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Revolutions in Communication: Media History from Gutenberg to the Digital Age, by Bill Kovarik, Bloomsbury, 2011. Author's slide shows for classroom use. See website …

Revolutions in Communication: Media History from Gutenberg to the Digital Age, by Bill Kovarik, Bloomsbury, 2011. Author's slide shows for classroom use. See website

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  • We’ve already done Printing Technology 1.1 - So in effect this is 1.2
  • Joseph Moxon   Mechanick Exercises: Or, The Doctrine of Handyworks  (1683) - Note, towards end there are interesting remarks about life and customs in the printing chapels Isiah Thomas, History of Printing in America   (1808) Frederick Hamilton, A brief history of printing in England (1918)   Joel Munsell, Outline of thehistory of printing  (1839)  Samuel Palmer, General history of printing  (1733)  Philip Luckombe, The History and Art of Printing: In 2 Parts  (1771)Thomas Hansard, The Art of Printing: Its History and Practice  (1851)Lawrence Wroth, A History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, 1686-1776  (1922)Joseph Ames, Typographical antiquities: an historical account of printing …  Gertrude Rawlings, The Story of Books,  (1917)Charles Timperly,  A Dictionary of Printers and Printing (1839)William Blades, The Pentateuch of Printing: With a Chapter on Judges (1891)Henry Noel Humphreys,  A history of the art of printing, (1868)Henry Oscar Houghton, Address on early printing in America (1894) – Note – Start halfway through, bypassing the Senator’s remarks.Soc. for Promoting Christian Knowledge, History of printing (1855)There are dozens more. No profession wrote its own history so well as that of printing & publishing.
  • Human communication is pretty much the same despite technology / News, stories, transmission of culture between generations / Or – As Robert Darnton says, “The marvels of communication technology in the present have produced a false consciousness about the past – even a sense that communication has no history, or had nothing of importance to consider before the days of the television and the internet.”
  • Most historians have seen writing as evolving from economic necessity in the ancient Near East around the 4th millennium BCE . Its possible it was more widespread earlier on. What economic necessity? Why? Interesting that the Egyptian pictograph for “son” is the same as “duck” – Probably from image of ducks following parents closely. We use something like that today --- “kid”
  • Only 150 years before Book of Kells was produced in Ireland, the last books at the Library of Alexandria were burned. When the Saracens sacked the town, it is said that they burned the last remaining books because if they weren’t the words of the prophet they were evil and if they were, they were superfluous. / INCUNABULA are PRINTED books between 1453 and 1500 which may also have illumination, but there is a big difference. Incunabula is Latin for “cradle” but it can refer an early stages of something important. Usually we hear it used for books in the early stages of printing.
  • Pages were made from parchment (calf, sheep or goat skin). Paper from linen (flax) was common in Europe by 1400s. Note that the major uses for scriptoria or even for printing were originally to recover lost world, not create a new one
  • * For 8 Million published see Clapham, Michael, "Printing" in A History of Technology, Vol 2. From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution, edd. Charles Singer et al. (Oxford 1957), p. 377. Cited from Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge University, 1980).
  • Most of the techniques and elements in this shop would be used for the next 400 years. Only by the 1830s - 1850s would printing start to change radically.
  • Incunabula distribution by region. The data is based on the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue of the British Library (as of March 2, 2011). By Maximilian Dörrbecker See:
  • Incunabula distribution by language. The data is based on the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue of the British Library (as of March 2, 2011). By Maximilian Dörrbecker See:
  • CHART BY ELTIO BURINGH from the Journal of Economic History IMPORTANT NOTE – THIS IS A LOGARITHIMIC CHART /// So we go from 10k in 6th century to 100K in 9th century to 1 million in 13th to 10 million in 15th // Also these are the number of copies not the number of titles. Estimated European output of books from 500 to 1800. Manuscripts do not include individual deeds and charters. A printed book is defined as printed matter containing more than 49 pages. Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (416–417, tables 1&2) Author
  • 15thc = 1453 – 1500 / 8 million is the usual figure. Data from: Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (417, table 2) of books at Humboldt University,Berlin,Germany,Europe -- The installation of the statue "DermoderneBuchdruck" (Modern Book Printing) took place on April 21, 2006 at Bebelplatz opposite Humboldt University. The assembly of this 12.2 metre high object on the street Unter den Linden took three days. This is not a memorial to the Nazi book burnings in the same plaza 10 May 1933, but there is a memorial there. See line of Heinrich Heine from his play, Almansor (1821), is engraved on a plaque inset in the square: "Das war einVorspielnur, dortwo man Bücherverbrennt, verbrennt man am EndeauchMenschen." (in English: "Where they burn books, they will in the end also burn people").
