• Digital Image
• Created for the cover of the book
• A revival of cultural awareness and learning
that took place during the fourteenth and
• primarily in Italy, but also in Germany and
other European countries.
• The period was characterized by a renewed
interest in ancient Greek and Roman art
• Emphasis on human beings, their
environment, science, and philosophy.
Linear perspective is a mathematical
system for creating the illusion of
space and distance on a flat surface.
• First to demonstrate
Brunelleschi used a pair of mirrors with a hole drilled into
one to make an exact copy of the Baptistery in Florence.
To use linear perspective…
an artist must first imagine the picture
surface as an "open window" through which
one sees the painted world. Straight lines
are then drawn on the canvas to represent
the horizon and "visual rays" connecting the
viewer's eye to a point in the distance.
Leonardo da Vinci
• learned linear
apprentice in Florence.
Annunciation, a painting Leonardo da Vinci
completed when he was only 21 years old.
The horizon line…
runs across the canvas at the eye level of the
viewer. The horizon line is where the sky
appears to meet the ground.
The vanishing point…
should be located near the center of the
horizon line. The vanishing point is where
all parallel lines (orthogonals) that run
towards the horizon line appear to come
together like train tracks in the distance.
are "visual rays" helping the viewer's eye to
connect points around the edges of the
canvas to the vanishing point. An artist uses
them to align the edges of walls and paving
Sketch a copy of this image and label the
principles of linear perspective.