Tutorial on Atomic Structure, Particle
Physics and Relative Atomic Mass.

Prepared by
Lawrence Kok
http://lawrencekok.blog...
Atomic Structure
Atomic Size radius
•Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m
•Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m
•Radius nucleu...
Atomic Structure
Atomic Size radius
•Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m
•Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m
•Radius nucleu...
Atomic Structure
Atomic Size radius
•Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m
•Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m
•Radius nucleu...
Atomic Structure
Atomic Size radius
•Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m
•Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m
•Radius nucleu...
Atomic Structure

Unit conversion

Atomic Size radius
•Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m
•Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-1...
Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model

Video on timeline discovery

Discovery of elementary particles
Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model

Discovery of elementary particles

Elementary particles

Video on timeline...
Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model

Discovery of elementary particles

Elementary particles

Video on timeline...
Elementary particles

Structure within atom

Recent discovery particles from
Large Hadron Collider

Particles interact wit...
Elementary particles

Structure within atom

Recent discovery particles from
Large Hadron Collider

Particles interact wit...
Elementary particles

Structure within atom

Recent discovery particles from
Large Hadron Collider

Particles interact wit...
Nuclear reaction vs Chemical reaction
Nuclear reaction

•Involve protons/neutrons in nucleus
•Decomposition of nucleus int...
Nuclear reaction vs Chemical reaction
Chemical reaction

Nuclear reaction

•Involve outer most electrons
•Transfer/sharing...
Nuclear reaction

Alpha Decay

Unstable nucleus of atom

α

Decay by emitting ionizing particles

β

Gamma Decay

Beta Dec...
Nuclear reaction

Alpha Decay

Unstable nucleus of atom

Decay by emitting ionizing particles

α

β

Alpha Decay
•Losing a...
Nuclear reaction

Alpha Decay

Unstable nucleus of atom

Decay by emitting ionizing particles

α

β

Alpha Decay
•Losing a...
Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

Nucleus > 84 protons
•Unstable, radioactive decay
•Decay depends on ra...
Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

Nucleus > 84 protons
•Unstable, radioactive decay
•Decay depends on ra...
Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

Nucleus > 84 protons
•Unstable, radioactive decay
•Decay depends on ra...
Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes
Emit radiation form unstable isotope

Unstable Isotopes – emits radiation

RADIOISOTOPES
Radio...
Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes

Stable Isotopes

Emit radiation form unstable isotope

Unstable Isotopes – emits radiation

R...
Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes

Stable Isotopes

Simulation isotope 1H, 2H, 3H

Simulation isotope 12C, 13C, 14C

Emit radiati...
Carbon – 3 Isotopes
Carbon -12
Abundance – 99% (Stable)

Carbon -13
Abundance – 1% (Stable)

Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Car...
Carbon – 3 Isotopes
Carbon -12

Carbon -13

Abundance – 99% (Stable)

Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14

Abundance – 1%...
Carbon – 3 Isotopes
Carbon -12

Carbon -13

Abundance – 99% (Stable)

Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14

Abundance – 1%...
Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14
Abundance – trace amt
(Unstable , radioactive)
• Half life C-14 = 5730 years
• Beta (...
How Radiocarbon dating works?

Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14
Abundance – trace amt
(Unstable , radioactive)
• Half ...
How Radiocarbon dating works?

Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14
Abundance – trace amt
(Unstable , radioactive)
• Half ...
Uses of radioactive isotopes
Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14

Radiotherapy/cancer/tumour
Cobalt-60

Tracers/studying ...
Uses of radioactive isotopes
Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14

Beta (β/electron) decay
Carbon dating
Age of fossil rem...
Uses of radioactive isotopes
Radiocarbon/carbon dating
Carbon -14

Beta (β/electron) decay
Carbon dating
Age of fossil rem...
Atomic /Mass number

No isotopes are present
Proton number = proton

Z

Mass number = proton + neutron

A

6 protons

6 pr...
Atomic /Mass number

No isotopes are present
Proton number = proton

Z

Mass number = proton + neutron

A

6 protons

6 pr...
Relative Atomic Mass

No isotopes are present

Relative Atomic Mass is used :

• Impossible to weigh an atom in grams
• Co...
Relative Atomic Mass

No isotopes are present

Relative Atomic Mass is used :

