WHAT ARE ADVERBS? Adverb: is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
An adverb tells…
HOW (grandly, quickly, happily)
WHEN (rarely, later, immediately, often, usually)
WHERE (downstairs, below, here)
EXAMPLE: The bandit ran quickly to his getaway car. ( Quickly describes the action verb ran .)
Positioning of Adverbs
Before the verb : The guests often dined at that restaurant.
After the verb : The guests dined often at that restaurant.
At the beginning : Often guests dined at that restaurant.
At the end : Guests dined at that restaurant often .
Video Clip Time!
Click on the Syntax Movie 1 link on the wiki page.
Lord Syntax & Adverbs. 21 October 2007. (Online Image) YouTube. 21 November 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8JBnTXMcaJo>
Did you know?
Most adverbs are formed by adding –ly to an adjective. EXAMPLES: actively, fondly, quietly, quickly.
However, some adverbs are exceptions. EXAMPLES: after, often, now, and later.
LESSON 2 Adverbs Modifying Adverbs and Adjectives
Adverbs intensify the meaning of other adverbs and adjectives.
ADVERBS OFTEN USED TO DESCRIBE ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES ARE: very too almost so really partly quite nearly somewhat totally extremely barely hardly rather usually partly
Let’s watch a video…
Click on the Syntax Movie 2 link on the wiki page.
Lolly Lolly Lolly. 25 January 2007. (Online movie) YouTube.com. 21 November 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWYmEICNgOQ>
EXAMPLES: Adverbs modifying Adjectives
She became a very popular school president.
He became an extremely famous chef.
EXAMPLES Adverb modifying other Adverbs :
She entered school unusually late in life .
He learned where his classes were quite quickly.
LESSON 3 / Adverbs That Compare
COMPARATIVE form of an adverb compares two actions or things.
SUPERLATIVE form of an adverb compares more than two actions or things
Comparing One-Syllable Adverbs
For most adverbs of only 1 syllable, add –er to make the comparative form and –est to make the superlative form.
*EXAMPLE / COMPARATIVE : Ronald Reagan served longer as president than Jimmy Carter.
*EXAMPLE / SUPERLATIVE : Franklin Roosevelt served longest of any president.
Comparing Two-Syllable Adverbs
For adverbs that end in –ly or that have more than one syllable, use the word more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative .
*EXAMPLE / COMPARATIVE: Our class studied Roosevelt more thoroughly than Reagan.
*EXAMPLE / SUPERLATIVE: We studied Lincoln most thoroughly of all.
Irregular Comparative Forms ADVERB COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE well better best badly worse worst Little (amount) less least Far (distance) farther farthest Far (degree) further furthest
NEXT: Lesson 4 Telling Adjectives and Adverbs Apart
Martha Washington was happy at Mount Vernon.
Martha Washington lived happily at Mount Vernon.
*In the first sentence, happy is a predicate adjective. It follows the linking verb was and modifies the subject.
*In the second sentence, happily is an adverb. It modifies the action verb lived .
EXAMPLES / Telling Adjectives from Adverbs ADJECTIVE ADVERB The sound is bad . The actor sang badly . The band sounds good . The band played well . Music is a real art. Music is really popular. A pianist needs sure hands. Piano music is surely popular. Most pianos have 88 keys. Piano strings almost never break.
LESSON 5 Avoiding Double Negatives (403-404)
The adverb not is a negative word , expressing the idea of “no” in a sentence. The word not often appears in its shortened form, the contraction – n’t
Is not=isn’t Cannot= can’t Have not= haven’t Was not= wasn’t Could not= couldn’t Had not= hadn’t Were not= were’t Do not = don’t Would not= wouldn’t Will not = won’t Did not= didn’t Should not= shouldn’t
Negative and Affirmative Words NEGATIVE AFFIRMATIVE never Ever, always nobody Anybody, somebody none One, all, some, any No one Everyone, someone nothing Something, anything nowhere Somewhere, anywhere
AVOID USING DOUBLE NEGATIVES!!
Lincoln hadn’t never gone to college.
Nobody didn’t get it right.
*What are the double negatives in the above two sentences?
DID YOU KNOW You can correct a double negative by removing one of the negative words or by replacing it with an affirmative word?