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Air Freight And Airport Regions Ppt

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  • 1. Airfreight and Airport Regions 27 November 2002
  • 2. Index
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 3. In Europe, airfreight is long-haul based...
    • Differences between Europe and North America are explained:by:
      • Surface transportation is a viable alternative to air mode in Europe
      • 99.7 percent of intra-European frequencies are made via regional and single-aisle aircrafts which do not permit transportation of palletizable freight
    • Intra – European airfreight is basically explained by the express market (DHL, UPS, TNT, FedEx) in which time is the centre of their value proposal
    Source: Merge Global and ALG processing Tones per day
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    30.079 44.151 64.297 Express
  • 4. … due to intra-Europe airfreight has viable substitutes
    • Surface transportation is a viable alternative to air mode in Europe due to…
    • European distances
      • 600 Km or 1 day truck from the centre of the Western Europe to major consumption centres
      • 2 days truck to all around Europe
    • Higher flexibility on truck mode due to door to door services
    • Cost advantage on truck mode over air mode
    2 DAY TRUCK 1 DAY TRUCK Scope from Europe’s centre
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 5. But also, 99.7 percent of the whole intra-European frequencies are made via regional and single-aisle aircrafts…
    • Regional and single-aisle aircrafts do not permit to process airfreight by pallets due to…
      • … increasing handling costs
      • … increasing time-to-market processes
      • … and making by truck services a viable alternative in short and medium distances
    • However, the exception comes from the express market which performs a fleet of dedicated regional and single – aisle aircrafts
    Source: OAG, July 2002 Breakdown of Western European frequencies by aircraft type … and that makes difficult intra – European airfreight transportation
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 6. Cargo tonnage in Europe is basically belly hold
    • Belly hold capacity plays a crucial role
      • 80% of all airline routes and frequencies
    • Dedicated freighters complements the availability of capacity of airline passenger flights
    • That is the case of major European airlines which see cargo as a strategic business
      • KLM, Lufthansa or Air France
    • That makes a high concentration of dedicated freighters on major European airlines
    • In addition, there are airlines playing in a niche segment as pure cargo operators such as CargoLux or express operators (UPS, TNT, DHL, FedEx)
    Source: Boeing, GMC Airbus and ALG processing Breakdown of Cargo tonnage by type of operation
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 7. Five airports concentrate 50 percent of the European airfreight market…
    • High concentration is explained by both demand and supply factors:
      • High concentration on economic activity (75% of cargo movements are made in the are a between AMS, LHR, CDG and FRA)
      • Long haul capacity is concentrated on few airports
      • Long haul capacity offered by major European airlines is complemented with dedicated freighters on the same airports
      • Major airlines prefer to concentrate cargo due to economies of scale
      • Forwarders prefer to move cargo by truck until those airports presenting long – haul routes due to cost and flexibility
    Source: ACI Traffic Data and ALG processing DEMAND SUPPLY
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Airport Concentration in Europe 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % of airports 5 airports concentrate 5 0 % of cargo volumes 5 airports concentrate 25% of pax volumes Traffic (%) Freight traffic Passenger traffic
  • 8. … due to the European long – haul belly hold network is concentrated on major European Hubs
    • The long haul belly based network is highly concentrated due to major European airlines concentrate their operations on their hubs
    • That concentration provoke increasing benefits achieved in a hub model
    • The long haul network responds to the logics of the airlines…
    • … which benefit from network effects:
      • Increasing connections due to an additional route
      • Higher load factors per flight
      • Lower investment on fleet
    • In addition, those airlines complement their long haul capacity with dedicated freighters
    Source: ACI Traffic Data, OAG and ALG processing Correlation cargo tonnage and long - haul frequencies High concentration of long haul belly based frequencies induces high concentration on cargo tonnage 0 200.000 400.000 600.000 800.000 1.000.000 1.200.000 1.400.000 1.600.000 1.800.000 0 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000 FRA LHR CDG AMS BRU ZRH MAD CPH MXP FCO MUC MAN BCN GOT LYS,GVA CGN LUX LGG
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Cargo tonnage Annual long - haul frequencies
  • 9. But also there are airports oriented to the cargo business…