• Impossible to weigh an atom in grams
• Co...
Relative Molecular Mass

No isotopes are present

Relative Molecular Mass is used :

• Impossible to weigh an molecules in...
Relative Molecular Mass

No isotopes are present

Relative Molecular Mass is used :

• Impossible to weigh an molecules in...
Relative Isotopic Mass

Proton number = proton

Z

Mass number = proton + neutron

A

Z

Presence of isotopes

Z = 29 prot...
Relative Isotopic Mass

Proton number = proton

Z

Mass number = proton + neutron

A

Presence of isotopes

Z = 29 protons...
Relative Isotopic Mass

Proton number = proton

Z

Mass number = proton + neutron

A

Presence of isotopes

Z = 29 protons...
Relative Atomic Mass

Isotopes are present

Why RAM is not a whole number?

12
Relative Abundance

98.9%

13
1.07%

RAM = ...
Relative Atomic Mass

Isotopes are present

Why RAM is not a whole number?

12
Relative Abundance

98.9%

13
1.07%

RAM = ...
Relative Atomic Mass

Isotopes are present

Why RAM is not a whole number?

12
Relative Abundance

98.9%

13
1.07%

RAM = ...
Relative Atomic Mass
Mg - 3 Isotopes

Relative Abundance

% Abundance
Convert relative abundance to % abundance

Mg – (100...
Relative Atomic Mass
Mg - 3 Isotopes

Relative Abundance

% Abundance
Convert relative abundance to % abundance

Mg – (100...
Additional Resources
Periodic Table from webelement

Video on isotopes using mass spec

Simulation C-14 dating (Half life)...
Acknowledgements
Thanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentation
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hba...
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IB Chemistry on Atomic Structure, Particle Physics and Relative Atomic Mass

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IB Chemistry on Atomic Structure, Particle Physics and Relative Atomic Mass

