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Unit 4 ch 17 s1 energy resources & fossil fuels

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  • It would not be effective to use coal to power an airplane. Need tons of coal to do that. Jet fuel is more efficient.You would not use jet fuel to create a camp fire. Safety, availability, cost would all be issues.
  • PV stands for photovoltaic (solar panels) This is different from solar thermal which uses sun to heat water.
  • Why don’t we use switchgrass to make ethanol for fuel for cars? There are no government subsidies to make the growing & processing cheaper. More government subsidies are going to corn because the corn industry has more money to donate to politicians to have politicians support it.
  • Countries across bottom from left to right:North AmericaS & Central AmericaEurope & EurasiaMiddle EastAfricaAsia Pacific
  • * The textbook says we are 3rd highest behind Canada and United Arab Emirates BUT the book was published in 2008- 4 years ago which means it was written even earlier. Most reliable internet sources indicate US has highest.
  • Subsidies are government monies paid to an industry or business to keep the cost of the product low enough for people to afford the product which is usually a high needs or high use product.
  • Bottom picture- This oil rig in the middle of the ocean has no way to contain the natural gas & harvest it so the natural gas is burned off. Unfortunately this can be the cause of rig explosions which can lead to oil spills.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 17, Section 1: Energy Resources & Fossil Fuels Standards: SEV4b, c, e, f, SEV5e
    • 2. What is a nonrenewable resource? Nonrenewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, or regenerated It cannot be sustained at its current consumption rate Once depleted there will be no more available for future use
    • 3. What is a fossil fuel? Fossil fuels are the remains of ancient organisms that changed into coal, oil, or natural gas through very specific geologic processes. Fossil fuels are a type of nonrenewable energy resources
    • 4. What are 2 problems associatedwith using fossil fuels?1. Fossil fuel supplies are limited.2. Obtaining & using fossil fuels causes environmental problems such as air pollution & global warming.
    • 5. What are the 5 main uses of fuels? Cooking Transportation Manufacturing Heating & cooling Generating electricity to run machines & appliances.
    • 6. How is electricity generated? Fossil fuel is burned to release heat. Heat is used to boil water to make steam. (1) Steam turns a turbine (rotating blade like a fan) (2) Turbine turns the electric generator (3) Electric generators produce electric energy by moving electrically conductive material within a magnetic field. Electricity is passed to a transformer which slows & reduces the electricity that comes to your home thru power lines. (4)
    • 7. Are all fuels created equal? No! Different fuels are used for different needs. For example: Airplanes cannot run on coal because you would need hundreds of tons of coal to power the plane. Fuel usage depends on:  Fuel’s energy content  Cost  Availability  Safety  Byproducts of fuel usage
    • 8. What is the “cost” of energy? Every product requires energy to make the product. The price you pay for the product reflects the cost of the energy.  For example: buying a plane ticket includes the cost of fuel. The cost of energy depends on how much energy is needed to extract it from the ground & make it usable- Net Energy Production (see next slide)
    • 9. Net Energy Production Takes energy to get energy Net Energy Production is the total amount of energy available from an energy source MINUS the energy needed to find, extract, process, and get that energy to consumers. EX: You extract 10 units of oil from the ground. 8 units are used or wasted to find, extract, process, and transport the oil to users. Only 2 units of useful energy are available for use. Cellulosic ethanol produced from  An energy source may have a low switchgrass has higher net energy yield net energy yield because it takes than corn because it takes less energy to so much energy to get it & make it grow & harvest it. Don’t have to plant usable. seeds, use fertilizer or pesticide like you do for corn. It just grows naturally in the prairie.
    • 10. What are patterns of energy use? World Patterns  Developed countries use more energy than developing  This may be changing for some as developing countries become more prosperous.  I=PAT equation quantifies the impact a country has on the environment & its resources  Impact (I) depends on:  (P)opulation size  (A)ffluence /wealth  (T)echnology  As China (highly populated developing country) becomes more affluent due to globalization they will have more impact on the environment & resources than some developed countries.
    • 11. What are patterns of energy use? United States Pattern  US has highest energy usage. *  Most of our energy goes to transporting goods & people.  Other countries like Japan & Switzerland use extensive rail systems, are smaller, compact countries, & may rely more on renewable energy (hydropower)  Also, energy in US is CHEAP compared to other countries.  No incentive to conserve gas when its cost is so low. Numbers on Y-axis are prices of gas in US dollars. Red bars are cost of gas, blue bars are gas taxes US pays least amount of taxes and has lowest gas prices!
