Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
IB Chemistry on Homologous Series, IUPAC Nomenclature and Structural formula
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

IB Chemistry on Homologous Series, IUPAC Nomenclature and Structural formula

3,053
views

Published on

IB Chemistry on Homologous Series, IUPAC Nomenclature and structural formula for alkane, alkene and alcohol

IB Chemistry on Homologous Series, IUPAC Nomenclature and structural formula for alkane, alkene and alcohol

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,053
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
33
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Tutorial on Organic Chemistry and IUPACNomenclature . Prepared by Lawrence Kok http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com
  • 2. Hydrocarbon Alkane and NomenclatureHomologous Series Hydrocarbon• same functional group• each member differ from the next by –CH2 - group Aliphatic (open chain) Aromatic (benzene structure)• similar chemical properties• same chemical formula CnH2n+2• saturated hydrocarbon H3C CH3• ending with anePhysical properties Saturated Unsaturated• increase in RMM and molecular size down the series Carbon – Carbon single bond Carbon – Carbon double bond•RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger melting /boiling point increases ↑• C1 – C4 (gas) H3C CH3 H2C CH2• C5- C18 (liquid)• C19 – (solid)• Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent• Non conductors – simple molecules NOT ions Alkane Cycloalkane H3C CH3 CH3 melting /boiling point increases ↑ as carbon chain increases ↑
  • 3. Hydrocarbon Alkane and Nomenclature Molecular Formula Actual number of atoms/elements present in a molecule Ex : C2H5CI1 – 2 Carbon, 5 Hydrogen, 1 Chlorine Structural Formula Arrangement of all atoms in a molecule Ex : H H H │ │ │ H-C– C–C-H │ │ │ H CH3 H Condensed Structural Formula Vs Displayed structural formula• branches in carbon chain are indicated in parentheses all carbon and hydrogen bonds are shown• CH3CH(CH3)CH3 H H H │ │ │ H-C– C–C-H │ │ │ H CH3 H• CH3CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH3 H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ H-C– C– C– C– C-H │ │ │ │ │ H OH H OH H
  • 4. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 1 Name the parent (longest unbranched carbon chain) or 7 carbon - heptane 7 carbon - heptane
  • 5. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 1 Name the parent (longest unbranched carbon chain) or 7 carbon - heptane 7 carbon - heptaneStep 2 Choose the chain which has more alkyl groups attached or 4 alkyl groups 3 alkyl groups
  • 6. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 1 Name the parent (longest unbranched carbon chain) or 7 carbon - heptane 7 carbon - heptaneStep 2 Choose the chain which has more alkyl groups attached or 4 alkyl groups 3 alkyl groupsStep 3 Name alkyl/substituent/attached groups by adding a suffix with yl CH3 – methyl C2H5 – ethyl C3H7 – propyl C4H9 – butyl Branching groups are • methyl and ethyl
  • 7. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 4 Numbering from end of chain which give substituents the lowest possible numbers √ or Numbering are 2 , 3, 4, 5 Numbering are 3, 4, 5, 6
  • 8. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 4 Numbering from end of chain which give substituents the lowest possible numbers √ or Numbering are 2 , 3, 4, 5 Numbering are 3, 4, 5, 6Step 5 If 2 or more identical substituents present, assign prefixes 2 identical (Di) – 3 identical (Tri) – 4 identical (Tetra) – 5 identical (Penta) 3 identical - Trimethyl √
  • 9. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 4 Numbering from end of chain which give substituents the lowest possible numbers √ or Numbering are 2 , 3, 4, 5 Numbering are 3, 4, 5, 6Step 5 If 2 or more identical substituents present, assign prefixes 2 identical (Di) – 3 identical (Tri) – 4 identical (Tetra) – 5 identical (Penta) 3 identical - Trimethyl √Step 6 Use comma, to separate numbers Use hyphen – to separate number and word 2, 4, 5 –trimethylheptane NOT 2, 4, 5 –trimethyl - heptane Write prefix and parent as one word
