5.
Units for power : 1 J 1 s = 1 W one watt (W) equals one Joule (J) per second (s) Joules per seconds = Watts
6.
Kilowatts and Horsepower
Another common unit of power (not used in science, but used in everyday life) is the “horsepower” – basically the rate at which a (very powerful, very healthy) horse can do work over a 10 hour “work day.”
1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W or 0.746 kW
We say 1,000 watts (W) = 1 kilowatt (kW), the same way that 1,000 meters = 1 kilometer
7.
How fast can your car do work?
A compact car may have a 120 hp engine.
That means the car’s power is (120 hp)(746 W/hp) = 89,520 W
So a typical compact car
can do 89,520 J worth of
work each second.
8.
Remember this Example of Work?
You are pushing a very heavy stone block (200 kg) across the floor. You are exerting 620 N of force on the stone, and push it a total distance of 20 m before you get tired and stop.
How much work did you just do?
W = (620 N)(20 m)(cos 0 °) = 12,400 J
9.
Power Example
Let’s say that it took us 40 s to move that 200 kg stone block the 20 m.
Remember that we did 12,400 J of work on the stone block
Given Information:
W = 12,400 J
t = 40 s
Basic Equation:
P = W/t
Working Equation:
P = 12,400 J / 40 s
P = 310 J/s
Since it took us 40 s to move the block, we were doing 310 J of work per second OR generating 310 W of power
10.
Remember the Weightlifter?
A weightlifter lifts a barbell with a mass of 280 kg a total of 2 meters off the floor. What is the minimum amount of work the weightlifter did?
The barbell is “pulled” down by gravity with a force of (280 kg)(10 m/s 2 ) = 2,800 N
So the weightlifter must exert at least 2,800 N of force to lift the barbell at all.
If that minimum force is used, the work done will be:
W = (2,800 N)(2 m) = 5,600 J
11.
Power
What about the weightlifter?
How much power does the weightlifter generate if it takes him 2 seconds to lift the weight? (W = 5,600 J)
P = 5,600 J / 2 s = 2,800 J/s = 2,800 W
We say 1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt
So the weightlifter’s power was 2.8 kW
12.
Fast work isn’t more work
Go back to our 200 kg block example. Remember that when it took us 40 s to push the block the 20 m when we applied a force of 620 N, that implied that we had a power output of 310 W.
If we exerted the same force (620 N) and pushed the block the same distance (20 m), but took half as long to do so (20 s), our power output would double to 620 W.
13.
Fast work isn’t more work
*But* Notice that the total work done doesn’t change – we still exerted 620 N of force over a distance of 20 m.
So increasing power output doesn’t mean you’re doing more work, it means you’re doing the work faster .
14.
Game Time!!!
Break into 4 groups (with even amounts of people in each group)
A question will be projected onto the board and 2 groups will race to complete the question correctly
The winning group will get a reward
In order to receive the reward, groups must include all steps needed to solve a word problem
15.
Ready???
Groups 1 and 3 will start with question 1, then Groups 2 and 4 will work question 2, etc
Groups not working on questions, must stay quiet
Rewards will go to those actively participating with their group (writing on the board, working it out on separate paper, paying attention, etc)
16.
Question 1 – Groups 1 and 3
A box that weighs 575 N is lifted a distance of 20.0 m straight up. The job is done in 10.0 s. How much power is generated?
Include a diagram, given information, B.E., W.E., and answer
Answer: 1150 W or 1.15 kW
17.
Question 2 – Groups 2 and 4
An electric motor develops 65 kW of power as it lifts a loaded elevator 17.5 m in 35 s. How much force (F L ) does the motor exert?
Include a diagram, given information, B.E., W.E., and answer
Answer: 130,000 N
18.
Question 3 – Groups 1 and 3
Jose lifts a 20 kg mass to a height of 2.0 m in 5.0 s. Sue lifts 30 kg to a height of 1.5 m in 8.0 s. Who did more work? Who had more power?
Include a diagram, given information, B.E., W.E., and answer
Answer:
Sue did more work (450 J), less power (56 W)
Jose generated more power (80 W), less work (400 J)
19.
Question 4 – Groups 2 and 4
A 185 kg refrigerator is loaded into a moving van by pushing it up a 10.0 m ramp at an angle of inclination of 11.0 °in 20 s. How much work is done by the pusher? How much power was generated?
Include a diagram, given information, B.E., W.E., and answer
Answer:
W = 3460 J
P = 173 W
20.
And the WINNER is…
Everyone!!
Because everyone helped to work the problems you have all been preparing for the test