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Dna

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Transcript

  • 1. Structure and Function of DNA
  • 2. Structure of DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • Discovered by Watson & Crick in 1953
    • DNA is a nucleic acid
    • DNA is made up of small subunits called nucleotides
  • 3.
    • The nucleotides are made up of:
    • deoxyribose(sugar)
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogen bases-4 types 1. Adenine- A 2. Guanine-G 3. Cytosine- C 4. Thymine-T
  • 4. DNA is actually 2 long chains of nucleotides that are joined together in the form of a ladder. The ladder is twisted in the form of a double helix or spiral
  • 5.   Structure of DNA Hydrogen bonds Nucleotide Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)
  • 6. The sides of the ladder are composed if alternating deoxyribose(sugar) and phosphate. The rungs of the ladder are composed of pairs of nitrogen bases.
  • 7.
    • The nitrogen bases always pair up in a specific pattern.
    • Adenine(A) pairs up with Thymine(T)
    • Guanine(G) pairs up with Cytosine(C)
    • Example
    A G C T A C G C A one side T C G A T G C G T other side
  • 8. All organisms have the same type of nucleotides. The nucleotide arrangement provides for all the different types Ex- A mouse and a rosebush have the same nucleotides. However, they are different because their nucleotides are in different orders. *This sequence of nucleotides forms the genetic information(code) of an organism.
  • 9. Replication of DNA During meiosis and mitosis a copy of DNA must be made so that when the new cells are formed, they each get an exact copy of the genetic information. This DNA copy is made through a process known as replication.
  • 10. Steps of Replication During replication, each strand serves as a pattern to make new DNA molecule.
    • First step: DNA (H bonds are broken) unzips into 2 strands
    • Second step: free nucleotides join onto “unzipped” strands to form 2 new strands of DNA
    • 2 complete strands will result, these will be exactly alike
  • 11. Figure 12–11 DNA Replication Section 12-2 Growth Growth Replication fork DNA polymerase New strand Original strand DNA polymerase Nitrogenous bases Replication fork Original strand New strand