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IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation
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IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation

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IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation.

IB Chemistry on Stoichiometry, Ionic Equation and Balancing Chemical Equation.

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  • 1. http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com Prepared by Lawrence Kok Tutorial on Chemical Formula, Balancing Ionic Equation and Stoichiometry.
  • 2. Chemical formula • Represent chemical compound • Show elements present in compound Name compound Chemical Formula Name of each element Sulphuric acid H2SO4 2 Hydrogen, 1 Sulphur, 4 Oxygen Ammonia NH3 1 Nitrogen, 3 Hydrogen Hydrogen Chloride HCI 1 Hydrogen, 1 Chlorine Nitric Acid HNO3 1 Hydrogen, 1 Nitrogen, 3 Oxygen Empirical formula • Represent simplest whole number ratio of atoms of the elements • Formula obtain by experiment Molecular formula • represent actual number atoms of elements that combine to form compound Structural formula • Represent arrangement of atoms in a compound Chemical Compound Ethene C1H1 C2H2 Video tutorial on Molecular/empirical formula Khan Academy
  • 3. Chemical Reaction Word equation CaCO3 (s) + 2HCI(aq) → CaCI2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Calcium + hydrochloric → Calcium + carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide Chemical equation Molecular equation
  • 4. Chemical Reaction Word equation CaCO3 (s) + 2HCI(aq) → CaCI2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Physical states + symbols (s) – solid (I) - liqud (g) – gas (aq) – aqueous ∆ - heating ppt – precipitate/solid ↔ - reversible Calcium + hydrochloric → Calcium + carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide Chemical equation Molecular equation 1CaCO3(s) + 2HCI(aq) → 1CaCI2(aq) + 1CO2(g) + 1H2O(l) Reactants – Left side Products – Right side
  • 5. Chemical Reaction Word equation CaCO3 (s) + 2HCI(aq) → CaCI2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Physical states + symbols (s) – solid (I) - liqud (g) – gas (aq) – aqueous ∆ - heating ppt – precipitate/solid ↔ - reversible Calcium + hydrochloric → Calcium + carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide Reaction Stoichiometry • Quantitative relationship bet quantities of reactants/ products • Used to determine quantities/amt in (mass, moles, volume) • Predicts amt reactants react and amt products formed • Chemical reaction react in definite ratios Chemical equation Molecular equation 1CaCO3(s) + 2HCI(aq) → 1CaCI2(aq) + 1CO2(g) + 1H2O(l) Reactants – Left side Products – Right side Conservation Mass Total Mass reactants = Total Mass products Mole Ratio (stoichiometric ratio) Coefficient in front of reactants/products - moles 1 : 2 → 1 : 1 : 2 Video on conservation mass Before After Chemical reaction • Matter is neither created nor destroyed • Undergoes physical and chemical change. • LAW of conservation of mass.
  • 6. Chemical Reaction Word equation Chemical equation Molecular equation Lead + Potassium → Lead + Potassium Nitrate iodide iodide nitrate 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
  • 7. Chemical Reaction Word equation Chemical equation Molecular equation Reactants – Left side Products – Right side Conservation Mass Total Mass reactants = Total Mass products Mole Ratio (stoichiometric ratio) Coefficient in front of reactants/products - moles Lead + Potassium → Lead + Potassium Nitrate iodide iodide nitrate 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 1 : 2 → 1 : 2
  • 8. Chemical Reaction Word equation Chemical equation Molecular equation Reactants – Left side Products – Right side Conservation Mass Total Mass reactants = Total Mass products Mole Ratio (stoichiometric ratio) Coefficient in front of reactants/products - moles Lead + Potassium → Lead + Potassium Nitrate iodide iodide nitrate 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Mass of reactants (PbNO3 + KI) = 15.82 Mass of products (PbI3 + KNO3) = 15.82 AfterBefore Video on conservation mass 1 : 2 → 1 : 2
  • 9. 2H2 + 2I2 → 4HI 3NO2 + 3NO2 → 3N2O4 4g H2 508g I2 512g HI 150g NO2 300g N2O4 Simulation on conservation mass/balancing equation Click to view animation + 2 moles H2 2 moles I2 4 moles HI 150g NO2 3 moles NO23 moles NO2 3 moles N2O4 + + +
  • 10. 2H2 + 2I2 → 4HI 3NO2 + 3NO2 → 3N2O4 4g H2 508g I2 512g HI 150g NO2 300g N2O4 Simulation on conservation mass/balancing equation Click to view animation + 2 moles H2 2 moles I2 4 moles HI Simulation on Chembalancer 150g NO2 3 moles NO23 moles NO2 3 moles N2O4 + + +