  1. 1. Tutorial on Atomic Structure, Particle Physics and Relative Atomic Mass. Prepared by Lawrence Kok http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Atomic Structure Atomic Size radius •Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m •Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m •Radius nucleus – (1 x 10-14)m Radius Li atom Radius Nucleus Li atom Nucleon –made up of (protons + neutrons) Protons – made up of 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron – made up of 2 down quarks + 1 up quark
  3. 3. Atomic Structure Atomic Size radius •Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m •Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m •Radius nucleus – (1 x 10-14)m Radius Li atom Radius Nucleus Li atom Nucleon –made up of (protons + neutrons) Protons – made up of 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron – made up of 2 down quarks + 1 up quark Unit conversion 1nm – 1 x 10-9 m 1pm – 1 x 10-12 m 1A - 1 x 10-10 m Elementary particles making up nucleon (protons + neutrons)
  4. 4. Atomic Structure Atomic Size radius •Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m •Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m •Radius nucleus – (1 x 10-14)m Radius Li atom Radius Nucleus Li atom Nucleon –made up of (protons + neutrons) Protons – made up of 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron – made up of 2 down quarks + 1 up quark Unit conversion 1nm – 1 x 10-9 m 1pm – 1 x 10-12 m 1A - 1 x 10-10 m Elementary particles making up nucleon (protons + neutrons) Scale/size of matter from smallest to largest Excellent Flash on scale of universe Excellent Flash on biological cells Video on scale of universe
  5. 5. Atomic Structure Atomic Size radius •Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m •Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m •Radius nucleus – (1 x 10-14)m Radius Li atom Radius Nucleus Li atom Nucleon –made up of (protons + neutrons) Protons – made up of 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron – made up of 2 down quarks + 1 up quark Unit conversion 1nm – 1 x 10-9 m 1pm – 1 x 10-12 m 1A - 1 x 10-10 m Elementary particles making up nucleon (protons + neutrons)
  6. 6. Atomic Structure Unit conversion Atomic Size radius •Order of magnitude – (10-10 – 10-12)m •Radius Li atom – (1.5 x 10-10)m •Radius nucleus – (1 x 10-14)m Radius Li atom Radius Nucleus Li atom Nucleon –made up of (protons + neutrons) Protons – made up of 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron – made up of 2 down quarks + 1 up quark 1nm – 1 x 10-9 m 1pm – 1 x 10-12 m 1A - 1 x 10-10 m Elementary particles making up nucleon (protons + neutrons) Recent discovery particles with help of Large Hadron Collider Structure within atom Video on new particles physics http://astronomyonline.org/ViewImage.asp?Cate=Home&SubCate=MP01&SubCate2=&Img=%2FScience%2FImages%2FAtomicStructure.jpg&Cpt http://justintymewrites.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/the-standard-model-in-laymans-terms2/
  7. 7. Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model Video on timeline discovery Discovery of elementary particles
  8. 8. Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model Discovery of elementary particles Elementary particles Video on timeline discovery Structure within atom Video on new particles physics
  9. 9. Discovery timeline Democritus to Quantum model Discovery of elementary particles Elementary particles Video on timeline discovery Structure within atom Recent discovery particles from Large Hadron Collider Discovery of Higgs boson and Higgs field Particles interact with Higgs field to produce mass Higgs boson leftover excitation of particles of Higgs field Video on new particles physics Higgs Boson Discovery Wins Nobel Prize for Physics Video on Higgs field part 1 Video on Higgs field part 2 Video on NOBEL PRIZE 2013 !!!!!!
  10. 10. Elementary particles Structure within atom Recent discovery particles from Large Hadron Collider Particles interact with Higgs field to produce mass Discovery of Higgs boson and Higgs field
  11. 11. Elementary particles Structure within atom Recent discovery particles from Large Hadron Collider Particles interact with Higgs field to produce mass Discovery of Higgs boson and Higgs field Mass (proton + neutron)- due to interaction between up quarks/down quarks with gluons (energy fluatutions) Proton -2 up quarks 1 down quark Neutron -1 up quark 2 down quarks What is Higgs Boson ? What is Higgs Field ? Video on Higgs field
