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Unit 3 a ch 9 s2 changing population trends

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  • According to WHO- World Health Organization
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    • 1. Ch 9, Section 2: Changing Population Trends Standards: SEV5e
    • 2.  As of 2012: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. China- 1.3 billion India- 1.2 billion United States- 313 million Indonesia- 248 million Brazil- 194 million China’s population is slowing and India is projected to surpass China by 2030.   India’s projected population in 2050 is 1.6 billion.
    • 3.  Not every country progresses thru the DT at the same rate or in the same way.  Some countries have modern industry but low income (China)  Some countries are stable & educated but with low industrialization
    • 4.   Most developed countries have already gone through the demographic transition during a time when resources were plentiful. Developing countries are currently experiencing their largest growth of the demographic transition during a time when the resources on the planet are already stressed.
    • 5.   When a country grows at a rapid rate it uses resources at an increased rate which will overwhelm the infrastructure of a community. Infrastructure are basic necessities of a community such as        Water supplies Sewer lines Power plants Roads Subways Schools Hospitals
    • 6.  Rapidly growing populations use resources faster than the environment can renew them  Resources most critically affected by rapid growth: Vegetation  Water  Land 
    • 7. In many developing countries, wood is main source of fuel.  When pop. is low, people can gather dead wood on ground.  When pop. is high, people cut down trees to get fuel wood.  Without wood, cannot boil water for drinking, cook food, or stay warm.   Water must be boiled b/c it is usually contaminated with disease causing parasites.
    • 8.    If population grows too rapidly, the local water supply cannot keep up. Water supplies may dry up faster than they can be replaced by rain water Plumbing infrastructure may be non-existent or not sufficient for growing population   People may drink and wash from same water used for sewage disposal. Causes outbreaks of disease such as cholera, typhoid, and dysentery   All of these diseases result in diarrhea Diarrheal diseases cause more than 40% of the deaths in Africa*
    • 9.  Growing populations have shortage of arable land.  Arable land is land that can be used to grow crops.  Also competition for land to be used not only for farming, but also for housing & natural habitats.
    • 10.  Ex: Egypt Egypt pop. 73 million & growing at rate of 2% each year.  Egypt needs Nile River valley for farming (only 4% of land in Egypt is arable)  The Nile River valley is also the only place where people can live b/c most of the country is desert.  As population increases, valley land will be used for housing which means less land available to grow food. 
    • 11.     Another problem with land usage is urbanization. Urbanization- when people in rural areas move to cities. Urbanization leads to suburban sprawl- people move to suburbs around cities and commute into cities for work. City infrastructure can’t keep up with immigration of people into cities or suburbs     Lots of traffic jams Less land for farms Inadequate plumbing Not enough or inadequate housing A housing development in Arizona
    • 12. Less developed countries are beginning to realize the economic strain overpopulation has on their countries.  Some governments try to limit birth rate by:     Offering monetary incentives/tax incentives to only have 1-2 kids Advertising family planning programs Legal punishments Family planning pamphlet from India.
    • 13.  Conference held by United Nations  Debated relationship between populations, development, and environment  Results of Conference:  Provide access to family planning methods & related reproductive health services  Reduce infant mortality rates to below 35/1000 live births & under 5 year old mortality rates to 45/1000  Close gap in maternal mortality btwn developed & developing countries.  Increase life expectancy at birth to more than 75 years.  Achieve universal access to & completion of primary education. Ensure the widest and earliest possible access by girls and women to secondary & higher levels of education
    • 14.     Worldwide population is currently over 7 billion. Worldwide fertility rates are declining If current trends continue, most countries will achieve replacement level fertility by 2050 & population growth will slow/stop. Most demographers predict world population will stabilize btwn 8 & 11 billion people.

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