    • FRA, CDG, LHR and AMS process high volumes of cargo tonnage due to:
      • Their long – haul belly based network
      • These airports hub the operations of airlines which complement their freight capacity supply with dedicated freighters (KLM Cargo, Lufthansa Cargo,…)
    • But also, there are cargo oriented airports which base their business model on freight…
    • … with the ambition to hub operations of express companies or dedicated freighter airlines
    Correlation cargo tonnage and Freight/UTA rate Source: ACI Traffic Data, ALG processing UTA is a standard measure homogenizing passengers with airfreight tonnage. The way to homogenize is 1 pax = 100 Kg
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    0 200.000 400.000 600.000 800.000 1.000.000 1.200.000 1.400.000 1.600.000 1.800.000 0 20 40 60 80 100 % freight/UTAs Cargo tonnage FRA LHR CDG AMS LGG HHN BRU CGN EMA BGY PIK LIL CPH ZRH BSL LPL Cargo oriented airports Freight plays an important role on the airport’s business model
  • 10. … which process higher cargo tones than the European average
    • Cologne, Liege, Luxembourg and Brussels, which serve as a hub for express and freighter operations, concentrate higher than the European average cargo tonnes
      • Brussels  DHL
      • Luxembourg  CargoLux
      • Cologne  UPS
      • Liege  TNT
    • But also, there are regional cargo airports hubbing regional cargo operations:
      • Vitoria  DHL
      • East Midlands  UPS, DHL, FedEX, TNT
      • Milan BGY  DHL
    • However, cargo oriented airport’s business model may be more unstable than those being mixed or passenger based, due to a decision about where to locate cargo frequencies may change very rapidly
    Correlation cargo tonnage and long - haul frequencies Source: ACI Traffic Data, OAG and ALG processing
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Hubs of major Express and Cargo Operators 0 200.000 400.000 600.000 800.000 1.000.000 1.200.000 1.400.000 1.600.000 1.800.000 0 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000 FRA LHR CDG AMS BRU ZRH MAD CPH MXP FCO MUC MAN BCN GOT LYS,GVA CGN LUX LGG Cargo tonnage Annual Long – Haul network
  • 11. In addition, there are regional airports which have attracted for dedicated freighter frequencies
    • There are regional airports such as Gothenburg, Basel, Glasgow Prestwick, East Midlands, Milan BGY…
    • … performing low passenger volumes but relatively high volume of dedicated freighter frequencies
    • Those airports are characterized by:
      • No slot restrictions
      • Having easy going operations
      • Long runway
      • And local or regional catchment area with demand enough…
    • … permitting the airport to capture dedicated freighter frequencies
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Freight to UTA ratio Source: ACI Traffic Data and ALG processing 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Liege Hahn EMA Milan Cologne Prestwick Frankfurt Amsterdam Brussels Paris Liverpool Copenhagen London Basel Zurich Standsted Milan Belfast Goteborg Porto Lisbon Viena Toulouse Gatwick Warsaw Madrid Hamburg Manchester Lyon Geneva Barcelona Share of freight (%)
  • 12. However, some trends provide of some light to second – tier and regional airports
    • It is expected an increasing share of point – to - point routes
    • It is expected that the worldwide freighter fleet will double by 2020
    • Congestion problems in major European hubs may facilitate airfreight migration to second tier and regional airports
    • Environmental restrictions (restrictions on night time flights due to their noise impact)
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 13. The increasing importance of point to point frequencies have reduced marked share to the main routes
    • The continuous increase on air market has provoked a continuous process of decreasing share on top 10 routes by region…
    • … due to, with growth, new point – to – point routes start being economically viable
    • Second tier airports such as Madrid and Manchester are starting to account for an important long haul network which provide of belly based capacity
    Source: BOEING % of ASKs on Top 10 routes by region
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    1960 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 20 40 60 80 100 Europe-Asia Transpacific North Atlantic
  • 14. The worldwide freighter fleet will double by 2019
    • Worldwide cargo fleet will increase at a CAGR of 3.6 percent
    • The existing congestion problems on major European Hubs…
    • … favours the development of regional airports
    • This process is favoured by the fact that Dedicated Freighter airlines may concentrate their operations at any airport
    Source: Airbus GMC 2001 Number of freighters
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    x2
  • 15. Congestion problems in major European Hubs may facilitate airfreight migration to second tier and regional airports
    • Those congestion problems may provoke problems on slot availability
    • Additional runway may solve capacity constraints at some airports
    • However, its environmental impact (noise) may restrict its construction
