The Internet and the World Wide Web [Fall 2012 RTF 319 Session 04]

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The Internet and the World Wide Web [Fall 2012 RTF 319 Session 04]

  1. 1. The Internet &World Wide WebWilliam J. MonerSeptember 12, 2012RTF 319 – Intro to Digital Media
  2. 2. Agenda• Lab notes & other administrivia• The origins and evolution of the Internet• The origins and evolution of “nerd culture”• The emergence of the World Wide Web
  3. 3. Reading Due Today• Manovich, L. (2002). The Language of New Media. pp. 115 – 160• Kleinrock, L. (2010). An Early History of the Internet.RECOMMENDED• Okin, JR. (2005). The Internet Revolution: The Not-For-Dummies Guide to the History, Technology, and Use of the Internet. Chapter 3.• Jordan, T. (1999). Cyberpower: The culture and politics of cyberspace and the Internet. Chapter 2.
  4. 4. The InternetA NETWORK OF NETWORKS• Emerged from a peculiar combination of government research, commercial interest, and enthusiastic early adopters who shaped the medium to include many forms of communication
  5. 5. ARPANET• Funded by the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency• Basic premise: • Decentralize information resources • Provide failsafe message routing (if a network connection fails or is breached for any reason)• Based on pioneering research at Xerox PARC (JCR Licklider & Robert Taylor)
  6. 6. THE MYTH• ARPANET exists to provide for information resources to be available in the case of nuclear attack…
  7. 7. THE REALITYIn case of nuclear attack … boom.Bob Taylor, Xerox PARC (2009) • Programmers really just wanted to be able to see information from multiple resources on one screen • Many of the early experiments were “bottom up” innovations [Taylor is a UT grad. See Kleinrock (2010) for full details on the early Internet!]
  8. 8. ARPANET’s Beginnings• Started with four nodes on the West Coast • UCLA // SRI (Menlo Park, CA) • Expanded to University of Utah & UC Santa Barbara
  9. 9. ARPANET PROPOSAL
  10. 10. Core concept: Packet Switching• As opposed to circuit switching via analog phone lines or telegraphs• Circuit switching : direct line, point to point• Packet switching • Takes the contents of a data message, breaks it into evenly-segmented packets, and distributes it via the best route possible • Message is assembled at the receiving end
  11. 11. TCP/IPPioneered by Vint Cerf (Stanford) and Bob Kahn (DARPA)
  12. 12. TCP/IP (1970s)• Introduced as the official Internet transfer protocol in 1983; developed throughout 70sTransmission Control Protocol (TCP) • Handles the “breaking apart” of messages into packets for transport • Handles routing through the best possible route
  13. 13. TCP/IPInternet Protocol (IP) • Handles addressing • 127.0.0.1 is an IP address • Go to http://whatismyip.com to find out your own IP address for your current Internet session
  14. 14. TCP/IP• Imagine a thousand UPS trucks taking a thousand different packets through hundreds of different routes• Each time a packet hits a router, the router determines the next best path for the data to take• The receiving computer re-assembles the packets, in order, to form the complete message
  15. 15. DNS (1983)• Domain Name Servers • Provide translation from numeric IP addresses to “plain language” addresses • e.g. 206.76.109.52 might translate to nameserver.utexas.edu • We use the name // the computer uses the numbers
  16. 16. Email (early 1970s)• Ray Tomlinson• Introduced the @ symbol to common vernacular• First “killer app” for the Internethttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120364591
  17. 17. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)• Early file transfer mechanism for moving files over a network from peer to peer or from client to server
  18. 18. What about Bob?• Bob Metcalfe (now a UT prof in engineering) • Invented Ethernet (the world’s most popular network topology) • Founded 3COM, now Linksys
  19. 19. FIDONET & BBS (late 1970s)BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS • Dial-in to a private telephone number with a modem attached • Log-in with a username and password (if at all) • Exchange files, messages, play online games, tie up phone lines • Later: mostly online via TELNETFIDONET • Mapped network replication of data onto peer to peer dialup connections