  • Force effect consequences
  • “Rhetoric of the technological sublime” (Leo Marx) / machine in garden. developed the system of typography we use today, with point sizes and the idea of minimizing space between letters to the point where they were still legible.Not to be confused with Henry‎ - inventor of papermaking device
  • Illustration is from Foxes’ Book of Martyrs which could be considered Protestant propaganda -- of the bishops, Hugh Latimer, is supposed to have said to Nicholas Ridley, "Be of good comfort, and play the man, Master Ridley; we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.” Science fiction writer Ray Bradbury had a character in Farenheit 451 repeat the line just before her books were burned. See
  • The sentiment echoed down through the Enlightenment to the US First Amendment and the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • This is something we see over and over again when it comes to invention. Someone who has a tiresome job, such as hand copying letters, or painting murals, or hand-checking calculations for navigation, starts thinking about how to improve the process. Charles Babbage and Joseph Niepce, early innovators in computing and photography, are examples of this.
  • Journalist and editor during 1789 – 94 period. Condemned the terror. Executed in 1794 by French revolutionary extremists.
  • Upper and lower case Mind “p”s and “q”sComposing “on the stick” By the same token Out of sorts Playing quadratsGetting a washing Spirit of the chapel
  • Transcript

    • 1. Brief lectures in Media History Chapter 1 The printing revolution (3 of 15)
    • 2. This lecture is about … Before printing – Oral culture, Scriptoria  How fast printing spread  What were the impacts  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Printing & the Protestant Reformation Printing & the scientific revolution Printing & the idea of news The Enlightenment Printing & the political revolutions
    • 3. Assignment 2:  Printing revolution Individually, or by groups, quickly read (scan) and write a short response note (3 to 5 ¶s ) describing one of the histories of printing available on: ◦ (Public domain books) ◦ (Public domain audio books) ◦ Google books (set to Google eBooks on search tools)  List and details are on Revolutions in Communication / Course / Ch1 Printing
    • 4.  Before printing: Oral Culture
    • 5. Before printing: Oral culture  People are ―pre-wired‖ for language and storytelling ◦ But reading & writing are learned Oral cultures = personal connection  Alex Haley‘s Roots –  ◦ Ex. of working oral culture  Fireside chats – ◦ Ex. Of radio as promoting oral culture
    • 6. Before printing: Writing Learning to write was the ―tuition‖ for human education – Wilbur Schramm 6th millennium BCE, earliest known Neolithic writings. Writing developed in a progression from picture – oriented (logographic) symbols to abstract phonetic images
    • 7. Before printing: The Roman Codex Romans discarded unwieldy scrolls in favor of the ―codex,‖ or arrangement of pages in succession.
    • 8. Books were sacred (still are) During the ―dark ages‖ especially, books were considered the tiny flickering candle flame of civilization Book of Kells, 800 ACE Monasteries laboriously created works of art as acts of reverence Illuminated manuscripts (not incunabula )
    • 9. Scriptoria Monks who copied Bibles & other books worked at the rate of about 1 – 3 pages per day, one book per year. By the early Renaissance, around 1300s – 1400s, monks couldn‘t keep up with demand Stationers companies began developing around universities to copy Greek & Roman works along with scripture
    • 10. Timeline of printing 200 – paper, woodblock printing China  1040 – Ceramic moveable type China  1200s – Paper, idea of type to Europe  1400 – Europe woodcuts common  1450 – Combination wood & metal type  1453 – Gutenberg moveable metal type  1500 – ―Incunabula‖ period  ◦ 8 million books Gutenberg + 50  1517 – Martin Luther / 95 Theses
    • 11. Mainz, Germany, 1453 – Johannes Gutenberg (1395 – 1468)
    • 12. 1 billion books by 1800
    • 13. Printing Revolution  THE pivotal development in history,  The turning point in the transition between the Medieval and the Modern  Printing comes from an build-up of techniques, resources & demands ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ pressing (olives, grapes) paper making (to replace animal hides) woodcuts of religious images abundance of linen paper
    • 14. Elizabeth Eisenstein (1923–present) “Printing Press as an agent of social change” (1979) Not well accepted at first; Media technology as a force was something new in history Effects of printing were widespread dissemination of knowledge; standardization of language and knowledge; and better preservation of information; Recovery of previous cultures (Greek, Roman) was the major first task of printing (consider McLuhan‘s ―tetrad‖) Printing was one of the major influences in the Protestant Reformation and the formation of the modern world
    • 15. Francis Bacon  NovumOrganum (New Instrument, published 1620):  "Printing, gunpowder and the compass: These three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world; the first in literature, the second in warfare, the third in navigation; whence have followed innumerable changes, in so much that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries.
