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Current situation in Southern African International Waters

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Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

Transboundary Water Management Workshop held in Johannesburg, South Africa from April 29-30, 2014.

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  • 1. Current situation in (Southern) African international waters
  • 2. Welcome the Chinese delegation in South Africa – you are building on a strong foundation Ministers Wang Shucheng and Kasrils, Dujiangyan 2001
  • 3. Outline • An African perspective on water, development and shared rivers • Southern Africa’s water resources and their use • Institutions for development and management of shared rivers • Some key issues and conclusions
  • 4. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much ofAfrica’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use andAfrica lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-SaharanAfrican countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil,China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 5. Water scarcity? Volume available { cubic metre } { per person } { annually } Less than 1,400 _ ___ S.Africa, Lesotho, Malawi, Kenya, Rwanda, Eritrea, Burkina Faso Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt 1,400 - 3,200 ______ Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana Senegal 3,200 - 7,600 _______ Swaziland, Botswana, Angola, Chad, Cote Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania 7,600 - 23,000 ________ Namibia, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambia, DR Congo,Cameroon, Guine, Guinea Bissau 23,000 - 530,000 ______ Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic, Eq. Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone
  • 6. Although population growth will also put pressure on water security
  • 7. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-Saharan Africa use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much ofAfrica’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use andAfrica lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-SaharanAfrican countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil,China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 8. Water withdrawals in Africa – a continental comparison Total water Withdrawals withdrawals for agriculture AFRICA 5% 86% NAfrica 201%* 85% SSA 3% 87% Americas 49% SAmerica 1.4% 68% NAmerica 8% 43% Europe 6% 29% Asia 20% 82% SAsia 56.80% 91% E Asia 19.90% 64% SE Asia (mainland) 9.50% 83% Oceania (Australia & NZealand) 3% 73% WORLD 9% 70% * NorthAfrica uses more water than is sustainablyavailable from natural sources by drawing on “fossil water” which is not recharged as well as by producing freshwater through desalination.
  • 9. Who uses their water? (Nile countries) WATER COUNTRY AVAILABLE M3 P/C USE % Egypt 790 118 Sudan 1880 58 Ethiopia 1680 2 Eritrea 1470 5 Uganda 2470 0 Kenya 930 5 Tanzania 2420 2 Rwanda 610 1 Burundi 2190 2
  • 10. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much of Africa’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use andAfrica lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-SaharanAfrican countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil,China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 11. Much of Africa’s water is in shared rivers That is not generally a constraint
  • 12. Scarcity versus “Dependency ratio” DEPENDENCY 2012 Renewable/capita Egypt 96.9 Mauritania 96.5 Niger 89.6 Botswana 80.4 Congo 73.3 Namibia 65.2 Chad 65.1 Gambia 62.5 Benin 61.0 Somalia 59.2 Eritrea 55.6 Mozambique 53.8 Guinea-Bissau 48.4 Ghana 43.1 Swaziland 41.5 Uganda 40.9 Mali 40.0 Zimbabwe 38.7 Senegal 33.5 Kenya 32.6 DR Congo 29.9 Zambia 23.8 Nigeria 22.8 Togo 21.8 Burundi 19.8 Liberia 13.8 South Africa 12.8 Tanzania 12.8 Tunisia 8.7 Malawi 6.6 Côte d'Ivoire 5.3 Cameroon 4.4 Algeria 3.6 CAR 2.4 Angola 0.0 Burkina Faso 0.0 Djibouti 0.0 Equatorial Guinea 0.0 Ethiopia 0.0 Gabon 0.0 Guinea 0.0 Lesotho 0.0 Libya 0.0 Madagascar 0.0 Morocco 0.0 Rwanda 0.0 Sierra Leone 0.0 SCARCITY M3/cap/yr 7 - 1,400 1,400 - 3,200 3,200 - 7,600 7,600 - 23,000 23,000 - 530,00 Water scarce countries generally not more dependent on shared rivers