  12. 12. Elementary particles Structure within atom Recent discovery particles from Large Hadron Collider Particles interact with Higgs field to produce mass Discovery of Higgs boson and Higgs field Mass (proton + neutron)- due to interaction between up quarks/down quarks with gluons (energy fluatutions) Proton -2 up quarks 1 down quark Video on Higgs field What is Higgs Boson ? What is Higgs Field ? Higgs boson leftover excitation of particles of Higgs field Neutron -1 up quark 2 down quarks Video (Veratasium) Excellent videos –Particles interact with Higgs field to create MASS Video (RI) Video (Ted Talk) Video (Minute physics)
  13. 13. Nuclear reaction vs Chemical reaction Nuclear reaction •Involve protons/neutrons in nucleus •Decomposition of nucleus into smaller nuclei •Energy released greater •Conservation of charge / atomic mass number Nuclear equation- decay of nucleus Chemical reaction •Involve outer most electrons •Transfer/sharing/loss of electrons •Energy released less •Conservation of mass and charge Chemical equation – valence electrons 2Na + CI2  2NaCI
  14. 14. Nuclear reaction vs Chemical reaction Chemical reaction Nuclear reaction •Involve outer most electrons •Transfer/sharing/loss of electrons •Energy released less •Conservation of mass and charge •Involve protons/neutrons in nucleus •Decomposition of nucleus into smaller nuclei •Energy released greater •Conservation of charge / atomic mass number Nuclear equation- decay of nucleus Chemical equation – valence electrons 2Na + CI2  2NaCI Transfer electrons Sharing electrons Type of radiation Type radiation Nature radiation Symbol Penetration (mass,m/charge,e) Ionising power (removing electron) Alpha Helium nucleus α Low ratio (high m/e) High Beta High energy electron β Moderate Moderate Gamma High frequency electromagnetic radiation γ High ratio (small m/e) Low http://ths.talawanda.net/~BrambleN/classroom/Chemistry/Notes/Section%206A%20and%206B/RadioactiveDecay.htm http://www.classhelp.info/Biology/AUnit3Biochemistry.htm
  15. 15. Nuclear reaction Alpha Decay Unstable nucleus of atom α Decay by emitting ionizing particles β Gamma Decay Beta Decay
  16. 16. Nuclear reaction Alpha Decay Unstable nucleus of atom Decay by emitting ionizing particles α β Alpha Decay •Losing an alpha particle – helium nucleus •Daughter nuclei lower in proton number •Mass of 4 (2 proton + 2 neutron) •+2 charged (only 2 protons) = +2 •Decay of uranium, thorium, actinium Beta Decay Beta Decay •Losing beta particle –Electron/positron •Daughter nuclei higher in proton number •Negative charge (-1) •Decay neutron  proton + electron Gamma Decay Gamma decay •Losing a γ particle - electromagnetic radiation of high frequency •Daughter nuclei no change in atomic mass
  17. 17. Nuclear reaction Alpha Decay Unstable nucleus of atom Decay by emitting ionizing particles α β Alpha Decay •Losing an alpha particle – helium nucleus •Daughter nuclei lower in proton number •Mass of 4 (2 proton + 2 neutron) •+2 charged (only 2 protons) = +2 •Decay of uranium, thorium, actinium Beta Decay Beta Decay •Losing beta particle –Electron/positron •Daughter nuclei higher in proton number •Negative charge (-1) •Decay neutron  proton + electron Gamma Decay Gamma decay •Losing a γ particle - electromagnetic radiation of high frequency •Daughter nuclei no change in atomic mass http://ths.talawanda.net/~BrambleN/classroom/Chemistry/Notes/Section%206A%20and%206B/RadioactiveDecay.htm http://molaire1.perso.sfr.fr/e_radioactiv.html +
  18. 18. Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation Nucleus > 84 protons •Unstable, radioactive decay •Decay depends on ratio neutron/proton Mass number always Conserved/Same
  19. 19. Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation Nucleus > 84 protons •Unstable, radioactive decay •Decay depends on ratio neutron/proton Mass number always Conserved/Same Alpha Decay •Lose alpha particle – helium nucleus •Mass He- 4 (2 proton + 2 neutron) •+2 charged (2 proton + 2 neutron + 0 e) •Daughter nuclei lower in proton number Beta Decay •Lose beta particle –Electron/beta β •Negative charge (-1) •-1 charged (β or electron) •Daughter nuclei higher in proton number Gamma decay •Lose a γ particle – electromagnetic radiation of high frequency •Daughter nuclei no change in atomic mass
