It would not be effective to use coal to power an airplane. Need tons of coal to do that. Jet fuel is more efficient.You would not use jet fuel to create a camp fire. Safety, availability, cost would all be issues.
PV stands for photovoltaic (solar panels) This is different from solar thermal which uses sun to heat water.
Why don’t we use switchgrass to make ethanol for fuel for cars? There are no government subsidies to make the growing & processing cheaper. More government subsidies are going to corn because the corn industry has more money to donate to politicians to have politicians support it.
Countries across bottom from left to right:North AmericaS & Central AmericaEurope & EurasiaMiddle EastAfricaAsia Pacific
* The textbook says we are 3rd highest behind Canada and United Arab Emirates BUT the book was published in 2008- 4 years ago which means it was written even earlier. Most reliable internet sources indicate US has highest.
Subsidies are government monies paid to an industry or business to keep the cost of the product low enough for people to afford the product which is usually a high needs or high use product.
Bottom picture- This oil rig in the middle of the ocean has no way to contain the natural gas & harvest it so the natural gas is burned off. Unfortunately this can be the cause of rig explosions which can lead to oil spills.
Chapter 17, Section 1: Energy Resources & Fossil Fuels Standards: SEV4b, c, e, f, SEV5e
What is a nonrenewable resource? Nonrenewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, or regenerated It cannot be sustained at its current consumption rate Once depleted there will be no more available for future use
What is a fossil fuel? Fossil fuels are the remains of ancient organisms that changed into coal, oil, or natural gas through very specific geologic processes. Fossil fuels are a type of nonrenewable energy resources
What are 2 problems associatedwith using fossil fuels?1. Fossil fuel supplies are limited.2. Obtaining & using fossil fuels causes environmental problems such as air pollution & global warming.
What are the 5 main uses of fuels? Cooking Transportation Manufacturing Heating & cooling Generating electricity to run machines & appliances.
How is electricity generated? Fossil fuel is burned to release heat. Heat is used to boil water to make steam. (1) Steam turns a turbine (rotating blade like a fan) (2) Turbine turns the electric generator (3) Electric generators produce electric energy by moving electrically conductive material within a magnetic field. Electricity is passed to a transformer which slows & reduces the electricity that comes to your home thru power lines. (4)
Are all fuels created equal? No! Different fuels are used for different needs. For example: Airplanes cannot run on coal because you would need hundreds of tons of coal to power the plane. Fuel usage depends on: Fuel’s energy content Cost Availability Safety Byproducts of fuel usage
What is the “cost” of energy? Every product requires energy to make the product. The price you pay for the product reflects the cost of the energy. For example: buying a plane ticket includes the cost of fuel. The cost of energy depends on how much energy is needed to extract it from the ground & make it usable- Net Energy Production (see next slide)
Net Energy Production Takes energy to get energy Net Energy Production is the total amount of energy available from an energy source MINUS the energy needed to find, extract, process, and get that energy to consumers. EX: You extract 10 units of oil from the ground. 8 units are used or wasted to find, extract, process, and transport the oil to users. Only 2 units of useful energy are available for use. Cellulosic ethanol produced from An energy source may have a low switchgrass has higher net energy yield net energy yield because it takes than corn because it takes less energy to so much energy to get it & make it grow & harvest it. Don’t have to plant usable. seeds, use fertilizer or pesticide like you do for corn. It just grows naturally in the prairie.
What are patterns of energy use? World Patterns Developed countries use more energy than developing This may be changing for some as developing countries become more prosperous. I=PAT equation quantifies the impact a country has on the environment & its resources Impact (I) depends on: (P)opulation size (A)ffluence /wealth (T)echnology As China (highly populated developing country) becomes more affluent due to globalization they will have more impact on the environment & resources than some developed countries.
What are patterns of energy use? United States Pattern US has highest energy usage. * Most of our energy goes to transporting goods & people. Other countries like Japan & Switzerland use extensive rail systems, are smaller, compact countries, & may rely more on renewable energy (hydropower) Also, energy in US is CHEAP compared to other countries. No incentive to conserve gas when its cost is so low. Numbers on Y-axis are prices of gas in US dollars. Red bars are cost of gas, blue bars are gas taxes US pays least amount of taxes and has lowest gas prices!