  • 10. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesStep 4 Numbering from end of chain which give substituents the lowest possible numbers √ or Numbering are 2 , 3, 4, 5 Numbering are 3, 4, 5, 6Step 5 If 2 or more identical substituents present, assign prefixes 2 identical (Di) – 3 identical (Tri) – 4 identical (Tetra) – 5 identical (Penta) 3 identical - Trimethyl √Step 6 Use comma, to separate numbers Use hyphen – to separate number and word 2, 4, 5 –trimethylheptane NOT 2, 4, 5 –trimethyl - heptane Write prefix and parent as one wordStep 7 Arrange the substituents according to alphabetical order 3 – ethyl – 2, 4, 5- trimethylheptane √ NOT 2, 4, 5 - trimethyl – 3 – ethylheptane X 3 – ethyl – 2, 4, 5 - trimethylheptane
  • 11. Nomenclature for Organic Molecules √ X 3- ethyl- 5- methylhexane2- methyl- 4- ethylhexane
  • 12. Nomenclature for Organic Molecules √ X 3- ethyl- 5- methylhexane 2- methyl- 4- ethylhexane 2, 3 - dimethylpentane 4-ethyl-2 -methylhexane2, 3, 6 – trimethyl – 4 - ethyloctane 2, 2, 4 - trimethylpentane
  • 13. Hydrocarbon Alkene/Alkyne and NomenclatureHomologous Series Hydrocarbon• same functional group (C=C) or (C≡C)• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group Aliphatic (open chain) Aromatic (benzene structure)• similar chemical properties• chemical formula alkene - CnH2n H3C CH3• chemical formula alkyne - CnH2n-2•unsaturated hydrocarbon• alkene ending with ene Saturated Unsaturated• alkyne ending with ynePhysical properties –• increase in RMM and molecular size down the series•RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger Unsaturated Unsaturated melting /boiling point increases ↑ Carbon – Carbon double bond Carbon – Carbon triple bond• C2 – C4 (gases)• C5- C10 (liquids) H2C=CH2 HC CH• Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent• Non conductors – simple molecules not ions
  • 14. Hydrocarbon Aldehyde and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties – • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• functional group CO bonded to H at the end •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• contain carbonyl group C=O melting /boiling point increases ↑• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group • C1 – gas• similar chemical properties • C2- C10 - liquids• chemical formula aldehyde - CnH2nO • Methanal – CH2O• aldehyde ending with al • Ethanal - CH3CHO • Propanal – CH3CH2CHO • Butanal - CH3CH2CH2CHO H H H H H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C =O H- C – C = O H- C - C – C =O H- C - C – C – C =O │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H H H H Methanal Ethanal Propanal Butanal Nomenclature for aldehyde H H CH3 H │ │ │ │CH3 – CH –CH – C=O CH3 – CH –CH – C=O CH3 –CH – C=O │ │ │ │ CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
  • 15. Hydrocarbon Aldehyde and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties – • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• functional group CO bonded to H at the end •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• contain carbonyl group C=O melting /boiling point increases ↑• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group • C1 – gas• similar chemical properties • C2- C10 - liquids• chemical formula aldehyde - CnH2nO • Methanal – CH2O• aldehyde ending with al • Ethanal - CH3CHO • Propanal – CH3CH2CHO • Butanal - CH3CH2CH2CHO H H H H H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C =O H- C – C = O H- C - C – C =O H- C - C – C – C =O │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H H H H Methanal Ethanal Propanal Butanal Nomenclature for aldehyde H H CH3 H │ │ │ │CH3 – CH –CH – C=O CH3 – CH –CH – C=O CH3 –CH – C=O │ │ │ │ CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 2 - methylbutanal 2, 3 - dimethylbutanal 2, 2-dimethylpropanal