    • Congestion on runway capacity may restrict dedicated freighter operations due to passenger business is much profitable than cargo business from the viewpoint of the airport
    • Congestion problems also may appear in road connections to the airport not facilitating cargo flows
    • The problem appears when the solution comes from separating both belly based and dedicated freighter operations since it provokes the loose of synergies between them
    Second Tier and Regional airports may benefit from both reduced slot availability and constraints on accessing the airport
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 16. Environmental restrictions
    • Throughout Europe, the environmental lobby is becoming increasingly effective in campaigning:
      • Against airport Expansion
        • Capacity constraints is subject to medium – term planning
        • However, after lengthy and expensive consultation, expansion might not be approved
        • Runway capacity at Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Paris CDG and London Heathrow is close to fully utilized
        • Frankfurt and Amsterdam are planning new runways
        • However, operations concessions may have to be made to alleviate environmental concerts, and so limiting additional capacity that new runways can deliver
      • In constraining night – time operations
        • Night – time operations might be constrained by means of economic measures or imposing night bans to additional aircrafts apart of Chapter 2
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 17. Therefore…
    • Since European airfreight is concentrated on major European airlines…
        • KLM  Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
        • British Airways  London Heathrow
        • Lufthansa  Frankfurt
        • Air France  Paris CDG
    • … airfreight business is concentrated on major European hubs
    • … due to both demand and supply factors
    • However, some trends put some light on second tier and regional airports
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    How public authorities may contribute to increase airfreight activity?
  • 18.
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 19. Six airports with a different profile are subject to benchmark
    • Airports covered in the benchmark are:
      • Amsterdam
      • Brussels
      • Liege
      • Barcelona
      • Gothenburg
    • The airports covered in the benchmark are characterized by different issues
      • Length and richness of its catchment area
      • Availability of capacity to / from long – haul destinations
      • Availability of Infrastructures to smooth cargo flows
      • Orientation to freight as an strategic mean for growth
      • Definition of its business model, ranging from a pure freight terminal such as Gothenburg airport to a logistics centre such as Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    0 200.000 400.000 600.000 800.000 1.000.000 1.200.000 1.400.000 0,0% 20,0% 40,0% 60,0% 80,0% 100,0% AMS BRU LGG GOT BCN LYS Cargo Tn Freight (%)
  • 20.
    • Airfreight business is of interest for public authorities due to its economic consequences on development
    • Airfreight development depends from factors beyond the airport
      • Catchment area enough to justify business development
      • If interested on logistics as an economic development driver, public authorities should establish the political framework
          • The government of The Netherlands launched the Fourth Note which establishes the priority of logistics factors by positioning the port and the airport as economic drivers
          • The Delta Plan is an infrastructures plan which includes both national and local public authorities for launching the Delta
      • Environmentalism may restrict airfreight development
          • Liege’s ruling government takes a relaxed actitud because it is keen to atrack jobs to deal with ists high local unemployment
    What the benchmark highlights…
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 21.
    • A irfreight development depends from factors beyond the airport (cont.)
      • An institutional mechanism for marketing promotion may encourage the development of the logistics activity of a particular Region
          • Barcelona, Lyon and Amsterdam account for an institutional mechanism for marketing promotion: Barcelona Centre Logistic at Barcelona, Lyon Logistics at Lyon, Liege Transport Society at Liege and Amsterdam Airport Area (AAA) at Amsterdam
          • Gothenburg accounts for LTS, the Logistics and Transport Society, aiming to develop a highly skilled culture on logistics
    • But also, airfreight development depends from airport initiatives
      • Operations, infrastructures and capacity in both airport accesses and runway may encourage airfreight activity
      • The CargoPort is an airport concept for cargo operations which permits logistics operators to locate their logistics activities at the airport
          • Barcelona, Lyon and Brussels account for this concept which permit the airport to locate operators feeding the airfreight business
    What the benchmark highlights (cont.)…
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 22.