  20. 20. Two Basic Forms of NetworkCommunicationsClient/Server Technology • Requires centralized server and attached nodesPeer to Peer Technology (P2P) • Every computer is both client and server; nodes are “equal”
  21. 21. USENET (early 1980s)Unix Users Group• Hierarchal system for conversation and file sharing• Still is part of the Internet (albeit rarely utilized) • Google Groups is one organizing structure
  22. 22. USENET Hierarchycomp.* – computer-related discussionshumanities.* – fine arts, literature, and philosophymisc.* – miscellaneous topicsnews.* – discussions and announcements aboutnewsrec.* – recreation and entertainment(rec.music, rec.arts.movies)sci.* – science related discussions(sci.psychology, sci.research)soc.* – social discussionstalk.* – talk about various controversial topics(talk.religion, talk.politics, talk.origins)
  23. 23. alt.binaries• The USENET “alt” hierarchy existed outside of strict regulation• Became an early form of Internet-based file sharing• Messages would need to be broken apart into smaller file sizes and reassembled due to file size limitations IN COMPUTING: A WORKAROUND ALWAYS EXISTS
  24. 24. MUDs/MUSHs/MOOsAccessed via TELNETMUD: Multi-User Dungeons (for D&D-style roleplaying games)MUSH: Multi-User Shared Hallucinations • expanded MUD structure with user- customizable rooms and areas through a shared scripting languageMOO: Multi-user Object Oriented (expandedMUSH structure with more robust features)
  25. 25. IRC (late 1980s)• Chat-based system organized into #channels• Peer to peer file sharing capabilities• Organized chat, use of bots and other automated tools to provide for basic games
  26. 26. Internet Service Providersemerge• When the Internet passed through various steps towards commercialization (due to federal policy changes), the ISP could now connect services to a public backbone• Several hundred ISPs emerged in the early 1990s
  27. 27. World Wide WebHYPERTEXT• Everything on the World Wide Web is rooted in a webpage that describes how content is to appear• Hyperlinks allow for pages to link to each other on both the same server and remote servers & allows for links to content within a given page
  28. 28. World Wide Web• Invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee• Based on theory by Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think” and the work of Ted Nelson (coined the term hypertext in 1965) and Doug Englebart (worked at SRI, admired by early Internet pioneers for work on the mouse and an early hypertext system)
  29. 29. World Wide WebThe original proposal: • http://www.w3.org/Proposal.html • Pioneering work on HTTP protocol • HYPER TEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL • Uses a client/server based mechanism for sending and receiving documents • Browser = client; “website” = server • Pages can be assembled from many different information sources or servers
  30. 30. The Web Browser• Innovated first at CERN, then opened up to other research institutions• Marc Andreessen, at UIUC, worked on a research team to develop a web browser called NCSA Mosaic • First web browser to include images
  31. 31. The Web Browser (pre-2000)• Allows for display of text with markup• Allows robust linking between documents• Allows inclusion of images, some audio formats• Allows for third-party plugins to play video, animations, interactive games, and applets• Includes scripting capabilities via Javascript
  32. 32. The Web Browser (post-2000)• Includes the markup language (HTML) • Hypertext markup language• Includes a style language (CSS) • Allows flexible description of colors, fonts, layout grids, multiple backgrounds, multiple layers • Most recent version (CSS 3) includes support for basic animation, transitions, and other visual elements
  33. 33. Browser Warshttp://www.evolutionoftheweb.com/
  34. 34. Due Monday…READING• Burgess, J., and Green, J. (2009). YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. Chs. 1 – 2• O’Reilly, T. (2005). “Web 2.0.”LABS & BLOG DUE BY MONDAY @ NOONRECOMMENDEDBBS Textfiles: http://www.textfiles.com/ (explore at your own risk;vetted info here: http://pdf.textfiles.com/academics/Internet pioneers:http://www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/index.htmlFor fun: Open Terminal, type telnet towel.blinkenlights.nl andwatch…

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