  • 16. Hydrocarbon Ketone and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties –•functional group CO bonded to two hydrocarbon • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• contain carbonyl group C=O •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group melting /boiling point increases ↑• similar chemical properties • C1 – gas• chemical formula ketone - CnH2nO • C2- C10 - liquids• ketone ending with one • Propanone – CH3COCH3 • Butanone - CH3CH2COCH3 • Pentan-3-one -CH3CH2COCH2CH3 • Hexan-3-one - CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C - H H- C - C – C – C -H H- C - C – C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – C – C – C – H │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ H O H H H O H H H O H H H H O H H H Propanone Butan- 2 - one Pentan- 3-one Hexan-3 - one Nomenclature for ketone CH3 CH3 │ │ CH3 – C –CH – CH3 CH3 – CH – C – CH- CH3 CH3 – C –C – CH3 ║ │ ║ │ ║ │ O CH3 O CH3 O CH3 CH3 – C –CH – CH2CH3 ║ │ O CH3
  • 17. Hydrocarbon Ketone and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties –•functional group CO bonded to two hydrocarbon • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• contain carbonyl group C=O •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group melting /boiling point increases ↑• similar chemical properties • C1 – gas• chemical formula ketone - CnH2nO • C2- C10 - liquids• ketone ending with one • Propanone – CH3COCH3 • Butanone - CH3CH2COCH3 • Pentan-3-one -CH3CH2COCH2CH3 • Hexan-3-one - CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C - H H- C - C – C – C -H H- C - C – C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – C – C – C – H │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ H O H H H O H H H O H H H H O H H H Propanone Butan- 2 - one Pentan- 3-one Hexan-3 - one Nomenclature for ketone CH3 CH3 │ │ CH3 – C –CH – CH3 CH3 – CH – C – CH- CH3 CH3 – C –C – CH3 ║ │ ║ │ ║ │ O CH3 O CH3 O CH33, 3 dimethylbutanone 3- methylbutanone 2, 4 dimethylpentan- 3-one CH3 – C –CH – CH2CH3 ║ │ O CH3 3- methylpentan-2-one
  • 18. Hydrocarbon Carboxylic Acid and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties –•functional group COOH • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• contain carbonyl group C=O •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group melting /boiling point increases ↑• similar chemical properties • Propanoic acid – CH3CH2COOH• chemical formula carboxylic acid - CnH2n+1COOH or CnH2nO2 • Butanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2COOH• acid ending with oic • Pentanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH • Hexanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH H H O H H H O H H H H O H H H H H O │ │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ │ ║ H- C - C – C - OH H- C - C – C – C -OH H- C - C – C – C – C - OH H- C - C – C – C – C – C - OH │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Propanoic acid Butanoic acid Pentanoic acid Hexanoic acidNomenclature for carboxylic acid O CH3 O O ║ │ ║ ║ CH3 – CH –CH – C -OH CH3 – CH –CH – C -OH CH3 –CH – C -OH │ │ │ │ CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
  • 19. Hydrocarbon Carboxylic Acid and NomenclatureHomologous Series Physical properties –•functional group COOH • increase in RMM and molecular size down the series• contain carbonyl group C=O •RMM increase ↑ - Van Der Waals forces stronger• each member differ from the next by –CH2- group melting /boiling point increases ↑• similar chemical properties • Propanoic acid – CH3CH2COOH• chemical formula carboxylic acid - CnH2n+1COOH or CnH2nO2 • Butanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2COOH• acid ending with oic • Pentanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH • Hexanoic acid - CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH H H O H H H O H H H H O H H H H H O │ │ ║ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ ║ │ │ │ │ │ ║ H- C - C – C - OH H- C - C – C – C -OH H- C - C – C – C – C - OH H- C - C – C – C – C – C - OH │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Propanoic acid Butanoic acid Pentanoic acid Hexanoic acidNomenclature for carboxylic acid O CH3 O O ║ │ ║ ║ CH3 – CH –CH – C -OH CH3 – CH –CH – C -OH CH3 –CH – C -OH │ │ │ │ CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 2, 3 -dimethylbutanoic acid 3, 3–dimethylbutanoic acid 2- methylpropanoic acid