    • 12. What are the 3 types of fossil fuelsmost commonly used?1. Coal2. Oil/Petroleum3. Natural Gas
    • 13. How did coal form?What are uses of coal?What are the types of coal?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using coal?What methods are used to make coal burning cleaner?
    • 14. How did coal form? Remains of swamp plants repeatedly covered in sediment as ocean levels rose and fell 320-300 million years ago. The sediment compressed the plant remains. Heat & pressure from with Earth turned plant remains into coal. Most abundant coal deposits in world are in U.S. and Asia (China) Most abundant coal deposits in U.S. are in eastern U.S.
    • 15. What are the uses of coal? Coal is burned to  CREATE ELECTRICITY  Manufacture cement, steel, other industrial products  Heating homes
    • 16. What are the ranks of coal?  Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low From Lignite quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high moisture and volatile matter. Higher smoke and pollution. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb. ↓  Sub-bituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is Moisture, pollution, smoke 8,300 BTU/lb. decreases Energy increases  Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well- defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content ↓ usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb.  Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous To Anthracite coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Least smoke & Bituminous is mostly used pollution. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. because it is cheaper & easier to extract than anthracite which is usually deeper in the ground.
    • 17. Advantages and DisadvantagesPros Cons  Cheap & plentiful Most abundant fossil  Dirtiest fuel- releases tons fuel (300-900 years left) of SO2, CO2, NOx and U.S. has a lot of it! mercury  Air & water pollution Low cost  Sulfur causes acid rain High net energy yield  Carbon dioxide increases global warming Have reduced air  Major environmental pollution problems with damage in mining better technology  High land use  Major threat to health © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
    • 18. What methods are used to makecoal burning cleaner? Coal washing- removes sulfur Scrubbers- spray neutralizing solution on coal gas before it leaves smoke stack. Clean Air Act- sets standards for emissions released from coal burning facilities & Scrubber Device imposes fines as needed.
    • 19. How did oil form?What are uses of oil?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using oil?What methods are used to make oil use cleaner?
    • 20. How did oil form? Tiny marine organisms decayed, accumulated, and were covered in sediment on ocean floor millions of years ago. Heat & pressure turned the bodies & sediment into oil.
    • 21. What are the uses foroil/petroleum? Crude oil comes straight out of ground. Must be refined to make products thru a process called fractional distillation. Crude oil is heated to different temperatures. At different boiling points the oil is condensed and removed to make a variety of products  Fuels- jet fuel, gasoline, diesel  Plastics  Lubricating oils, waxes
    • 22. Advantages and DisadvantagesPros Cons Low cost  Projected to run out in High net energy yield about 50 years. Easy transportation  Artificially low price encourages waste. (Price is low due to government subsidies*)  Air pollution when burned  Releases CO2 when burned  Water pollution from oil tankers/spills
    • 23. What methods are used to makeoil use cleaner? Catalytic converters- clean car exhaust before it leaves car. Unleaded fuel- removing lead from gasoline reduces air pollution problems  Lead causes learning disabilities in children  Introduced in 1970s in U.S. Double-hull on oil tankers prevents possible oil spills in ocean.
    • 24. How did natural gas form?What are uses of natural gas?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using natural gas?What is fracking?
    • 25. How did natural gas form? Natural gas is formed as a by-product of oil formation. It is usually found in pockets around oil deposits. If natural gas can’t be harvested with oil, it may be burned off.
    • 26. What are the uses of natural gas? Cooking Heating & cooling Some electricity Car fuel
    • 27. Advantages & DisadvantagesPros Cons 125-200 year supply  Releases some CO2 90% of the natural gas  Releases methane used in U.S. comes from (greenhouse gas) U.S.- we don’t rely on  Explosive foreign countries for this  Cars- stored in pressurized like we do oil. tank which is not safe. High net energy yield  Fracking (see next slide) Low cost (huge subsidies) Less air pollution & CO2 emissions than oil & coal Less land degradation Easily transported by pipes
    • 28. What is Hydraulic Fracturing AKA…“Fracking”? Fracking is used to get pockets of natural gas out of the ground. Process: Water, sand & chemicals are forced thru a drilled hole, rock is cracked, forces natural gas upward to be collected Cons: Chemicals find their way into water supplies, poisoning people, livestock, and soil. (20-40% of fracking chemicals stay underground.) Halliburton Loophole- placed in the 2005 Energy Bill created by former vice “Gasland” is an HBO documentary made president Dick Cheney (once a about fracking. Halliburton vice president) says natural GASLAND Trailer 2010 - YouTube gas companies that use fracking are exempt from Safe Drinking Water Act “Promised Land” is a new movie about and don’t have to disclose what type of natural gas, fracking, and its affects on chemicals they are using. small town America.

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