  • 13. Aside from the Nile and the arid north, less than 10% of available water is used in most major African rivers and water regions Name of the basin or water region Area in km2 Natural runoff (without irrigation) in Mm3/yr Net irrigation water use in Mm3/yr Total runoff (with irrigation) in Mm3/yr Irrigation water use as percentage of natural runoff Central West Coast 714,642 524,636 17 524,619 0.00 Congo River Basin 3,712,787 1,290,086 175 1,289,911 0.01 East Central Coast 1,039,479 113,603 480 113,123 0.42 Indian Ocean Coast 641,821 66,507 1,380 65,127 2.07 Lake Chad Basin 2,416,210 0 603 -603 Limpopo Basin 415518.00 5362 1019 4343 19.00 Madasgacar 601,286 329,696 1,628 328,068 0.49 Mediterranean Coast 571,706 21,982 4,782 17,200 21.75 Niger River Basin 2,136,780 220,332 3,485 216,847 1.58 Nile Basin 3,109,223 63,620 44,233 19,387 69.53 North East Coast 780,854 1,824 1,006 818 55.15 North Interior 5,697,480 0 6,681 -6,681 North West Coast 757,141 19,875 7,055 12,820 35.50 Orange Basin 968605.00 7890 1131 6759 14.33 Rift Valley 641,505 0 776 -776 Senegal River Basin 433,958 15,262 808 14,454 5.29 Shebelli & Juba Basin 805088.00 8083 1328 6755 16.43 South Atlantic Coast 372,734 4,734 887 3,847 18.74 South Interior 876,152 0 31 -31 South West Coast 502,580 50,683 79 50,604 0.16 West Coast 1,436,820 662,667 573 662,094 0.09 Zambezi Basin 1,388,476 107,860 739 107,121 0.69 Total 30,020,845 3,514,702 78,896 3,435,806 Irrigation Use as % of available water:- 0 – 5% 5 - 10% 10- 20% 20% +
  • 14. The Nile is a unique situation Downstream, arid Egypt and Sudan depend on green sub-Saharan Africa
  • 15. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much ofAfrica’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use and Africa lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-SaharanAfrican countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil,China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 16. Economic scarcity not physical scarcity is the main challenge
  • 17. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much ofAfrica’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use andAfrica lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-Saharan African countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil,China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 18. from: Muller M, The challenges of implementing an African water resource management agenda (in) Africa In Focus Governance in the 21st century, (ed) Kondlo and Ejiogu, HSRC, 2008 (available at: http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=22 83&cat=0&page=1&featured&freedownload=1) DIMENSION “PRAGMATIC” RIO “PRESCRIPTIVE” DUBLIN Economic Nature of water Priority of economic instruments Priority setting Role of private sector Characterised as:- Economic and social good Economic instruments balanced by social considerations Within national economic development policy Major role for government, recognition of private role Developmental Economic good High priority for economic instruments Stakeholder participation, economic instruments High priority for role of private sector, limited government Washington Consensus Institutional, national Institutional objectives Participatory approaches Governance Characterised as:- Importance of national development strategies Where there is clear demand Appropriate institutions Public administration Focus on “enabling environment” Heavy emphasis on participatory approaches Performance based institutions New Public Management Institutional, international: Transboundary approaches Institutionalisation of global water Characterised as:- Basin specific approaches United Nations system Multilateralism continued River basin organisations World Water Council outside inter-governmental domain Retreat from multilateralism Environmental Infrastructure Decision making River basin organisation (RBO) Characterised as:- Infrastructure development, a key element Effective implementation and coordination required Manage “in basin context” Balance needs of people and environment “Development” deleted Emphasis on “full stakeholder participation” RBO the most appropriate entity Ecosystem approach Competing water management paradigms: World Summit on Sustainable Development The differences between Rio and Dublin Inappropriate donor policies have aggravated scarcity
  • 19. The EU’s Water Framework Directive returns to nature • “…. ecological protection should apply to all waters: the central requirement of the Treaty is that the environment be protected to a high level in its entirety. • ”… the controls are specified as allowing only a slight departure from the biological community which would be expected in conditions of minimal anthropogenic impact.”
