Tutorial on Analytical Chemistry,Spectroscopy and Line Emission Spectrum Prepared by Lawrence Kok http://lawrencekok.blogs...
Analytical Chemistry       Study on Identification, Structural Determination, Quantification and Separation       Involves...
Classical         methodAnalyticalTechniques        Instrumental           method
Qualitative analysis         Classical         method                       Quatitative analysisAnalyticalTechniques      ...
Chemical test                       Qualitative analysis                                                Flame test        ...
Spectroscopy               • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation        ...
Spectroscopy               • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation        ...
Spectroscopy               • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation        ...
Electromagnetic RadiationVelocity of light (c ) = frequency (f) x wavelength (λ)•c=fλ• All electromagnetic waves travel at...
Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy      Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules) = Spectr...
Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy             Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules) =...
Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy                Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules...
Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum                                                                       Continuous Spec...
Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum                                                                       Continuous Spec...
Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum                                                                       Continuous Spec...
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy    Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen                                                   Energ...
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy    Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen                                                   Energ...
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy         Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen                                                   ...
AcknowledgementsThanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentationThanks to Creative Commons for excellent c...
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IB Chemistry on Analytical Chemistry, Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy

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IB Chemistry on Analytical Chemistry, Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy.
Atomic Absorption and Line Emission Spectroscopy

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IB Chemistry on Analytical Chemistry, Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy

