Unit 1 ch1 s2 the environment & societyPresentation Transcript
Section 2: The Environment & SocietyStandards: SEV4d, SEV4f, SEV5c, SEV5f
Essay written by Garrett Hardin in 1968 Main idea: Problem with solving env. problems is the conflict btwn short term goals of an individual vs. the long term welfare of society.
Imagine a “common” area of land for grazing sheep. It is in the best interest of one INDIVIDUAL farmer to put as many sheep as he can on the common grazing land. That way he can make more money. HOWEVER, when ALL farmers think this way, too many sheep graze in that area and the area becomes depleted from overgrazing, trampling, etc..
Someone has to take responsibility for maintaining a resource or it can be overused & depleted. We now have grazing regulations and hunting & fishing laws to prevent resource depletion. What are some other “common” areas?
Supply & Demand ◦ If resource is limited and has greater demand then the higher its cost.
Costs-Benefit Analysis ◦ Weighing the cost of buying/producing a product vs. the benefit to the environment ◦ EX: Is fracturing the Earth to get remnant oil more beneficial even though there is a cost to the environment and drinking water sources?
Risk Assessment ◦ Usually done along with cost-benefit analysis ◦ Must determine risk to know if there is a benefit to an environmental action. ◦ Risk assessment depends on who is doing it. If done by an industry- may see less risk If done by a citizen group- may see more risk
Developed countries ◦ higher average incomes Top World Oil Consumers in 2009 ◦ slower population growth ◦ diverse industrial economies ◦ stronger social support systems ◦ EX: US, Western Europe, Japan Responsible for the “consumption crisis”- use & waste too many natural resources Use 75% of world’s natural resources BUT only makes up 20% of world’s population.
Developing countries ◦ lower average incomes ◦ simple & agricultural- based economies ◦ rapid population growth ◦ EX: Mexico, Indonesia, countries in Africa Responsible for “population crisis”- Population grows too fast for current resource level- causes malnutrition, disease, fewer jobs
China is most populated country- 1.3 billion people China is on the verge of becoming developed thanks to outsourcing and globalization. Population crisis + consumption crisis = INCREASED RESOURCE DEPLETION AND POLLUTION India (population 1.2 billion ) not far behind!
Shows the productive area of the earth needed to support one person in a particular country. Here’s Mrs. Davis’ data…
Sustainability- condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely. Requires participation of citizens, industries, & governments