Notice the different mineral deposits around the world. Discuss imports and exports. What is mined near where we live? Where do most diamonds come from? Where are the most oil deposits?
Top picture is of bauxite containing aluminum deposits
Unit 4 ch 16 s1 minerals and mineral resources
Chapter 16, Section 1: Minerals & Mineral ResourcesStandards: SEV4a, c, eMINING & MINERAL RESOURCES
WHAT IS A MINERAL? Minerals are Naturally occurring Usually inorganic solids Have characteristic chemical compositions Orderly internal structures Specific set of physical properties
WHAT DETERMINES THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF MINERALS? Minerals can be made of atoms of 1 single element. Ex: silver- Ag Minerals can be made of compounds- 2 or more different elements. Ex: sand- SiO2 They Might Be Giants: "Meet the The arrangements of Elements" (BB Video) - YouTube atoms and the strength of the bonds between them give minerals their physical properties.
WHAT ARE SOME MINERAL RESOURCES & THEIR USES? Metallic minerals Shiny surfaces, opaque Can be pounded, pressed, stretched Good conductors of heat, electricity Durable, can resist corrosion Can be combined to make an alloy Alloys combine desirable properties of 2 different metals Ex: titanium can be alloyed with aluminum to make strong, lightweight metal used to make stealth fighter Examples: Aluminum- cans, siding, cars Copper- wires, heating, plumbing Gold- computers, spacecraft, medicine Iron- steel
WHAT ARE SOME MINERAL RESOURCES & THEIR USES? Non-metallic minerals Good insulators Shiny or dull surfaces Can be transluscent Have variety of uses Examples: Gypsum- used to make sheetrock/wallboard Sand/gravel- glass, building materials, computer chips Sulfur- gunpowder, rubber Phosphorus- fertilizer Gemstones- jewelry (diamonds, ruby)
HOW DO ORE MINERALS FORM? Leaching- groundwater moves down thru rock & heated by magma causing dissolved minerals to crystallize. Magma- moves upward thru crust, cools, hardens, sinks due to density & forms metallic minerals Evaporites- water in seas or lakes evaporates and leaves behind deposits of dissolved minerals (ex: rock salt) Hydrothermal solutions- hot subsurface water with dissolved minerals flows thru cracks in ocean floor, dissolve other minerals in floor and form new compounds upon re-crystallization. Creates veins of ore.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN OREMINERAL AND A GANGUE MINERAL? Ore minerals- contain elements of some economic value Ex: bauxite contains aluminum Ex: halite contains rock salt Gangue minerals- have no commercial value- basically waste rock Consider a Hershey’s bar with almonds… Gangue = wrapper Ore mineral = chocolate Element of economic value = almonds
HOW ARE ELEMENTS SEPARATED FROM OREMINERALS & GANGUE? Extraction- removal of ore mineral from the ground (mining) Refining- removal of element from ore mineral & gangue Must remove gangue from ore mineral first Then remove ore mineral from element Use chemicals, magnets, or crushing devices to separate the good from the waste. For mining to be profitable, the price of the final product must be greater than the cost of extraction & refining.