Water use & distribution
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Water use & distribution

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Water use & distribution Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WATER USE & DISTRIBUTION Environmental Science
  • 2. Key H 2 0 Characteristics
    • Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms.
    • Water moves easily-from one physical state to another, and from one place to another.
    • Water slowly absorbs and releases large quantities of energy.
    • Water is a superior solvent.
    • Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies
    (Source: Wright & Nebel 2002)
  • 3. Available Water
    • Total = 326 million cubic miles
    • 97% of Earth’s water is in oceans
    • 2.997% is locked up in ice caps and glaciers
    • 0.003% is easily accessible
      • Soil moisture
      • Groundwater
      • Water vapor
      • Lakes
      • Streams
  • 4. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html Water Supply & Use
  • 5. Use of Fresh Water
    • United States
    • 41% agriculture
    • 38% power plant cooling
    • 11% industry
    • 10% public
    • China
    • 87% agriculture
    • 7% industry
    • 6% public
  • 6. Water Use Globally People and Planet
    • 70% of water for human use is soaked up by agriculture ( in the form of irrigation)
    • Industry accounts for 23%
    • Domestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 7 %
  • 7. Agriculture-70%
    • Early forms of irrigation water never reaches crop. Much is lost to evaporation b/c they use flood or furrow irrigation.
    • Sprinklers are more efficient & can be used on uneven land. Cost $ and still have problem with evaporation
    • Best method- Drip irrigation- system of tubes deliver water directly to roots. Efficient but $$$
  • 8.  
  • 9. Industry- 23%
    • Cooling power plants
    • Generating electricity
    • Many industries locate on rivers b/c
      • Used in manufacturing process
      • Used for transportation of goods
  • 10. Domestic Use- 7%
    • Cooking
    • Cleaning
    • Drinking
    • Bathing
    • Clothes washing
    • Flushing toilet
    • Washing Car
  • 11. Water Use - (minimum 13 gallons) People and Planet
    • average person in the U. S. uses between 65-80 gallons of water per day for drinking, cooking bathing, and watering their yard.
    • average person in the Netherlands uses 27 gallons per day.
    • average person in the African nation of Gambia uses 1.2 gallons per day.
  • 12. Depleting Groundwater
    • Major pumping from well causes ground water to be depleted.
    • Saltwater intrusion= when salt water rises up and is pumped out of well.
  • 13. Desalination (removing salt from ocean water
    • Heat salt water and collect fresh water that condenses.
    • Used mostly in Middle East.
    • Very expensive process because is uses too much energy.
  • 14. Water Management Projects
    • Methods to bring and store water to areas where there is not enough ground or surface water.
    • Dams and reservoirs
    • Ex. Hoover dam, Lake Lanier & Lake Allatoona
  • 15. Large Dams
    • PROS
    • Collect and store water from rain and snow
    • Produce electricity
    • Irrigate land
    • Control flooding
    • Provide water to cities
    • Provide recreation such as swimming, boating, fishing
    • CONS
    • loss of water due to evaporation
    • Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people
    • Danger of dam collapse
    • Migration and spawning of fish disrupted
    • Causes water wars between states
    • Expensive to build
  • 16. Three Gorges Dam
    • World's largest hydroelectric dam, Three Gorges, Yangtze River.
    • 1.2 - 1.9 million people will be displaced.
    • The entire project is to be completed in 2009.