  1. 1. Tutorial on Analytical Chemistry,Spectroscopy and Line Emission Spectrum Prepared by Lawrence Kok http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Analytical Chemistry Study on Identification, Structural Determination, Quantification and Separation Involves Qualitative and Quantitative analysis • Quantitative analysis – Amount present in a sample/mixture • Qualitative analysis – What is present/Identity of species in a impure sample/mixture? • Structural analysis – Determination of structure of a molecule • Separation of mixtures – Chromatographic Techniques • Identification of molecules / functional groups • Purity of substances • Composition in a mixture Analytical Techniques Classical method Qualitative analysis Quatitative analysis Separation analysis Flame test Melting/boiling Volumetric Distillation Precipitation Gravimetric Chemical test point Titrationhttp://www.glogster.com/joealba/flame-test-lab-post-lab-report/g-6m0d3jrphfhikt976ce4ia0/http://www.chemcollective.org/chem/ubc/exp01
  3. 3. Classical methodAnalyticalTechniques Instrumental method
  4. 4. Qualitative analysis Classical method Quatitative analysisAnalyticalTechniques Spectroscopy analysis Instrumental method Separation analysis
  5. 5. Chemical test Qualitative analysis Flame test Classical method Gravimetric Quatitative analysis Volumetric Titration Infra Red SpectroscopyAnalytical Mass SpectroscopyTechniques Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Spectroscopy analysis Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Ultra Violet Spectroscopy Instrumental Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy method Paper Chromatography High Performance Liquid Chromatography Separation analysis Gas Liquid Chromatography Column Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography
  6. 6. Spectroscopy • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation • Particles (molecule, ion, atom) can interact/absorb a quantum of light Electromagnetic RadiationPicture from: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/fieldtrips/2005/activities/ir_spectrum/
  7. 7. Spectroscopy • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation • Particles (molecule, ion, atom) can interact/absorb a quantum of light Electromagnetic Radiation High Energy Radiation Low Energy Radiation Gamma/X ray UV or visible Infra Red Microwave RadiowavesPicture from: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/fieldtrips/2005/activities/ir_spectrum/
  8. 8. Spectroscopy • Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation • Particles (molecule, ion, atom) can interact/absorb a quantum of light Electromagnetic Radiation High Energy Radiation Low Energy Radiation Gamma/X ray UV or visible Infra Red Microwave Radiowaves Transition of Transition of outer most Molecular vibration Molecular rotation Nuclear spin inner electrons valence electrons Ultra Violet Atomic Absorption Infra Red Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Spectroscopy SpectroscopyPicture from: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/fieldtrips/2005/activities/ir_spectrum/
  9. 9. Electromagnetic RadiationVelocity of light (c ) = frequency (f) x wavelength (λ)•c=fλ• All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light (3.00 x 108ms-1)• Radiation with high ↑ frequency – short ↓ wavelength• Electromagnetic radiation has a particle nature and each photon carry a quantum of energy given by hc E = hf E Short ↓ λ, Higher ↑ frequency, Higher Energy ↑ h = plank constant = 6.626 x 10-34 Js  c = speed of light = 3.00 x 108ms-1 f = frequency λ = wavelengthPicture from :http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Blog+-+a+quantum+of+warmth
  10. 10. Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules) = Spectroscopy Electromagnetic RadiationRadiowaves Infra Red UV or visible
  11. 11. Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules) = Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Radiation Radiowaves Infra Red UV or visible Nuclear spin Molecular vibration Transition of outer most valence electronsNuclear Magnetic Resonance Infra Red Spectroscopy UV Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Spectroscopy
  12. 12. Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Radiation Interact with Matter (Atoms, Molecules) = Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Radiation Radiowaves Infra Red UV or visible Nuclear spin Molecular vibration Transition of outer most valence electrons Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Infra Red Spectroscopy UV Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Spectroscopy• Organic structure determination • Organic structure determination • Quantification of metal ions• MRI and body scanning • Functional gp determination • Detection of metal in various samples • Measuring bond strength • Measuring degree unsaturation in fat • Measuring level of alcohol in breath
  13. 13. Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum Continuous Spectrum : Light spectrum with all wavelength/frequency Emission Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/ frequency • Emitted when excited electrons drop from higher to lower energy level Absorption Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/frequency • Absorbed when ground state electrons are excitedhttp://www.astrophys-assist.com/educate/orion/orion02.htm
  14. 14. Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum Continuous Spectrum : Light spectrum with all wavelength/frequency Emission Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/ frequency • Emitted when excited electrons drop from higher to lower energy level Absorption Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/frequency • Absorbed when ground state electrons are excited Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Electrons from excited state Excited state Emit radiation when drop to ground state Radiation emitted Emission Spectrum Ground statehttp://www.astrophys-assist.com/educate/orion/orion02.htm
  15. 15. Continuous Spectrum Vs Line Spectrum Continuous Spectrum : Light spectrum with all wavelength/frequency Emission Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/ frequency • Emitted when excited electrons drop from higher to lower energy level Absorption Line Spectrum : • Spectrum with discrete wavelength/frequency • Absorbed when ground state electrons are excited Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Vs Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Electrons from excited state Excited state Electrons in excited state Emit radiation when drop to ground state Radiation absorbed Radiation emitted Absorb radiation Emission Spectrum to excited state Ground state Electrons from ground statehttp://www.astrophys-assist.com/educate/orion/orion02.htm
  16. 16. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen Energy supplied to atoms • Electrons are excited from ground to excited states • Electrons exist in fixed energy level (quantum) • Electrons drop from higher to lower, emitting energy of particular wavelength/frequency • Higher the energy level, smaller the difference in energy between successive energy level. • Spectrum will converge(get closer) with increasing frequency • Lines in spectrum converge- energy levels also converge • Ionisation energy can be determined (Limit of convergence) UV region Visible region IR regionLyman Series Balmer Series Paschen Seriesn=∞ → n= 1 n=∞ → n= 2 n=∞ → n= 3
  17. 17. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen Energy supplied to atoms • Electrons are excited from ground to excited states • Electrons exist in fixed energy level (quantum) • Electrons drop from higher to lower, emitting energy of particular wavelength/frequency • Higher the energy level, smaller the difference in energy between successive energy level. • Spectrum will converge(get closer) with increasing frequency • Lines in spectrum converge- energy levels also converge • Ionisation energy can be determined (Limit of convergence) UV region Visible region IR regionLyman Series Balmer Series Paschen Seriesn=∞ → n= 1 n=∞ → n= 2 n=∞ → n= 3
  18. 18. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Line Emission Spectra for Hydrogen Energy supplied to atoms • Electrons are excited from ground to excited states • Electrons exist in fixed energy level (quantum) • Electrons drop from higher to lower, emitting energy of particular wavelength/frequency • Higher the energy level, smaller the difference in energy between successive energy level. • Spectrum will converge(get closer) with increasing frequency • Lines in spectrum converge- energy levels also converge • Ionisation energy can be determined (Limit of convergence) UV region Visible region IR region Lyman Series Balmer Series Paschen Series n=∞ → n= 1 n=∞ → n= 2 n=∞ → n= 3 Atomic Emission Spectra • Energy supplied • Electrons surround nucleus in allowed energy states (quantum) • Excited electron returning to lower energy level, photon of light with discrete energy/wavelength(colour) will be given out. • Light pass through a spectroscope, with a prism to separate out different colours • Line emission spectra is produced.Line emission spectra for different elements can be found here N= 6-2 N= 5-2 N= 4-2 N = 3-2, 410nm 434nm 486nm 656nm Visible region- Balmer Series
  19. 19. AcknowledgementsThanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentationThanks to Creative Commons for excellent contribution on licenseshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/Prepared by Lawrence KokCheck out more video tutorials from my site and hope you enjoy this tutorialhttp://lawrencekok.blogspot.com
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