  20. 20. Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation Nucleus > 84 protons •Unstable, radioactive decay •Decay depends on ratio neutron/proton Mass number always Conserved/Same Alpha Decay •Lose alpha particle – helium nucleus •Mass He- 4 (2 proton + 2 neutron) •+2 charged (2 proton + 2 neutron + 0 e) •Daughter nuclei lower in proton number Beta Decay •Lose beta particle –Electron/beta β •Negative charge (-1) •-1 charged (β or electron) •Daughter nuclei higher in proton number Decay depend on ratio neutron/proton Neutron/proton ratio LOW – Proton rich – Decay to reduce proton - Alpha decay, α (proton number  ) Decay depend on ratio neutron/proton Neutron/proton ratio HIGH – Neutron rich – Decay to reduce neutron -Beta decay β ( Neutron  Proton + electron) -Ratio decrease  Video on α decay Video on β decay Gamma decay •Lose a γ particle – electromagnetic radiation of high frequency •Daughter nuclei no change in atomic mass Decay depend on ratio neutron/proton Neutron/proton ratio HIGH /LOW -Gamma decay γ, is associated along with Alpha and Beta Video on γ decay
  21. 21. Isotopes Unstable Isotopes Emit radiation form unstable isotope Unstable Isotopes – emits radiation  RADIOISOTOPES Radioisotopes •Half-life – time taken for conc/amt isotope to fall to half of its original value. •Half life decay – always constant Stable Isotopes
  22. 22. Isotopes Unstable Isotopes Stable Isotopes Emit radiation form unstable isotope Unstable Isotopes – emits radiation  RADIOISOTOPES Half-life Radioisotopes •Half-life – time taken for conc/amt isotope to fall to half of its original value. •Half life decay – always constant Radioactive isotopes Uranium 238 4.5 x 109 Carbon-14 5.7 x 103 Radium-226 1.6 x 103 Strontium-90 28 years Iodine-131 8.1 days Bismuth-214 19.7 minutes Polonium-214 www.sciencelearn.org.nz Half-life 1.5 x 10-4 Long half-life More stable, decay slowly Shorter half-life More unstable, decay fast
  23. 23. Isotopes Unstable Isotopes Stable Isotopes Simulation isotope 1H, 2H, 3H Simulation isotope 12C, 13C, 14C Emit radiation form unstable isotope Simulation half life C-14/uranuim Unstable Isotopes – emits radiation  RADIOISOTOPES Half-life Radioisotopes •Half-life – time taken for conc/amt isotope to fall to half of its original value. •Half life decay – always constant Radioactive isotopes Uranium 238 4.5 x 109 Carbon-14 5.7 x 103 Radium-226 1.6 x 103 Strontium-90 28 years Iodine-131 8.1 days Bismuth-214 19.7 minutes Polonium-214 www.sciencelearn.org.nz Half-life 1.5 x 10-4 Long half-life More stable, decay slowly Video on Half life Shorter half-life More unstable, decay fast
  24. 24. Carbon – 3 Isotopes Carbon -12 Abundance – 99% (Stable) Carbon -13 Abundance – 1% (Stable) Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive)
  25. 25. Carbon – 3 Isotopes Carbon -12 Carbon -13 Abundance – 99% (Stable) Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – 1% (Stable) Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive) How it is form? • Half life C-14 = 5730 years • Beta (β/electron ) decay How is form? • C-14 produce in stratosphere when….. neutron hit a nitrogen atom to form C-14 •C-14 to N-14 by converting neutron  proton (proton stay in nucleus), electron emit as β radiation • emit as β ray. (proton in nucleus – increase proton number) emit as β ray. •Ratio C14/C12- constant if alive – TAKE in C14 (C12 constant) •Ratio C14/C12- drop if dead - NOT taking C14. (C12 constant)
  26. 26. Carbon – 3 Isotopes Carbon -12 Carbon -13 Abundance – 99% (Stable) Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – 1% (Stable) Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive) How it is form? • Half life C-14 = 5730 years • Beta (β/electron ) decay How is form? • C-14 produce in stratosphere when….. neutron hit a nitrogen atom to form C-14 •C-14 to N-14 by converting neutron  proton (proton stay in nucleus), electron emit as β radiation • emit as β ray. (proton in nucleus – increase proton number) emit as β ray. •Ratio C14/C12- constant if alive – TAKE in C14 (C12 constant) •Ratio C14/C12- drop if dead - NOT taking C14. (C12 constant) Uses •Age dead organic material/fossil contain Carbon element •Max age limit is 60,000 years old. Conclusion Ratio C14/C12 is constant is organism alive Ratio C14/C12 drop  organism die
