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Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
Unit 7 ch 11 s1  water resources
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Unit 7 ch 11 s1 water resources

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  • 1. Chapter 11, Section 1: Water Resources Standards: SEV5e
  • 2. The Water Cycle  The same amount of water had been on the planet for billions of years.  The water you drink today is the same water dinosaurs drank!  Water is a renewable resource that is recycled through the water cycle.
  • 3. The Water Cycle  Evaporation  Water evaporates when heated by sun (leaves salts behind)  Transpiration- water evaporation from plants  Condensation  As water vapor rises it cools, condenses, and collects on dust particles in the sky (condensation nuclei) and forms clouds.  Precipitation  When clouds get too full of water they drop it as precipitation  Infiltration and Runoff  Water either  Infiltrates the soil- pass slowly through soil to recharge an aquifer  Runs off into a nearby lake or stream.
  • 4. How much water is on Earth?  97% is saltwater in oceans & saltwater lakes.  3% is freshwater  2% frozen in ice caps & glaciers (unusable)  1% groundwater & surface water (usable)
  • 5. How is our usable water distributed?  Surface water  Groundwater
  • 6. What is surface water?  Fresh water above ground.  Important for  Drinking water  Transportation of goods via ships  Irrigation  Aquaculture  Power for industry
  • 7. What are the types of Surface Water?  Rivers & streams  Fast moving  Cold, highly oxygenated  Insect larvae, trout, long narrow plants, algae  Lakes & ponds  Slow moving  Warm, less oxygenated  Bass, catfish, cattails, leeches  Wetlands  Covered with water most of the year  Absorb and slow water flow  Filter pollutants & sediment  Provide breeding ground for water birds, shellfish, fish
  • 8. What is a river system?  Streams form in higher elevations from rainfall or melting snow.  As they move downhill they combine with other streams to form rivers.  Streams that feed rivers are called tributaries.  This interconnection of streams to form rivers is the river system  Ex: McEachern creek flows to Noses Creek to Sweetwater Creek to Chattahoochee River
  • 9. Lake Lanier West Point Lake Walter F. George Lake Lake Seminole Apalachicola River Flint River Chattahoochee River
  • 10. What is a watershed?  Area of land that drains into a stream/river.  Pollution anywhere in the watershed could end up in that river.  We live in the Chattahoochee River watershed
  • 11. What is groundwater  Fresh water stored underground in aquifers  Most fresh water resources are stored here  Aquifer- area underground with rocks & gravel that have spaces where water can accumulate.
  • 12. What is the water table?  Top layer of water in aquifer where soil is saturated.  In wet regions the water table may reach surface and create a natural spring.  If aquifer is confined by layer of rock may be under pressure and squirt out of ground as artesian well  In desert regions water table is usually very deep.
  • 13. Ogallala Aquifer  One of the largest in the world.  Supplies 1/3 of groundwater used in the U.S.  Used mostly for irrigating crops.  Now being used at increasing rate (faster than can be recharged)  Water table has dropped 100 ft in some places of Ogallala.  Wetlands rely on water table of Ogallala where it comes to surface.  If water table decreases, wetlands dry out, water birds (sandhill cranes) lose feeding & breeding site.  Farmers are trying to limit their use by switching to crops that require less water (wheat & sorghum)
  • 14. What factors affect aquifer recharge rate?  Porosity  Percentage of total volume of a rock that has spaces  Water is stored in these pore spaces  More porous the rock, the more water it can hold.  Permeability  Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it.  Sand- high permeability- lets water flow through quickly.  Clay- low permeability- holds water so it flows slowly.  Limestone, sandstone are permeable materials that often form aquifers.
  • 15. How does an aquifer recharge?  When it rains, water percolates through region of soil called recharge zone.  Recharge zone is determined by what is on surface of soil above  Buildings, parking lots reduce recharge zone  Pollution can contaminate recharge zone & contaminate aquifer.  Can take 10’s of 1,000’s of years to recharge
  • 16. How do wells impact groundwater sources?  Well- hole dug/drilled to reach groundwater  Well water is filtered by soil before it reaches aquifer- relatively clean. (usually filters are added on the pump that draws the water up)  Must reach way below the water table b/c water table changes seasonally.  If water is pumped out quickly it will create a cone of depression that may prevent other wells from reaching water.
  • 17. You should be able to…  Describe the distribution of water on Earth. Where is most of the freshwater located?  Explain why fresh water is considered a limited resource.  Explain why pollution in a watershed poses a potential threat to the river system that flows through it.  Describe how water travels through rocks and soil.

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