  • 20. Africa’s underdeveloped hydropower - 2004
  • 21. Major investments made in coal fired power because of lack of support for regional hydropower options
  • 22. An African perspective • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica have adequate water resources available at a national level • Most countries of sub-SaharanAfrica use a very small proportion of their available water resources • Much ofAfrica’s water is in rivers shared between two or more countries but this is not a major constraint on water resource development • The location and variability of water resources require significant investment to enable their effective use andAfrica lacks the financial resources to develop the infrastructure needed • Despite the need for infrastructure, the formal focus of water policy in donor-dependent sub-SaharanAfrican countries has been on protection and conservation.This is because they have depended on finance from countries opposed to large infrastructure development • Africa is now committed to increasing its water use to support development and the arrival of new partners such as Brazil, China and India is changing the political economy of water resource development
  • 23. In Africa, only 5% of water resources are currently utilized. AMCOW has set the aspirational target of raising this proportion to 40% by 2030. Decisions of the 11th Executive Committee of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW), Cairo, 2013
  • 24. A changing environment: China’s Involvement in African Dams Sudan The 1250 MW Merowe Dam on the fourth cataract of the Nile is Sudan's biggest hydropower project. The project was funded… In 2010, the Sudanese government contracted the Chinese company Sinohydro to build the 360 MW Kaibar Dam on the Nile's third … In 2010, the Sudanese government also contracted two other Chinese companies to build the Shereik Dam on the Nile's fifth cataract, and a hydropower and irrigation … Zambia The largest utility in Zambia, Zesco, announced in 2003 that it will contract with Sinohydro for the development of the 660 MW Lower Kafue Gorge Dam. The proposed power station would have a generating capacity of about 750 MW and the estimated cost of US $600 million. Zambia plans Republic of Congo The China Exim Bank bankrolled the construction of the 120 MW Imboulou Dam on the Lefini river, a… In Gabon, a Chinese consortium headed by China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corp signed a deal in September 2006 to invest US$3 billion to mine iron-ore for export to China - the world`s largest producer of steel. The project also includes construction of railways, a port and two hydroelectric dams to be completed within three years. Ethiopia Chinese contractors have built the 300 MW Tekeze hydroelectric dam. … After the World Bank and many other banks declined to get involved in the Gibe III Sam on the Omo River, China's biggest bank ICBC approved a loan of $500 million for a Chinese … China’s Gezhouba Water and Power Co. is building the 100 MW Amerti-Neshe Dam hydropower dam on the Neshi River. …. Mozambique The China Exim Bank has agreed to finance the proposed Mphanda Nkuwa Dam on the Zambezi… Chinese funding has also been made available for the Boa Maria Dam on the Pungue Nigeria China has expressed interest in a number of dam projects, …. Mambila hydropower dam, which would increase Nigeria’s electricity supply by nearly 4,000 MW, doubling its current capacity. Ghana China is building the Bui Dam Project, which is flooding nearly a quarter of the Bui National Park, destroying habitat for rare hippos, forcibly resettling 2,600 people and affecting thousands more. The project could cost ….
  • 25. The Southern African perspective is similar
  • 26. Southern Africa Water scarcity is not the primary issue Volume available { cubic metre } { per person } { annually } Less than 1,400 _ ___ S.Africa, Lesotho, Malawi 1,400 - 3,200 ______ Zimbabwe, Tanzania 3,200 - 7,600 _______ Swaziland, Botswana, Angola 7,600 - 23,000 ________ Namibia, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambia, DR Congo
  • 27. SADC’s water use still very low COUNTRY Angola Botswana Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Namibia South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe DRC AVAILABILITY M3 P/C USE % 10510 0.2 6820 1 1680 2 1400 6 11320 0.3 8810 2 1110 31 4160 18 9630 2 1584 13 23850 0.03
  • 28. Southern Africa: also suffers economic scarcity
  • 29. Water availability has not constrained development Country Water Availability South Africa 1110 Malawi 1400 Zimbabwe 1550 Lesotho 1680 Swaziland 4160 Botswana 6820 Namibia 8810 Zambia 9630 Angola 10510 Mozambique 11320 m3/p/yr Least water Most water Source: UN WWDR 2006
  • 30. Much of Southern Africa’s water is in shared rivers That is not generally an evident constraint
  • 31. Scarcity versus “Dependency ratio” Southern Africa DEPENDENCY 2012 % Renewable/ capita Botswana 80.4 Namibia 65.2 Mozambique 53.8 Swaziland 41.5 Zimbabwe 38.7 DR Congo 29.9 Zambia 23.8 South Africa 12.8 Tanzania 12.8 Malawi 6.6 Angola 0.0 Lesotho 0.0 Madagascar 0.0 SCARCITY M3/cap/yr 7 - 1,400 1,400 - 3,200 3,200 - 7,600 7,600 - 23,000 23,000 - 530,00 Water scarce countries are less dependent on shared rivers
  • 32. Cooperation successful where users can support it Katse Dam – Lesotho Highlands Water Project No formal river basin organization was involved (dam owned by Lesotho government, managed by Lesotho Highlands Development Authority, in terms of bilateral agreement with South Africa whose users fund the project)
  • 33. Cooperation in water in 2002… 2002:The WSSDWaterDome, birthplace of historical Incomaputo agreement “Swaziland, Mozambique, and SouthAfrica made water history for theAfrican continent when they signed a water-sharing agreement governing the use of two of their shared rivers. The Interim IncoMaputo Agreement, which involves the Incomati and Maputo rivers, provides significant benefits to all three nations.The agreement immediately unlocked financial support for a major new irrigation development in Swaziland, the Lower UsuthuSmallholder Irrigation Project, which will create direct employment for 10,000 people through the development of over 11,000 hectares, providing much needed poverty relief in this area of otherwise limited economic potential.”