  27. 27. Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive) • Half life C-14 = 5730 years • Beta (β/electron ) decay How is form? • C-14 produce in stratosphere when….. neutron hit a nitrogen atom to form C-14 •C-14 to N-14 by converting neutron  proton (proton stay in nucleus), electron emit as β radiation • number) emit as β ray. (proton in nucleus – increase proton emit as β ray. •Ratio C14/C12- constant if alive – TAKE in C14 (C12 constant) •Ratio C14/C12- drop if dead - NOT taking C14. (C12 constant)
  28. 28. How Radiocarbon dating works? Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive) • Half life C-14 = 5730 years • Beta (β/electron ) decay Simulation C-14 (Half life) At 100% (Starting) Simulation C-14 (Half life) At 50% (Starting) How is form? • C-14 produce in stratosphere when….. neutron hit a nitrogen atom to form C-14 •C-14 to N-14 by converting neutron  proton (proton stay in nucleus), electron emit as β radiation • number) emit as β ray. (proton in nucleus – increase proton emit as β ray. Click to view simulation •Ratio C14/C12- constant if alive – TAKE in C14 (C12 constant) •Ratio C14/C12- drop if dead - NOT taking C14. (C12 constant)
  29. 29. How Radiocarbon dating works? Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Abundance – trace amt (Unstable , radioactive) • Half life C-14 = 5730 years • Beta (β/electron ) decay Simulation C-14 (Half life) At 100% (Starting) Simulation C-14 (Half life) At 50% (Starting) How is form? • C-14 produce in stratosphere when….. neutron hit a nitrogen atom to form C-14 •C-14 to N-14 by converting neutron  proton (proton stay in nucleus), electron emit as β radiation • number) emit as β ray. (proton in nucleus – increase proton emit as β ray. Click to view simulation •Ratio C14/C12- constant if alive – TAKE in C14 (C12 constant) •Ratio C14/C12- drop if dead - NOT taking C14. (C12 constant) Video on Radiocarbon dating Video on C-14 Carbon Dating Video on C-14 Carbon Dating/Fossil Video on C-14 Half life Carbon Dating
  30. 30. Uses of radioactive isotopes Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Radiotherapy/cancer/tumour Cobalt-60 Tracers/studying metabolic pathways Iodine-131
  31. 31. Uses of radioactive isotopes Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Beta (β/electron) decay Carbon dating Age of fossil remains • Half life C-14 = 5730 years How Radiocarbon dating works? Radiotherapy/cancer/tumour Tracers/studying metabolic pathways Cobalt-60 Iodine-131 Gamma γ + β decay Gamma γ + β decay Sterilization – killing bacteria/germ Radiotherapy – kill tumor cells High energy electromagnetic ray • • • Radio tracer Trace the pathway in body Beta β (90%) and γ (10%) decay • Half life Co-60 = 5.27 years • Half life I-131 = 8 days How Gamma rays works? How Radio tracer works?
  32. 32. Uses of radioactive isotopes Radiocarbon/carbon dating Carbon -14 Beta (β/electron) decay Carbon dating Age of fossil remains • Half life C-14 = 5730 years How Radiocarbon dating works? Radiotherapy/cancer/tumour Tracers/studying metabolic pathways Cobalt-60 Iodine-131 Gamma γ + β decay Gamma γ + β decay Sterilization – killing bacteria/germ Radiotherapy – kill tumor cells High energy electromagnetic ray • • • Radio tracer Trace the pathway in body Beta β (90%) and γ (10%) decay • Half life Co-60 = 5.27 years • Half life I-131 = 8 days How Gamma rays works? How Radio tracer works? Video on Radiocarbon dating Video on C-14 Carbon Dating Video on Radiotherapy Video on Radio tracer
  33. 33. Atomic /Mass number No isotopes are present Proton number = proton Z Mass number = proton + neutron A 6 protons 6 protons + 6 neutrons 8 protons 8 protons + 8 neutrons
  34. 34. Atomic /Mass number No isotopes are present Proton number = proton Z Mass number = proton + neutron A 6 protons 6 protons + 6 neutrons 8 protons 8 protons + 8 neutrons Atomic Weight With isotopes present Proton number = proton Z Mean relative mass (atomic weight) A Video on weighted average
  35. 35. Relative Atomic Mass No isotopes are present Relative Atomic Mass is used : • Impossible to weigh an atom in grams • Compare how heavy one atom is to carbon (standard) • One sulphur atom 32x heavier than 1/12 carbon -12 • Carbon -12 used as standard Mass number ≠ Average atomic mass (atomic mass unit) Proton number = proton Mass number = proton + neutron Relative Atomic Mass, (Ar) of an element: • Number of times one atom of the element is heavier than one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 • Relative atomic mass = Mass of one atom of element 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative atomic mass for sulphur = 32 (one sulphur atom is 32 x heavier than 1/12 of mass of one (C 12) Z A