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 23. Airfreight business depends on both supply and demand oriented drivers
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Enablers
    • The availability of
    • frequencies whether it is belly
    • hold or by full freighters
    • provides of capacity for
    • airfreight services
    • Location determines the
    • richness and the extent of the
    • catchment area
    • 75% of cargo movements are
    • concentrated between
    • London, Amsterdam, Frankfurt
    • and Paris
    • Industrial Policy provides of
    • dynamism for attracting new
    • logistics and industrial
    • companies demanding for
    • airfreight services
    • Infrastructures , operations and
    • the lack of environmental and
    • congestion problems facilitate
    • the airport to attract for ne w
    • cargo operations
    • Land availability permit the
    • region t o develop land at and
    • near the airport…
    • … providing of additional value
    • added to companies
    • demanding airfreight services
    Business Drivers Supply / Capacity Demand
  • 24. However, the focus on airfreight development varies from an airport to another…
    • Worldwide airports account for
    • a worldwide network
    • Continental airports account
    • for a long – haul network, but not
    • such dense as worldwide airports
    • International airports account
    • for a squeezed long – haul
    • network
    • Regional airports account for
    • a medium – haul network,
    • basically at European level
    • Local airports account basically
    • for a nationally based network
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Frankfurt Heathrow Paris CDG Amsterdam Worldwide Airports >40.000 T International Airport <25.000 T/ >4.000 T Local Airport <1000 T pax Passenger <10% Activity Focus Scope Based on Pax Madrid London Gatwick Rome FCO Ostende East Midlands Milan BGY Hahn Maastricht Paris CDG Continental Airports <40.000 T/ >25.000 T Brussels Copenhagen Zurich Gothenburg Regional Airports <4.000 T/ >1000 T Liege Vitoria Basel Belfast Prestwick Shannon Cardiff Rotterdam Bordeaux Venice Porto Mixed 10% - 50% Freight >50% Courier Industrial Southampton Clermont Brno Valladolid T = Thousand Hamburg Marseille Dusseldorf Barcelona Lyon Vienna Manchester Lisbon Oslo Stockholm Freight to UTA ratio Lille Cologne Toulouse Toulouse Liverpool Milan MXP Frankfurt Heathrow Paris CDG Amsterdam Worldwide Airports >40.000 T International Airport <25.000 T/ >4.000 T Local Airport <1000 T pax Passenger <10% Activity Focus Scope Based on Pax Madrid London Gatwick Rome FCO Ostende East Midlands Milan BGY Hahn Maastricht Paris CDG Continental Airports <40.000 T/ >25.000 T Brussels Copenhagen Zurich Gothenburg Regional Airports <4.000 T/ >1000 T Liege Vitoria Basel Belfast Prestwick Shannon Cardiff Rotterdam Bordeaux Venice Porto Mixed 10% - 50% Freight >50% Courier Industrial Southampton Clermont Brno Valladolid T = Thousand Hamburg Marseille Dusseldorf Barcelona Lyon Vienna Manchester Lisbon Oslo Stockholm Freight to UTA ratio Lille Cologne Toulouse Toulouse Liverpool Milan MXP
  • 25. … with high differences on cargo tonnage among them -72% -73% -92% 2001 Cargo tonnage Source: 2001 ACI Traffic Data International and Regional Airports Continental Airports Worldwide Airports
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 26. Worldwide airports account for both demand and long haul capacity
    • From the viewpoint of capacity supply:
      • They account for an extensive long haul network due to hubbing airline operations
      • Their location permits them to capture 45 percent of the European full freighter frequencies
    Source: OAG, July 2002
    • From the viewpoint of demand worldwide airports account for an extensive catchment area
    Breakdown of long – haul frequencies Breakdown dedicated freighter frequencies
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    67 percent of cargo operations Adds to 75 percent of cargo operations LHR AMS FRA CDG Worldwide Airports
  • 27. Worldwide airports may increase their airfreight business by developing logistics parks at and near the airport
    • The development of logistics parks permits to attract logistics operators, which are users of airfreight transportation
    • Location, infrastructures and an extensive long haul network permit the airport to attract for logistics operators
    • Its development permits the airport to diversify its business model gathering real state based incomes
    • This focus provides the airports airfreight business:
      • Higher load factors to the belly hold long haul network
      • The appearance of new dedicated freighter frequencies
    Congestion Environmental effects Development of logistics parks
    • The development of logistics parks provokes flows of heavy trucks which may congest existing road accesses to the airport…
    • … But also, potential runway capacity constraints due to additional traffic
    • The development of logistics parks provoke increasing air and road based traffic with an environmental effect which should be traded off
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Worldwide Airports