  • 34. … produces food and livelihoods LUSIP, Swaziland, in 2010
  • 35. Transboundary water management is part of broader regional integration Institutions for transboundaryWRD&M
  • 36. Implications of regional integration for water:- Cooperation or shared sovereignty? • Greater regional integration a fundamental political objective forAfrica • To address small economies; lack of complementarities; import dependence • Structured institutional models failing (e.g. SADC RISDP) • After 50 years, guiding principles proposed (AfDB) include:- • Variable geometry, progressive flexible, bottom-up, approach not normative model • Implications for water:- • Project i.d. by engagement between interested parties (e.g. inter govt. commissions) • Greater focus on implementation through bottom-up, practically focused SPVs • Limited mandate for formal “normative” institutions such as RBOs
  • 37. Institutions for transboundaryWRD&M • Many architectures for transboundary cooperation and development • After 2000 amendment, SADC Protocol prescribes no specific architecture • (EastAfrica has parallel structures – EAC-LVBC, NBI,CFA) • (West Africa, French influence, has preference for executive RBOs) • Institutional architecture should be determined by nature and location of project and financial and operational requirements • RBOs (River Basin Organisations) can play specialized roles which should determine their size and structure • Strong national institutions are foundation of regional cooperation
  • 38. Southern Africa’s transboundary issues • Challenges: • Orange (Lesotho, SouthAfrica, Namibia, (Botswana?) ) continuing development, will require policy decisions on physical limits • Limpopo (SouthAfrica,Zimbabwe, Mozambique) and Komati (Swaziland,South Africa, Mozambique) highly developed, reaching physical limits • Zambezi (Angola, Botswana,Zambia,Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique) could achieve greater efficiencies (+10% ?) in the longer term through coordinated planning and operational coordination • Okavango conflict between Botswana and Namibia over environmental impact on Delta. Namibia’s needs (2%TARWR) are small compared to climate variability • Basin approaches not always appropriate due to inter-basin linkages • Diverse water architecture reflects specific challenges
  • 39. SADC institutions for transboundaryWRD&M • After 2000 amendment, SADC Protocol prescribes no specific architecture • Many transboundary architectures, including:- • Orange: • Lesotho South AfricaWater Commission • Namibia/SA irrigation • ORASECOM • Limpopo, Komati, Maputo • Mozambique/South AfricaJWC • Swaziland/South AfricaJWC • Limcom • Komati/MaputoTripartiteCommission • KOBWA • Zambezi • ZRA • ZAMCOM (etc)
  • 40. Southern Africa’s transboundary issues • Advantages: • SADC protocol in place • Guides cooperation, institutions not prescribed • Good examples of cooperation (through SPVs not RBOs) • (e.g. Lesotho Highlands, Incomaputo/LUSIP, ZRA) • Approach to regional integration under review • Emphasis likely on practical “bottom-up” cooperation • rather than “top-down” institutional structures
  • 41. Some key issues and conclusions • Africa’s problems: economic scarcity, weak economies not water conflicts • Most successful cooperation through ad hoc institutions not RBOs • Donor policies have hindered development • African countries are now taking greater responsibility • Deciding what they need and how to achieve it • China now has important role • Must be aware of context and help to avoid mistakes
  • 42. Thank you!