What are the 3 types of fossil fuelsmost commonly used?1. Coal2. Oil/Petroleum3. Natural Gas
How did coal form?What are uses of coal?What are the types of coal?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using coal?What methods are used to make coal burning cleaner?
How did coal form? Remains of swamp plants repeatedly covered in sediment as ocean levels rose and fell 320-300 million years ago. The sediment compressed the plant remains. Heat & pressure from with Earth turned plant remains into coal. Most abundant coal deposits in world are in U.S. and Asia (China) Most abundant coal deposits in U.S. are in eastern U.S.
What are the uses of coal? Coal is burned to CREATE ELECTRICITY Manufacture cement, steel, other industrial products Heating homes
What are the ranks of coal? Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low From Lignite quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high moisture and volatile matter. Higher smoke and pollution. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb. ↓ Sub-bituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is Moisture, pollution, smoke 8,300 BTU/lb. decreases Energy increases Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well- defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content ↓ usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb. Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous To Anthracite coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Least smoke & Bituminous is mostly used pollution. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. because it is cheaper & easier to extract than anthracite which is usually deeper in the ground.
What methods are used to makecoal burning cleaner? Coal washing- removes sulfur Scrubbers- spray neutralizing solution on coal gas before it leaves smoke stack. Clean Air Act- sets standards for emissions released from coal burning facilities & Scrubber Device imposes fines as needed.
How did oil form?What are uses of oil?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using oil?What methods are used to make oil use cleaner?
How did oil form? Tiny marine organisms decayed, accumulated, and were covered in sediment on ocean floor millions of years ago. Heat & pressure turned the bodies & sediment into oil.
What are the uses foroil/petroleum? Crude oil comes straight out of ground. Must be refined to make products thru a process called fractional distillation. Crude oil is heated to different temperatures. At different boiling points the oil is condensed and removed to make a variety of products Fuels- jet fuel, gasoline, diesel Plastics Lubricating oils, waxes
Advantages and DisadvantagesPros Cons Low cost Projected to run out in High net energy yield about 50 years. Easy transportation Artificially low price encourages waste. (Price is low due to government subsidies*) Air pollution when burned Releases CO2 when burned Water pollution from oil tankers/spills
What methods are used to makeoil use cleaner? Catalytic converters- clean car exhaust before it leaves car. Unleaded fuel- removing lead from gasoline reduces air pollution problems Lead causes learning disabilities in children Introduced in 1970s in U.S. Double-hull on oil tankers prevents possible oil spills in ocean.
How did natural gas form?What are uses of natural gas?What are the advantages & disadvantages to using natural gas?What is fracking?
How did natural gas form? Natural gas is formed as a by-product of oil formation. It is usually found in pockets around oil deposits. If natural gas can’t be harvested with oil, it may be burned off.
What are the uses of natural gas? Cooking Heating & cooling Some electricity Car fuel
Advantages & DisadvantagesPros Cons 125-200 year supply Releases some CO2 90% of the natural gas Releases methane used in U.S. comes from (greenhouse gas) U.S.- we don’t rely on Explosive foreign countries for this Cars- stored in pressurized like we do oil. tank which is not safe. High net energy yield Fracking (see next slide) Low cost (huge subsidies) Less air pollution & CO2 emissions than oil & coal Less land degradation Easily transported by pipes
What is Hydraulic Fracturing AKA…“Fracking”? Fracking is used to get pockets of natural gas out of the ground. Process: Water, sand & chemicals are forced thru a drilled hole, rock is cracked, forces natural gas upward to be collected Cons: Chemicals find their way into water supplies, poisoning people, livestock, and soil. (20-40% of fracking chemicals stay underground.) Halliburton Loophole- placed in the 2005 Energy Bill created by former vice “Gasland” is an HBO documentary made president Dick Cheney (once a about fracking. Halliburton vice president) says natural GASLAND Trailer 2010 - YouTube gas companies that use fracking are exempt from Safe Drinking Water Act “Promised Land” is a new movie about and don’t have to disclose what type of natural gas, fracking, and its affects on chemicals they are using. small town America.