  • 20. Hydrocarbon Alcohol and NomenclatureHomologous Series• same functional group hydroxyl (OH)• each member differ from the next by –CH2 - group•same chemical formula alcohol - CnH2n+1OH•ending with ol• Methanol – CH3OH• Ethanol - CH3CH2OH• Propanol – CH3CH2CH2OH H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C - H H- C - C – C - H │ │ │ │ │ │ H H OH H OH H Propan – 1-ol Propan – 2-ol• Butanol – CH3CH2CH2CH2OH H H H H H H H H H H H H OH H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – OH H- C - C – C – H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H OH H H OH H H CH3 H H CH3 H Butan–1-ol Butan–2-ol 2- Methylpropan-1-ol 2- Methylpropan-2-ol Types of alcohol Primary alcohol 1 0 – Secondary alcohol 2 o – Tertiary alcohol 3 o –
  • 21. Hydrocarbon Alcohol and NomenclatureHomologous Series• same functional group hydroxyl (OH)• each member differ from the next by –CH2 - group•same chemical formula alcohol - CnH2n+1OH•ending with ol• Methanol – CH3OH• Ethanol - CH3CH2OH• Propanol – CH3CH2CH2OH H H H H H H │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C - H H- C - C – C - H │ │ │ │ │ │ H H OH H OH H Propan – 1-ol Propan – 2-ol• Butanol – CH3CH2CH2CH2OH H H H H H H H H H H H H OH H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H- C - C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – C - H H- C - C – C – OH H- C - C – C – H │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ H H H OH H H OH H H CH3 H H CH3 H Butan–1-ol Butan–2-ol 2- Methylpropan-1-ol 2- Methylpropan-2-ol Types of alcohol H Primary alcohol 1 0 – One alkyl group bonded to C attached to OH group │ CH3 - C – OH │ H Secondary alcohol 2 o – Two alkyl group bonded to C attached to OH group CH3 │ CH3 - C – OH │ H Tertiary alcohol 3 o – Three alkyl group bonded to C attached to OH group CH3 │ CH3 - C – OH │ CH3
  • 22. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesC6– C5 – C4 – C3- C2 – C1 C4 – C3 - C2 - C1HO C5 - C4 – C3 - C2 = C1 C5 - C4 – C3 - C2 - C1 │ │ │ │ ║ C2H5 CI CH3 CH3 O C4 – C3 - C2 = C1 C3 - C2 - C1OOH C3 - C2 - C1 - OH CH3 – CH –CHO │ │ │ │ CH3 Br CH3 CH3 CH3 – CH –CH – CH3 CH3 – C = CH2 CH3 – CH –CH2 - OH CH3 – CH –CH2 – CH3 │ │ │ │ │ CH3 OH CH3 CH3 CH2OH CH3 – CH2 – CH - CI OH CH3 – CH –CH2 – CH2OH │ │ │ CH2CH3 C3 - C2 - C1 CH3 │ CH3
  • 23. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesC6– C5 – C4 – C3- C2 – C1 C4 – C3 - C2 - C1HO C5 - C4 – C3 - C2 = C1 C5 - C4 – C3 - C2 - C1 │ │ │ │ ║ C2H5 CI CH3 CH3 O 3 ethylhexane 2 – chlorobutanal 3 – methylpent –1-ene 3 methylpentan-2-one C4 – C3 - C2 = C1 C3 - C2 - C1OOH C3 - C2 - C1 - OH CH3 – CH –CHO │ │ │ │ CH3 Br CH3 CH3 2- methylbutene 3 – bromopropanoic acid 2 –methylpropan- 1-ol 2 -methylpropanal CH3 – CH –CH – CH3 CH3 – C = CH2 CH3 – CH –CH2 - OH CH3 – CH –CH2 – CH3 │ │ │ │ │ CH3 OH CH3 CH3 CH2OH 2 - methylpropene 3- methylbutan-2-ol 2- methylpropan-1-ol 2- methylbutan-1-ol CH3 – CH2 – CH - CI OH CH3 – CH –CH2 – CH2OH │ │ │ CH2CH3 C3 - C2 - C1 CH3 │ 3- methylbutan- 1-ol 3 - chloropentane CH3 2 – methylpropan – 2-ol
  • 24. Nomenclature for Organic MoleculesHO-C(CH3)2 – CH2-CH2-COOH CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 CH3-CH2-CHBr-COOH CH3-C(CH3)2-CH2-CHOCH3-CH(CH3)-CO-CH2-CH3 (CH3 )3C –Br CH3 – CHBr – CH2 –CH2 -OH CH2 -C(CH3)2
  • 25. Nomenclature for Organic Molecules HO-C(CH3)2 – CH2-CH2-COOH CH3-CH(OH)-CH34- hydroxy- 4 –methylpentanoic acid propan- 2–ol CH3-CH2-CHBr-COOH CH3-C(CH3)2-CH2-CHO 2- bromobutanoic acid 3, 3 – dimethylbutanal CH3-CH(CH3)-CO-CH2-CH3 (CH3 )3C –Br 2 –methylpentan –3-one 2- bromo- 2-methylpropane CH3 – CHBr – CH2 –CH2 -OH CH2 -C(CH3)2 3- bromo-butan-1-ol 2- methylpropene
  • 26. Nomenclature for Alkene and Alcohol Molecules
  • 27. Nomenclature for Alkene and Alcohol Molecules6 –chloro–3-ethylhev-1-ene 6 –chloro-2–methylhex-2-ene 3 –methylbut-1-ene 2, 3 –dimethylbut-2-ene 3 –methylpent-1-ene 2 –methylbut-2-ene 4- methylpentan-1-ol 3, 3–dimethylpentan-2-ol 2- methylbutan-2-ol 2 – methylpropan-2 -ol Pent –4-ene –2-ol
  • 28. AcknowledgementsThanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentationThanks to Creative Commons for excellent contribution on licenseshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/Prepared by Lawrence KokCheck out more video tutorials from my site and hope you enjoy this tutorialhttp://lawrencekok.blogspot.com