  • 43. Is SA a potential predator? • Costs • Lesotho R2/kl • Wastewater to Lephalale R20/kl • Zambesi water R100/kl? • Desalination and reuse R4/kl and falling • Water for the economy • Singapore 150kl/person/year • South Africa 1200 kl/person/year
  • 44. 1890s local springs 1902 Rand Water - Zuurbekom 1923 Vaal Barrage 1938 Vaal Dam 1982 Tugela-Vaal 1998 Lesotho Highlands Phase 1a 2004 Lesotho Highlands Phase 1b Evolution of Gauteng’s water supply “footprint” 1970s Waste from Gauteng to Crocodile 2010 Waste to Lephalale & Limpopo Next, the Zambezi?! 2020 Lesotho Highlands Phase 2
  • 45. Integration of Orange/Vaal, Crocodile/Mokolo/Limpopo Proposed Developments: Eskom Power Stations Coal to Liquid Plants Mokolo Catchment Crocodile Catchment Vaal Catchment
  • 46. Scope, scale and integration • Functions performed at various physical scales, • from very local to river basin, countries and regions. • River basin a useful unit of management, different units are often more appropriate • Governance and administration must reflect needs, interests and impacts of different users • Coordination of functions and users described as integrated water resource management (IWRM). • Contested approaches to IWRM:Africa must include D for infrastructure Development • greater or lesser emphasis on infrastructure, “soft” management, environmental protection, socio- economic development and participation • Rio 1992: Agenda 21 – Integrated Water Resources Development and Management; • Dublin prepcon: IWRM – limited infrastructure • We use WRD&M and TBWRD&M (water resources development and management) • Infrastructure development essential to mobilize variable water resources for development • With appropriate integration of different users, dimensions of water and functions of management
  • 47. Multiple water resource management functions • How to harness potential contribution of water to produce development outcomes? • Requires performance of wide range of technical functions, including:- • Monitoring of water availability (levels, flows and quality) as well as water uses; • Assessment and interpretation of monitoring data (for example, to understand how much water may be reliably taken from a river whose flow varies over and between seasons); • Regulation of water abstraction and other activities that may affect the resource or other users (for example, hydropower production or the discharge of waste water); • Planning of infrastructure and other interventions required to meet users’ future needs; • Implementation of infrastructure and information projects; • Operation and maintenance of infrastructure
  • 48. Functions serve multiple water uses and users Urban and Industrial use International and environmental flows Ecosystem protection Abstraction infrastructure Irrigation Flood management
  • 49. How WRD&M supports economies Flow TimeReliable Flow Reliable Flow Maximum flood flow Maximum flood flow Management and Infrastructure interventions
  • 50. Reliable supplies = Less risk, more investment, greater productivity
  • 51. Ethiopia: water security and development Rainfall, GDP and Agricultural GDP -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 year percentage -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 rainfall variation around the mean GDP growth Ag GDP growth Ethiopia: Rainfall, GDP and Agric. GDP World Bank -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 year percentage -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 rainfall variation around the mean GDP growth Ag GDP growth Ethiopia: Rainfall, GDP and Agric. GDP -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 year percentage -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 rainfall variation around the mean GDP growth Ag GDP growth Ethiopia: Rainfall, GDP and Agric. GDP World Bank
  • 52. To achieve water security … •High level requirements for water security, investment in:- • Competent INSTITUTIONS • Adequate INFORMATION, and • Required INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 53. HowTBWRD&M supports Regional integration ACTIVITIES Institutions to support:- • Country cooperation agreements • Know resource and its uses • i.d. needs and opportunities • i.d potential projects • Implement and operate projects OUTPUTS Reliable financially and environmentally sustainable water uses OUTCOMES Water used to support Sustainable Social and Economic Development at national and regional level GOAL: WRDM supports Regional development and integration
  • 54. Water for regional integration : Possible Institutional arrangements Function Institutional options Comments Communication Ad hoc committee; Permanent committee; Facilitator; Specialised organization Many options with little distinction as long as they are perceived as honest brokers and not promoting a sectoral agenda Agreement Meeting of national principals, supported by one of above Need to convene and support formal government participation Studies for Resource characterization etc. Ad Hoc or Permanent Committee , commissioning consultant review; RBO, with appropriate tech support for study management Joint reviews provide basis for discussion; needs national information. Institution needs status to contract technical work, even if undertaken by national entities. Resource planning As above Need to collate national inputs on relevant user sectors Project i.d. Study management as above; decisions on implementation of projects will be by national principals Project opportunities identified at national level need comparative review through objective institutional structure. Implementation National agencies; or SPVs; or RBOs Even if RBO present, may require an SPV to implement partner agreements over cost and benefit sharing Operation Generic bilateral, National agency/ies, SPV, RBO Must reflect location but also provide oversight and involvement for partners Resource monitoring National agencies; RECs; National/regional regulator/s; RBO Require common communication platform; data collection can remain national
  • 55. Water resource related findings • In general, physical water scarcity is not Africa’s dominant concern • Apparent water scarcity often due to a lack of financial resources • Transboundary conflicts: dependence not generally linked to scarcity • Economic water scarcity can be reduced by infrastructure investment • Limited financially viability of water resource projects • Many projects are economically viable – floods and drought mitigation produces significant returns • Irrigation investments provide livelihoods and benefits for national economies • Financial viability determines potential for project financing • payment for private goods provided by multi-purpose investments enhances their viability • Financial viability challenges aggravated by high cost structures; size of many countries imposes additional transport costs.