  • 11. Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp 1 Gp 2 Gp 3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Zn +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co 3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Zn2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+ Anion/Non metal Gp 5 Gp 6 Gp 7 Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -3 -2 -1 N3- O2- F-1 P3- S2- CI-1 Br-1 I-1 Metal/Cations/+ve ions Non Metal/ Anions/ -ve ions Writing Chemical Formula
  • 12. Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp 1 Gp 2 Gp 3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Zn +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co 3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Zn2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+ Anion/Non metal Gp 5 Gp 6 Gp 7 Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -3 -2 -1 N3- O2- F-1 P3- S2- CI-1 Br-1 I-1 Metal/Cations/+ve ions Non Metal/ Anions/ -ve ions Ionic Compound Li2O MgCI2 Al2O3 FeO Iron(II) oxide NiO Nickel(II) oxide CuO Copper(II) oxide Li3N Mg3N2 AlN Fe3N2 Iron(II) nitride Ni3N2 Nickel(II) nitride Cu3N2 Copper(II) nitride Writing Chemical Formula
  • 13. Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp 1 Gp 2 Gp 3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Zn +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co 3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Zn2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+ Anion/Non metal Gp 5 Gp 6 Gp 7 Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -3 -2 -1 N3- O2- F-1 P3- S2- CI-1 Br-1 I-1 Metal/Cations/+ve ions Non Metal/ Anions/ -ve ions Ionic Compound Li2O MgCI2 Al2O3 FeO Iron(II) oxide NiO Nickel(II) oxide CuO Copper(II) oxide Li3N Mg3N2 AlN Fe3N2 Iron(II) nitride Ni3N2 Nickel(II) nitride Cu3N2 Copper(II) nitride Oxidation state/Charge ion → Li1+ O2- Formula compound Li2 O1 Video on polyatomic ions Writing Chemical Formula Step 1 : Write Oxidation state/charge Step 2 : Balance it, (electrically neutral) by cross multiply – as subscript
  • 14. Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp1 Gp 2 Gp3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+ Polyatomic ions Group of non-metals bonded together Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -1/+1 -2 -3 (OH)-1 Hydroxide (SO4)2- Sulphate (PO4)3- Phosphate (CN)-1 Cyanide (SO3)2- Sulphite (SCN)-1 Thiocyanate (CO3)2- Carbonate (NO3)-1 Nitrate (S2O3)2- Thiosulphate (NO2)-1 Nitrite (Cr2O7)2- Dichromate (NH4)+1 Ammonium Polyatomic ions Writing Chemical Formula Metal/Cations/+ve ions
  • 15. Polyatomic ions Group of non-metals bonded together Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -1/+1 -2 -3 (OH)-1 Hydroxide (SO4)2- Sulphate (PO4)3- Phosphate (CN)-1 Cyanide (SO3)2- Sulphite (SCN)-1 Thiocyanate (CO3)2- Carbonate (NO3)-1 Nitrate (S2O3)2- Thiosulphate (NO2)-1 Nitrite (Cr2O7)2- Dichromate (NH4)+1 Ammonium Polyatomic ions Li2(CO3) Mg(CO3) Al2(CO3)3 Fe(CO3) Ni(CO3) Cu(CO3) Li(OH) Mg(OH)2 Al(OH)3 Fe(OH)2 Ni(OH)2 Cu(OH)2 Li2(SO4) Mg(SO4) Al2(SO4)3 FeSO4 Ni(SO4) Cu(SO4) Ionic Compound Writing Chemical Formula Metal/Cations/+ve ions Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp1 Gp 2 Gp3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+
  • 16. Polyatomic ions Group of non-metals bonded together Oxidation state Oxidation state Oxidation state -1/+1 -2 -3 (OH)-1 Hydroxide (SO4)2- Sulphate (PO4)3- Phosphate (CN)-1 Cyanide (SO3)2- Sulphite (SCN)-1 Thiocyanate (CO3)2- Carbonate (NO3)-1 Nitrate (S2O3)2- Thiosulphate (NO2)-1 Nitrite (Cr2O7)2- Dichromate (NH4)+1 Ammonium Polyatomic ions Li2(CO3) Mg(CO3) Al2(CO3)3 Fe(CO3) Ni(CO3) Cu(CO3) Li(OH) Mg(OH)2 Al(OH)3 Fe(OH)2 Ni(OH)2 Cu(OH)2 Li2(SO4) Mg(SO4) Al2(SO4)3 FeSO4 Ni(SO4) Cu(SO4) Video on polyatomic ions Ionic Compound Writing Chemical Formula Metal/Cations/+ve ions Cations/Metals/+ve ions Gp1 Gp 2 Gp3 Transition metals ions ( variable oxidation states) Oxidation state +1 Oxidation state +2 Oxidation state +3 Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 V +2 +3 Cr +2 +3 +6 Mn +2 +3 +6 +7 Fe +2 +3 Co +2 +3 Ni +2 Cu +1 +2 Li 1+ Be2+ Sc 3+ Ti 2+ Ti3+ V 2+ V 3+ Cr 2+ C r3+ Cr6+ Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Mn 6+ Mn 7+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Co2+ Co3+ Ni2+ Cu1+ Cu2+ Na 1+ Mg2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Ca2+ Oxidation state/Charge ion → Li1+ (CO3)2- Formula compound Li2 (CO3 )1 Step 1 : Write Oxidation state/charge ion Step 2 : Balance it, (electrically neutral) by cross multiply – as subscript
