh Low Mauritania Very High Very High High High Senegal Très haute Very High High High 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Flood extent Fish catches Birds counted
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad
  10. 10. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad
  11. 11. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad, Climate or not?
  12. 12. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad
  13. 13. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad, so what now?
  14. 14. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Lake Chad, so what now? • Need to figure out what is happening? • How much is due to increased withdrawal and in which countries and sectors? What are options for reducing that withdrawal? • Need to identify the goal? – Restore the Lake, why? – Restore the 1963 lake? Or 1974 lake? – Need to strike up/downstream balance, and strike inter-country equity balance
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Institutions: complex entry point for engagement? • Coping with challenges, and fostering major WR development triggers need for institutions • institutions facilitate cooperative development – benefit-share – cope with variability—temporal dimension is key • What again are institutions? – On paper, transboundary water agreements – Africa has more than 150 agreements – Agreements apply to more than 19 of 59 basins – Should not be overlooked
  16. 16. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Institutions as entry point • Achieving meaningful institutional development can be challenge • Institutional devt as end and means? • How to encourage institutional development as means to addressing challenges highlighted earlier? – Rainfall variablity, promoting development, etc.
  17. 17. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Institutions as entry point • Getting institutions to move often takes more than highlighting win-win benefits • Meaningful institutional development often requires reducing fear of risks and strengthening capacity • Reducing risks, strengtening capacity, may be role for IWMI – Draw on IWMI capacity and third- party role
  18. 18. Photo: Tom Van Cakenberghe/IWMI iwmi.org CGIARResearch Programon Water,Land andEcosystems wle.cgiar.org

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