  36. 36. Relative Atomic Mass No isotopes are present Relative Atomic Mass is used : • Impossible to weigh an atom in grams • Compare how heavy one atom is to carbon (standard) • One sulphur atom 32x heavier than 1/12 carbon -12 • Carbon -12 used as standard Proton number = proton Z A Mass number = proton + neutron Mass number ≠ Average atomic mass (atomic mass unit) Relative Atomic Mass, (Ar) of an element: • Number of times one atom of the element is heavier than one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 • Relative atomic mass = Mass of one atom of element 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative atomic mass for sulphur = 32 (one sulphur atom is 32 x heavier than 1/12 of mass of one (C 12) 6 Carbon-12 as standard 1/12 of C12 = 1 unit 6 protons + 6 neutrons 1/12 x 1 unit = 12 16 16 protons + 16 neutrons 32 unit 32 Sulphur – 32x heavier Assuming No isotopes present! http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-i/atoms-molecules/atom.php
  37. 37. Relative Molecular Mass No isotopes are present Relative Molecular Mass is used : • Impossible to weigh an molecules in grams • Compare one molecule to carbon (standard) • One H2O is 18 x heavier than 1/12 carbon -12 • Carbon -12 is used as standard Mass number ≠ Average atomic weight (atomic mass unit) Relative Molecular Mass, (Mr): • Number of times one molecule is heavier than one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 • Relative molecular mass = Mass of one molecule 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative molecular mass for H2O= 18 (one H2O is 18 x heavier than 1/12 of mass of one (C12) Proton number = proton Mass number = proton + neutron Z A
  38. 38. Relative Molecular Mass No isotopes are present Relative Molecular Mass is used : • Impossible to weigh an molecules in grams • Compare one molecule to carbon (standard) • One H2O is 18 x heavier than 1/12 carbon -12 • Carbon -12 is used as standard Proton number = proton Z A Mass number = proton + neutron Mass number ≠ Average atomic weight (atomic mass unit) Relative Molecular Mass, (Mr): • Number of times one molecule is heavier than one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 • Relative molecular mass = Mass of one molecule 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative molecular mass for H2O= 18 (one H2O is 18 x heavier than 1/12 of mass of one (C12) Carbon-12 as standard 1/12 of C12 = 1 unit 6 protons + 6 neutrons 1/12 x 1 unit = 8 protons + 8 neutrons 16 unit 2 protons + 2 unit 18 unit H2O – 18x heavier http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-i/atoms-molecules/atom.php Assuming No isotopes present!
  39. 39. Relative Isotopic Mass Proton number = proton Z Mass number = proton + neutron A Z Presence of isotopes Z = 29 protons A Isotopes – Atoms of same element with • Different number of neutrons • Same number of protons and electrons Due to presence of isotopes, when calculating RAM, weighted average/mean of all isotopes present is used. A= 29 protons + 35 neutrons = 64
  40. 40. Relative Isotopic Mass Proton number = proton Z Mass number = proton + neutron A Presence of isotopes Z = 29 protons Z A= 29 protons + 35 neutrons = 64 A Isotopes – Atoms of same element with • Different number of neutrons • Same number of protons and electrons Due to presence of isotopes, when calculating RAM, weighted average/mean of all isotopes present is used. Isotopes X - No isotopes Y - TWO isotopes 3 3 10 11 3 CI - TWO isotopes 11 Relative Abundance RAM/Ar X = 11 • Mass of 1 atom X Mass of 1/12 of 12C • Mass of 1 atom X relative to 1/12 mass of 1 atom 12C 17 17 35 37 Relative Abundance 75% 25% 50% 50% RAM/Ar Y = 10.5 • Average Mass of 1 atom Y Mass of 1/12 of 12C • Average mass of 1 atom Y relative to 1/12 mass of 1 atom 12C