  • 17. Acids Alkali Metal Hydroxide Metal oxides Salts Gas HCI Hydrochloric acid KOH Potassium hydroxide CuO Copper(II) oxide CaCO3 Calcium carbonate CO Carbon monoxide HNO3 Nitric acid NaOH Sodium hydroxide MgO Magnesium oxide Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate CO2 Carbon dioxide H2SO3 Sulphurous acid Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hydroxide ZnO Zinc oxide NaHCO3 Sodium bicarbonate SO2 Sulphur dioxide HCOOH Methanoic acid NH3 Ammonia Na2O Sodium oxide KNO3 Potassium nitrate SO3 Sulphur trioxide CH3COOH Ethanoic acid Mg(OH)2 Magnesium hydroxide Al2O3 Aluminium oxide Pb(NO3)2 Lead (II) Nitrate NO2 Nitrogen dioxide H3PO4 Phosphoric acid Cu(OH)2 Copper (II) hydroxide Fe2O3 Iron(III) oxide NaNO3 Sodium nitrate CH4 Methane H2CO3 Carbonic acid Al(OH)3 Aluminium hydroxide K2S Potassium sulphide PbI2 Lead (II) nitrate H2S Hydrogen sulphide HNO2 Nitrous acid Fe(OH)2 Iron (II) hydroxide PbS Lead(II) sulphide AgCI Silver chloride O2 Oxygen HF Hydrofluoric acid Fe(OH)3 Iron (III) hydroxide ZnS Zinc sulphide MgSO4 Magnesium sulphate N2 Nitrogen HCIO Hypochlorous acid Zn(OH)2 Zinc hydroxide AI2S3 Aluminium sulphide Na2S2O3 Sodium thiosulphate CI2 Chlorine Chemical Formula for common chemicals Naming chemical compoundWriting chemical formulaWriting chemical formula VIDEO TUTORIALS
  • 18. Exercise Write balanced equation for the following reactions 1. Reaction of sulphur dioxide and oxygen to form sulphur trioxide 2. Neutralization between potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid to form potassium sulphate and water 3. Combustion of ethane (C2H6) in air to form carbon dioxide and water 4. Displacement reaction between zinc metal and copper(II) sulphate solution to form copper metal and zinc sulphate 5. Decomposition of zinc carbonate to form zinc oxide and carbon dioxide when heated 6. Ammonia reacting with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide and water. 7. Manganese(IV) oxide reacting with hydrochloric acid to form manganese(II) chloride solution, chlorine and water 8. Neutralization between aqueous ammonia with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride and water.
  • 19. Exercise Write balanced equation for the following reactions 1. Reaction of sulphur dioxide and oxygen to form sulphur trioxide 2SO2(g) + O2(g) → 2SO3(g) 2. Neutralization between potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid to form potassium sulphate and water 2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(I) 3. Combustion of ethane (C2H6) in air to form carbon dioxide and water 2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g ) → 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(I) 4. Displacement reaction between zinc metal and copper(II) sulphate solution to form copper metal and zinc sulphate Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) 5. Decomposition of zinc carbonate to form zinc oxide and carbon dioxide when heated ZnCO3(s) → ZnO(s) + CO2(g) 6. Ammonia reacting with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide and water. 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(I) 7. Manganese(IV) oxide reacting with hydrochloric acid to form manganese(II) chloride solution, chlorine and water MnO2(s) + 4HCI(aq) → MnCI2(aq) + CI2(g) + 2H2O(I) 8. Neutralization between aqueous ammonia with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride and water. NH4OH(aq) + HCI(aq) → NH4CI(aq) + H2O(I)
  • 20. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation
  • 21. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCI(aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Molecular equation
  • 22. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCI(aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) Molecular equation Complete ionic equation unchangedBreak aq → ions Break aq → ions Break aq → ions • Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged
  • 23. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCI(aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation unchanged 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s )+ 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Cancel outCancel out • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged
  • 24. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation 1Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCI(aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation unchanged 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s )+ 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Cancel outCancel out Video on ionic equation • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged
  • 25. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation unchangedBreak aq → ions Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Cancel outCancel out Na2CO3(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) → 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2Na+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) → 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g) CO3 2- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2Na+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) → 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g) •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn Click here for extra notes Click for here questions and answers to ionic equation Great link to simulation on stoichiometry. Click here.