    • 16. Supporting the temple of memory We transmit the facts to posterity The arts, the sciences, history We have immortality Frontispiece Pierre Fournier Manuel Typographique, 1737
    • 17. Monk power One monk working for two years can copy one Bible of 1,260 pages. One monk power = 2 pages / day Three printers in Mainz, working for 64 days printed 180 Bibles. One Gutenberg = 600 Monks Steam-powered press 40,000 pages / day. (1814 London Times / John Walter Jr. ) One Walter = 33 Gutenbergs
    • 18. Joseph Pulitzer‘s New York World, newspaper (1900 ) One million pages / day One Pulitzer = 25 Walters David Sarnoff, NBC Radio and TV broadcasting 50 – 100 million / day One Sarnoff = 100 Pulitzers
    • 19. Internet & web World Wide Web 50 billion pages in 2012 1 Berners-Lee = 500 Sarnoffs 1 Berners-Lee = 25 billion monk-power
    • 20. Printing impacts •Standardized Bibles • Critical reading allowed challenge to church •Standardized language •Helped form nation-state •Amplified new information and ideas • Christopher Columbus, Martin Luther become famous overnight
    • 21. Protestant Reformation 20 – 30 million killed in religious wars in the 1500s-1600s period.  Germany lost 30 % of population  England Counter-Reformation, 1553 Queen Mary I (―Bloody Mary‖)  Calls for tolerance contribute to the spirit of the Enlightenment. 
    • 22. Printing and the Reformation Printing amplified Martin Luther‘s dissent in a way that had never happened before. His 95 Theses, published in Germany in 1517, circulated across Europe in less than a month. Crowds surged around the printing houses, grabbing pages still wet from the press.
    • 23. Three Bishops of Oxford,1555 “… Play the man, Master Ridley; we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.”(Bishop Hugh Latimer) Executed as Queen Mary I attempts to return Britain to Catholic Church. This was also in retaliation for executions by her father, Protestant king Henry VIII
    • 24. Protestant Reformation Anabaptist Anne Hendicks is one of tens of thousands executed in Amsterdam 1570s
    • 25. Reaction to religious wars Religious tolerance slowly emerges  In France, Sebastian Casellio (15151563) calls for freedom of conscience  In Britain, Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) succeeds ―Bloody‖ Mary and stops persecution of Catholics. ―There is only one Christ, Jesus, one faith" she says. ―All else is a dispute over trifles." 
    • 26. Impacts on science Printing spurred the exploration of physical and mental horizons News of Columbus‘ voyages spread rapidly with printing in the 1490s, making him one of the first international heroes Astronomical observatory of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) included a printing shop to help spread new scientific knowledge – and prevent repression by the church
    • 27. De re metallica A 1556 book by Georgius Agricola (1494–1555) Exploration of geology, mining and metallurgy, carefully illustrated. Set a standard for scientific and technical books to come
    • 28. First newspapers  Handwritten by armies of scribes in ancient China and Rome ◦ Roman paper was called ―ActaDiurna‖ Newsletters common in Europe to promote commerce 1400s-1600s  First printed newspaper: 1605: Johann Carolus owned a book printing company in Strasbourg, France, grew tired of copying business newsletters by hand. 
    • 29. Press censorship by … Licensing of a printing company itself;  Prior restraint: pre-press approval of each book or edition of a publication;  Taxation and stamps on regular publications; and  Prosecution for sedition against the government or libel of individuals. 
    • 30. English civil war  John Milton (16081674) ◦ The marketplace of ideas   ―Who ever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open encounter?" Areopagetica 1644 -reference to the Athenian marketplace
    • 31. English Enlightenment John Locke (1632-1704)  People and government have a social contract  Government existed to serve the people, not the other way around;  People have natural rights to life, liberty and property.  Tolerance was vital 
    • 32. French Enlightenment Francois Voltaire (16941778) – May disagree with what you say but will die defending your right to say it. Also: Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) - Spirit of the Laws / Separation of powers (Legislative, executive, judi
    • 33. Trial of John Peter Zenger New York printer uses truth as a defense in seditious libel trial, 1734
    • 34. American Enlightenment   Benjamin Franklin Printers believe that "when men differ in Opinion, both Sides ought equally to have the Advantage of being heard by the Public. When Truth and Error have fair Play, the former is always an overmatch for the latter."