  41. 41. Relative Isotopic Mass Proton number = proton Z Mass number = proton + neutron A Presence of isotopes Z = 29 protons Z A= 29 protons + 35 neutrons = 64 A Isotopes – Atoms of same element with • Different number of neutrons • Same number of protons and electrons Due to presence of isotopes, when calculating RAM, weighted average/mean of all isotopes present is used. Isotopes X - No isotopes Y - TWO isotopes 3 3 10 11 3 CI - TWO isotopes 11 Relative Abundance RAM/Ar X = 11 • Mass of 1 atom X Mass of 1/12 of 12C • Mass of 1 atom X relative to 1/12 mass of 1 atom 12C 17 17 35 37 Relative Abundance 75% 25% RAM /Ar, CI = 35.5 • Weighted average mass of 2 isotopes present = (mass 35CI x % Abundance) + (mass 37CI x % Abundance) = (35 x 75/100) + (37 x 25/100) = 35.5 50% 50% RAM/Ar Y = 10.5 • Average Mass of 1 atom Y Mass of 1/12 of 12C • Average mass of 1 atom Y relative to 1/12 mass of 1 atom 12C
  42. 42. Relative Atomic Mass Isotopes are present Why RAM is not a whole number? 12 Relative Abundance 98.9% 13 1.07% RAM = 12.01 Weighted average mass- due to presence of isotopes
  43. 43. Relative Atomic Mass Isotopes are present Why RAM is not a whole number? 12 Relative Abundance 98.9% 13 1.07% RAM = 12.01 Weighted average mass- due to presence of isotopes Relative Isotopic Mass, (Ar) of an element: •Relative isotopic mass = Average mass of one atom of element 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative isotopic mass, carbon = 12.01 RAM, C : = (Mass 12C x % Abundance) + (Mass 13C x % Abundance) = (12 x 98.9/100) + (13 x 1.07/100) = 12.01
  44. 44. Relative Atomic Mass Isotopes are present Why RAM is not a whole number? 12 Relative Abundance 98.9% 13 1.07% RAM = 12.01 Weighted average mass- due to presence of isotopes Relative Isotopic Mass, (Ar) of an element: •Relative isotopic mass = Average mass of one atom of element 1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 • Relative isotopic mass, carbon = 12.01 RAM, C : = (Mass 12C x % Abundance) + (Mass 13C x % Abundance) = (12 x 98.9/100) + (13 x 1.07/100) = 12.01 Video on Isotopes Video on weighted average Video on Isotopes http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-i/atoms-molecules/atom.php RAM calculation Weighted average calculation
  45. 45. Relative Atomic Mass Mg - 3 Isotopes Relative Abundance % Abundance Convert relative abundance to % abundance Mg – (100/127.2) x 100% - 78.6% Mg – (12.8/127.2) x 100% - 10.0% 26 Mg – (14.4/127.2) x 100% - 11.3% 24 25 RAM for Mg : = (Mass 24Mg x % Abundance) + (Mass 25Mg x % Abundance) + (Mass 26Mg x % Abundance) = (24 x 78.6/100) + (25 x 10.0/100) + (26 x 11.3/100) = 24.30
  46. 46. Relative Atomic Mass Mg - 3 Isotopes Relative Abundance % Abundance Convert relative abundance to % abundance Mg – (100/127.2) x 100% - 78.6% Mg – (12.8/127.2) x 100% - 10.0% 26 Mg – (14.4/127.2) x 100% - 11.3% 24 25 RAM for Mg : = (Mass 24Mg x % Abundance) + (Mass 25Mg x % Abundance) + (Mass 26Mg x % Abundance) = (24 x 78.6/100) + (25 x 10.0/100) + (26 x 11.3/100) = 24.30 Pb - 4 Isotopes Relative Abundance % Abundance Convert relative abundance to % abundance Pb – (0.2/10) x 100% - 2% Pb – (2.4/10) x 100% - 24% 207 Pb – (2.2/10) x 100% - 22% 208 Pb – (5.2/10) x 100% - 52% 204 206 RAM for Pb : = (Mass 204Pb x % Abundance) + (Mass 206Pb x % Abundance) + (Mass 207Pb x % Abundance) + (Mass 208Pb x % Abundance) = (204 x 2/100) + (206 x 24/100) + (207 x 22/100) + (208 x 52/100) = 207.20
  47. 47. Additional Resources Periodic Table from webelement Video on isotopes using mass spec Simulation C-14 dating (Half life) Excellent Video Higgs Field (Ted Talk) Video on Particle Physics (Higgs Field) Simulation U-238 dating (Half life) Excellent Video on scale of universe Video on new particles physics Simulation on atomic model Simulation isotope 1H, 2H, 3H and 12C, 13C, 14C
  48. 48. Acknowledgements Thanks to source of pictures and video used in this presentation http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/nucnot.html http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M3_Topic2/M3_Topic2_print.html http://www.universityneurosurgery.com/index.php?src http://www.medwow.com/med/cobalt-linear-accelerator/radon/tr-cobalt-60/42865.model-spec http://endocrinesurgery.ucla.edu/patient_education_adm_tst_radioactive_iodine_uptake_test.html Thanks to Creative Commons for excellent contribution on licenses http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ Prepared by Lawrence Kok Check out more video tutorials from my site and hope you enjoy this tutorial http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com
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