What is Evolution? Evolution- a change in the genetic composition of a population over time.
Paleontology & Evolution Older layers of sedimentary rock (the layers on the bottom) contain fossil species very dissimilar from modern life. Each layer (stratum) is characterized by a unique group of fossil species. As you move upward through the layers, you find species more and more similar to modern life.
James Hutton - 1795 A Scottish geologist proposed that it was possible to explain the various landforms by looking at mechanisms currently operating in the world Proposed that the earth was much more than a few thousand years old
Jean Baptiste Lamarck Theory of evolution in 1809 mechanism: – use and disuse - the idea that the parts used the most grow stronger; the parts that don’t get used deteriorate – inheritance of acquired characteristics - the modifications that an organism acquires during its lifetime can be passed along to its offspring recognized adaptation to environment as a primary product of evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Father of modernevolutionary theory Born in England HMS Beagle Galapagos Islands
What is an adaptation? An inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in its specific environment.
Darwin’s Observations Darwin noticed that every bird on the Galapagos Islands was a modified finch. The only differences in the birds were their beaks and what they ate. These finches looked very similar to one type on South American continent, but none of these were found in S.A.“How did one species change into a different species?”
He wrote On The Origin ofSpecies (1859) after 20years of study.
Darwin’s Four Postulates Individuals within a population vary in their traits. Some of these traits are heritable. More offspring are produced than can survive because of limited resources. Individuals with advantageous traits will survive and reproduce.
What is natural selection? Natural selection - a population of organisms can change over generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than others Natural selection is the mechanism by which evolution is proposed to occur
What is “artificialselection”? Nature provides the variation among different organisms, and humans select variations that they find useful. Example: breeding cows, horses, hogs Darwin used this to help support his case for natural selection.
Descent withmodification the history of life is like a tree, with multiple branching and re-branching from a common trunk all the way to the tips of the youngest twigs most branches of evolution are dead ends; about 99% of all species that have ever lived are extinct
Survival of the Fittest• Another name for Darwin’s theory of natural selection. •Biologists use the word fitness to describe how good a particular genotype is at leaving offspring in the next generation relative to how good other genotypes are at it.
Natural Selection &Survival of the Fittest(already discussed with Darwin)
Modern Ideas Darwin + Mendel’s work and the work of others, have lead to modern ideas about evolution.Another mechanism of evolution is Genetic Drift (random changes in genes) which occurs through natural selection.
Modern Ideas Speciation – formation of new species is due to gradual genetic changes, and that large scale evolution is the result of a lot of small scale evolution. Microevolution – process responsible for the variations that exist within a species, or a change in the allele frequency.
Modern Ideas Macroevolution – evolution that occurs between species. Examples: the separation of a species to form two distinct species or the development of a new species from many small changes within an existing species
Gene Flow The change in occurrence of genes in a population. This occurs when an individual leaves a population (emigration) or new individual joins a population (immigration).
Genetic Drift Random changes in the occurrence of genes through chance events. Can occur when a few individuals of a population break off from the original group and start their own population (founder effect). Large number of population is killed due to disease, starvation, natural disaster, etc. (bottle necking)
Punctuated Equilibrium Darwin felt that biological change was slow and steady as indicated in the fossil record. Modern scientists see that this pattern does not always hold. (Darwin’s finches) The term punctuated equilibrium is used to describe a pattern of long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change. This is still controversial today.
Fossil Evidence Fossils provided a detailed record of evolution. Fossils formed in different layers of rock were evidence of gradual change over time.
Homologous BodyStructures Structures in different species that may perform different functions but are similar because of their common ancestry Vestigial organs - structures of no apparent function to an organism; leftover from ancestry; ex - snakes have leg & pelvis bones
Figure 22.14 Homologous structures: anatomical signs of descent withmodification
More homology… Molecular homology - similarity in DNA sequence between an ancestor and its progeny Embryological homology - similarities only apparent in embryological development – ex: all vertebrate embryos have “pharyngeal pouches” which later become gills or Eustachian tubes
Adaptive Radiation When a single species or a small group of species has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways. Example: Darwin’s finches (more than a dozen evolved from a single species)
ConvergentEvolution Explains how unrelated species can develop similar characteristics Porpoise (mammal) & Shark (fish) Unrelated animals, but share similar characteristics to suit their environment
Analogous structures Show similarity in structure based on adaptation for the same function, not common descent.
Divergent Evolution Suggests that many species develop from a common ancestor Penguins (wings for swimming) & vultures (wings for flying) Both are birds, diverged from a common ancestor
Co-evolution When two or more organisms in an ecosystem evolve in response to each other. Example: Flowers and their pollinators
Camouflage – an animallooks like its environment. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0306.htm
Mimicry- when animals havecoloring and markings tolook like another animal
Warm Up!1. What is the difference between “evidence” of evolution and “mechanisms” of evolution?2. What is biological fitness?3. Explain in your own words the term “natural selection”