  • 26. Chemical Equation Chemical Reaction/Change Complete ionic equation Molecular equation Net ionic equation •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation unchangedBreak aq → ions Break aq → ions Break aq → ions Cancel outCancel out 2 Na3PO4(aq) + 3CaCI2(aq) → 6NaCI(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) 6Na+ (aq) + 2PO4 3- (aq) + 3Ca2 (aq) + 6CI- (aq) → 6Na+ (aq) + 6CI- (aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) 2PO4 3- (aq) + 3Ca2+ (aq) → Ca3(PO4)2(s) 6Na+ (aq) + 2PO4 3- (aq) + 3Ca2 (aq) + 6CI- (aq) → 6Na+ (aq) + 6CI- (aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) Click here for extra notes Click for here questions and answers to ionic equation Great link to simulation on stoichiometry. Click here.
  • 27. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Cu(s) Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Cu(s) • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged Ionic Equation
  • 28. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Cu(s) Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Cu(s) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2H+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → Mg2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2H+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → Mg2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2H+ (aq) → Mg2+ (aq) + H2(g) Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged Ionic Equation
  • 29. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out K2SO4(aq) + BaCl2 (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2KCl(aq) 2K+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2K+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) 2K+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2K+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) → BaSO4 (s) • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged Ionic Equation
  • 30. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation K2SO4(aq) + BaCl2 (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2KCl(aq) 2K+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2K+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) 2K+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2K+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) SO4 2- (aq) + Ba2+ (aq) → BaSO4 (s) 2Na+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → 2Na+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4 (aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2Na+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) → 2Na+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + 2H2O(l) 2OH- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) → 2H2O(l) OH- (aq) + H+ (aq) → H2O(l) • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged Cancel out Cancel out Ionic Equation
  • 31. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged 3(NH4)2CO3(aq) + 2Al(NO3)3(aq) → 6NH4NO3(aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 6NH4 + (aq) + 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) → 6NH4 + (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 6NH4 + (aq) + 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) → 6NH4 + (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) → Al2(CO3)3(s) Ionic Equation
  • 32. Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation Cancel outCancel out Molecular equation Complete ionic equation Net ionic equation • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn • Spectators ions- don’t participate in rxn • Cancel out ions from both sides of eqn • Only ions involved in rxn •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged •Break down electrolytes, (aq) → ions • Leave solid, liquid, gas unchanged 3(NH4)2CO3(aq) + 2Al(NO3)3(aq) → 6NH4NO3(aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 6NH4 + (aq) + 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) → 6NH4 + (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 6NH4 + (aq) + 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) → 6NH4 + (aq) + 6NO3 - (aq) + Al2(CO3)3(s) 3CO3 2- (aq) + 2Al3+ (aq) → Al2(CO3)3(s) CaCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2 NaCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) Ca2+ (aq)+ 2 Cl- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq)+ CO3 2- (aq) -> 2 Na+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + CaCO3 (s) Ca2+ (aq)+ 2Cl- (aq) + 2Na+ (aq)+ CO3 2- (aq) → 2Na+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + CaCO3 (s) Ca2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) → CaCO3 (s) Ionic Equation Cancel outCancel out
  • 33. 1Pb(NO3)2(s) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3 (aq) Balanced Chemical equation Coefficient • Mole proportion/ratio •(reactant) → (product) 1 : 2 → 1 : 2 Concept Map Chemical Reaction Chemical Equation Molecular Equation Complete Ionic Equation Net Ionic Equation 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3 - (aq) + 2K+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2K+ (aq) + 2 NO3-(aq) 1Pb2+ (aq) + 2CI- (aq) → 1PbCI2(s) Chemical Change leads to represented by 1Pb(NO3)2(s) + 2KI(aq) → 1PbI2(s) + 2KNO3 (aq) Stoichiometry • Quantitative relationship bet quantities of reactants/products • Determine quantities/amt in (mass, moles, volume) • Predicts amt reactants react and amt products formed • Chemical rxn reacts in definite ratios Video on concept map above Simulation on stoichiometry Simulation on chembalancer
  • 34. Acknowledgements Thanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentation Thanks to Creative Commons for excellent contribution on licenses http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ Prepared by Lawrence Kok Check out more video tutorials from my site and hope you enjoy this tutorial http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com

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