  • 56. Institutions for transboundaryWRD&M • Many architectures for cooperation and development in transboundary rivers • there is no single institutional architecture that is optimal in all basins • many different institutional arrangements are already used • specialized formal River BasinOrganisations (RBOs) in which most riparian countries participate • ad-hoc groups of countries, national structures and local stakeholders • many effective transboundary investments made by SPVs involving only interested parties rather than RBOs • Strong national institutions are building blocks for regional water cooperation • Regional institutions important butTB WRD&M needs effective national institutions • Support for national WRD&M capabilities contributes directly to enhanced regional cooperation • Institutions for implementation • Variety of approaches to implementing investment projects supporting regional integration • national agencies (particularly where project is in one territory, as Ethiopia’s Gibe III dam) • bilateral organisations (e.g. ZRA which operates Kariba dam on the Zambezi) and • SPVs to promote single project (e.g. Rusumo Falls project; Sogakope/Lome pipeline inVolta Basin) • Architecture determined by nature and location of project and financial arrangements
  • 57. Institutions for transboundaryWRD&M • The specialized roles of RBOs (River Basin Organisations) • Little agreement about overall roles, functions or optimal structures for formal RBOs • West Africa favours formal RBOs, other regions use more SPVs, RBOs may facilitate • Specialised role for RBOs: • building trust • promoting communication and information sharing, and • supporting cooperation between countries • These activities can help to identify and promote cooperative investment projects • The size and structure of formal RBOs • Structure of formal RBOs should reflect their role • European RBOs, very small secretariats, most work done by national organisations • Architecture should be determined by nature and location of project and financial arrangements
  • 58. Scope, scale and integration • Functions performed at various physical scales, • from very local to river basin, countries and regions. • River basin a useful unit of management, different units are often more appropriate • Governance and administration must reflect needs, interests and impacts of different users • Coordination of functions and users described as integrated water resource management (IWRM). • Contested approaches to IWRM:Africa must include D for infrastructure Development • greater or lesser emphasis on infrastructure, “soft” management, environmental protection, socio- economic development and participation • Rio 1992: Agenda 21 – Integrated Water Resources Development and Management; • Dublin prepcon: IWRM – limited infrastructure • We use WRD&M and TBWRD&M (water resources development and management) • Infrastructure development essential to mobilize variable water resources for development • With appropriate integration of different users, dimensions of water and functions of management
  • 59. Multiple water resource management functions • How to harness potential contribution of water to produce development outcomes? • Requires performance of wide range of technical functions, including:- • Monitoring of water availability (levels, flows and quality) as well as water uses; • Assessment and interpretation of monitoring data (for example, to understand how much water may be reliably taken from a river whose flow varies over and between seasons); • Regulation of water abstraction and other activities that may affect the resource or other users (for example, hydropower production or the discharge of waste water); • Planning of infrastructure and other interventions required to meet users’ future needs; • Implementation of infrastructure and information projects; • Operation and maintenance of infrastructure
  • 60. Functions serve multiple water uses and users Urban and Industrial use International and environmental flows Ecosystem protection Abstraction infrastructure Irrigation Flood management

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