  • 28. Public authorities may contribute to airfreight development
    • Public authorities should plan for long term land availability near the airport
    • The development of logistics parks requires for land development…
    • .. which is usually an element of local regional authorities
    • In addition, institutional marketing should be promoted
    • Public authorities should plan in the long term infrastructure capacity for accessing the airport due to:
      • Expected growth in passenger and air cargo flows
      • The impact of the development of logistics parks
    • Intermodality and connecting among transportation modes should be identified to smooth cargo flows
    • Chapter 2 aircrafts have a flight ban at the EU since April 2002
    • However, some countries have established additional restrictions. Higher restrictions means lower traffic
    Infrastructure Environmental effects Development of logistics parks
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    Worldwide Airports
  • 29. International and regional airports account for a squeezed long haul network and catchment area depending on location
    • Those well located, however, suffers for high competition from worldwide and continental airports
    • International airports account for a squeezed long haul network
    • Both location and a squeezed long haul network difficult for development of logistics parks at and near the airport
    -91% -79%
    • International airports do not necessarily account for a large catchment area:
      • It depends on its location and the nearness areas
    Long haul Frequencies by airport
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    International and Regional Airports Lisbon Barcelona Manchester Lyon Vienna Munich Hamburg Oslo Gothenburg Helsinki 67 percent of cargo operations Adds to 75 percent of cargo operations
  • 30. International and regional airports do need to attract dedicated freighters to increase its airfreight business
    • Catchment Area extends to 1 day truck from the airport
    • Catchment Area should justify a dedicated freighter frequency
    • The development of an efficient Road Feeder Services (RFS) network permit the airport to gather air cargo flows:
    • First, by truck – truck mode
    • In the medium term, by truck – air intermodality
    Marketing operations Cargo operations Demand oriented drivers Supply oriented drivers Freight infrastructures
    • Long runways
    • Cargo Terminal
    • Warehouse
    • Cargo Centre
    • H24: operations 24 hours day, 7 days week
    • Efficient handling processes
    • Quick time to market processes
    • Activities of sales and marketing airport’s infrastructures
    • Institutional marketing
    • Competitive pricing
    Environmental Restrictions / Congestion on Access Infrastructures
    • Night ban restricts opening hours to airlines
    • Economic Measures to night flights and to some aircrafts restricts airport’s competitiveness
    • Congestion on immediate road network and airport accesses restricts cargo flows
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    International and Regional Airports Europe Airport Europe Airport
  • 31. Public authorities may encourage dedicated freighter traffic by smoothing cargo operations
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    • Institutional marketing should be promoted
    • No curfews
    • Public authorities may encourage cargo traffic by not restricting:
      • Night flights, beyond Chapter 2 aircrafts
      • Fees depending on aircraft type
    • Public authorities may plan infrastructure´s capacity for accessing the airport…
    • … benefiting cargo flows from and to the airport
    Environmental restrictions Congestion Cargo operations International and Regional Airports However, the development of airfreight activity is not ensured Due to the high risk on
  • 32. Continental airports are somewhere in the middle between worldwide airports and international airports
    • Continental airports account for squeezer long haul network when compared with worldwide airports
    • Both factors makes them interesting
      • To develop land for logistics park at a lower level
      • To attract for dedicated freighters
    • Public authorities should:
      • Facilitate cargo operations to operators
      • Be land developers for logistics parks but not as aggressively as at worldwide airports
    • Continental airports account for catchment area which permit them to process 200.000 – 400.000 tones per year, depending on its location
    Long haul Frequencies by airport
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    -62% -53% -46% Madrid London Rome Zurich Milan Copenhagen 67 percent of cargo operations Adds to 75 percent of cargo operations Continental Airports
  • 33. Summary
    • Catchment Area
    • Transportation Capacity by means of bellies or freighters
    • Environmental Constraints
    • Airport infrastructure and connectivity to other mode transport
    Location Location Location Location
    • Trends in European Airfreight Market
    • Benchmarking of European Airports
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
    … and patience, patience and patience due to it is a long term issue