    • 35. John Wilkes Editor of North Briton, Member of Parliament Newspaper censored, Wilkes convicted of seditious libel1764 Goes into four years of exile in France, returns to fight for Parliamentary privilege Ben Franklin and other American revolutionaries saw this as a bad omen for their hope of freedom in America. Yes, he was that ugly … and yet he was amazingly popular
    • 36. The Fourth Estate A reference to the growing power of the press Whig party leader Edmund Burke in a 1787 speech to Parliament.  Burke said that there were three ―estates‖ (walks of life) represented in Parliament:   ◦ The nobility (House of Lords); ◦ The clergy (Church of England); ◦ And the middle class (House of Commons).  ―But in the Reporters Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate, more important by far than they all.‖
    • 37. Enlightenment spreads Sweden was among the first to abolish censorship with a law guaranteeing freedom of the press in 1766.  Denmark and Norway followed with their own law on freedom of the press in 1770. 
    • 38. American Enlightenment   Thomas Jefferson Millions of innocent men, women and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined, impri soned; yet we have not advanced one inch towards uniformity. What has been the effect of coercion? To make half the world fools, and the other half hypocrites.
    • 39. American revolutionaries ―These are the times that try men‘s souls‖— the words that turned the spark of rebellion into a campaign for American freedom emerged from the pen of Thomas Paine. After independence, Paine became involved in the French Revolution, then returned to the United States Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense, 1776
    • 40. French revolution sparked by journalist Camille Desmolins
    • 41. Camille Desmoulins On the storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789 ―I was carried upon a table rather than allowed to mount it. Hardly had I got up on my feet when I saw myself surrounded by an immense crowd. Here is my short speech, which I shall never forget: ‗Citizens! There is not a moment to lose. . . . This evening all the Swiss and German battalions will sally forth from the Champs de Mars to cut our throats. We have only one recourse—to rush to arms.‘ I had tears in my eyes, and spoke with a feeling that I have never been able to recapture, no less describe.‖
    • 42. The French terror Tens of thousands of aristocrats and innocents executed by guillotine in 1790s Americans worry that their revolution could become bloody too
    • 43. US passes Sedition Act 1798     Prohibited writing, printing, uttering "any false, scandalous and malicious writing ... against the government of the United States, or president of the United States, ... to bring them into contempt or disrepute, or to excite against them the hatred of the good people of the United States." A stiff fine and prison term of two years were the punishments. Overall, 25 people were arrested.
    • 44. Reaction to Sedition Act  ‖A reign of witches" – Jefferson  "It suffices for a man to be a philosopher, and to believe that human affairs are susceptible of improvement, and to look forward, rather than backward to the Gothic ages, for perfection, to mark him as an anarchist, disorganizer, atheist, and enemy of the government."   Virginia and Kentucky assemblies pass Resolutions condemning Sedition Act Doctrine of ―nullification‖ and states rights
    • 45. Partisan press US – Britain William Cobbett was called ―a kind of fourth estate in the politics of the country.‖ Published Porcupine‘s Gazette in Philadelphia, 1790s and the Weekly Political Register in England 1800s Crusaded against cruelty, poverty and corruption. In 1809 imprisoned two years for seditious libel. Fled back to US in 1817 but then returned in 1819 to continue crusading. Cobbett attacked the ―smothering system‖ that led to the Luddite Riots and vowed to expose Britain‘s ―service and corrupt press‖ that had become an instrument in the ―delusion, the debasement and the enslavement of a people.‖
    • 46. US partisan papers     Bitter partisanship aligned with John Adams‘ Federalist party or Thomas Jefferson‘s Democratic- Republican party Depended on patronage and printing contracts for basic income Business model would change with Penny Press revolution in 1830s Not all newspapers were partisan. ◦ Niles Weekly Register, published in Baltimore 1811 - 1848, forerunner of modern press, guided by principal of ―magnanimous disputation‖
    • 47. Partisan press France In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte assumed power Freedom of the press ended, and widespread system of censorship was put in place by 1808 Number of newspapers in Paris dwindled from hundreds to only 4 by 1811. Censorship was lifted following Napoleon‘s defeat at Waterloo, then imposed by French authorities, and occasionally lifted again in cycles over the next century.
    • 48. What was it like to work in a printing chapel? Long hours, low pay, very strenuous, but also interesting, a place for literate people, the Creatures of Prometheus. See the web site for the book Revolutions in Communication
    • 49. Life in a print shop Upper and lower case  Mind ―p‖s and ―q‖s  Composing ―on the stick‖  By the same token  Out of sorts  Playing quadrats  Getting a washing  Spirit of the chapel 
    • 50. Review Terms: logographic, codex, scriptoria, incunabula, pri nting chapel  People: Gutenberg, Martin Luther, Three Bishops of Oxford, Francis Bacon, John Milton, Voltaire, John Locke, Thomas Paine, John Wilkes, Camille Desmoulins, William Cobbett, Jefferson, Franklin, Napoleon,  Ideas: Partisan press, sedition act, religious tolerance, Fourth Estate  Major trends: Protestant reformation, Enlightenment, English Civil War, American & French revolutions 