Evolution in ecosystems
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Evolution in ecosystems

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Evolution in ecosystems Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Evolution in Ecosystems Environmental Science
  • 2. Charles Darwin
    • Charles Darwin introduced evolution in 1859 in his book On the Origin of Species
    • In this book he describes the process of Natural Selection
  • 3. Natural Selection
    • Darwin noticed that individuals in a population are not exactly alike.
    • He proposed that the environment exerts a strong influence on which individuals survive and which die
    • The individuals that survive will pass on their traits to their offspring
    • Traits that increase the chance that an individual survives and reproduces are called adaptations
  • 4. Evolution
    • Over several generations natural selection can cause the traits of a population to change
    • The change in genetics of a population over generations is called evolution
  • 5. Coevolution
    • Coevolution occurs when two species evolve in response to long-term interactions
      • Includes symbiotic relationships
      • Ex. Flowers and hummingbirds
  • 6. Artificial Selection
    • There are several species that have been domesticated by humans
      • Thus humans control how they reproduce and evolve - called artificial selection
    • These species include plants and animals
      • Ex. Corn, wheat, roses, dogs, horses, etc.
  • 7. Evolution of Resistance
    • Sometimes humans cause organisms to evolve unwanted adaptations
    • When pesticide is sprayed, not every insect is killed.
    • The survivors reproduce and the next generation is more resistant to the pesticide
    • Resistance – the ability of an organism to survive a chemical designed to kill it
  • 8. Pesticide Resistance