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    Characteristicsoflife Characteristicsoflife Presentation Transcript

    • Study of Biology copyright cmassengale 1
    • What is Biology?Biology is the study of all livingthings Living things are calledorganismsOrganisms include bacteria,protists, fungi, plants, & animals copyright cmassengale 2
    • All Living Things ShareCommon Characteristics1. Basic Unit is the Cell2. They Reproduce3. All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)4. Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 3
    • Common Characteristics5. Obtain & Use Materials & Energy6. Respond To Their Environment7. Maintain A Stable Internal Environment8. AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time copyright cmassengale 4
    • Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale 5
    • All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale 6
    • Facts About CellsCells are the smallest living unitof an organismAll cells contain living materialcalled cytoplasmAll cells are surrounded by a cellmembrane that controls whatenters & leaves the cell copyright cmassengale 7
    • More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobse.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars copyright cmassengale 8
    • More Cell FactsThe simplest cells arecalled ProkaryotesThese cells DO NOThave a nucleus ormembrane-boundorganellesBacteria are examples copyright cmassengale 9
    • More Cell FactsMore complex cells arecalled EukaryotesThese cells DO have anucleus and membrane-bound organellesPlants, animals,protists, & fungi areexamples copyright cmassengale 10
    • Organisms are Grouped by their Number of CellsUnicellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of One CellMulticellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells copyright cmassengale 11
    • Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale 12
    • Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents copyright cmassengale 13
    • Two Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent copyright cmassengale 14
    • Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale 15
    • Genetic CodeDNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)carries the genetic code for allorganismsAll organisms contain DNADNA codes for the proteins thatmake up cells & do all the work copyright cmassengale 16
    • Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 17
    • Growth & DevelopmentOrganisms grow byproducing MORECELLS & by cellENLARGEMENTOrganisms develop asthey mature into anadult organism copyright cmassengale 18
    • Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale 19
    • Food RequirementsAutotrophs can maketheir own foodPhotoautotrophs usesunlight to make food(photosynthesis)Chemoautotrophs usechemicals such as iron& sulfur as theirenergy copyright cmassengale 20
    • Food RequirementsHeterotrophs can NOT make theirown foodThey must consume otherorganismsHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat meatOmnivores eat plants & animals copyright cmassengale 21
    • MetabolismSum of all the chemical reactionsin an organismAll require energySunlight is the ultimate energyfor life on Earth copyright cmassengale 22
    • Metabolism Cellular Respiration – Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O copyright cmassengale 23
    • Organisms Respond to StimuliOrganisms Respond to stimuli(Temperature, Water, FoodSupplies, etc.) In Order ToSurvive & Reproduce copyright cmassengale 24
    • HomeostasisKeeping The Internal Environment(Homeostasis) Of The Cell orOrganism Within The Ranges RequiredFor LifeStable internal conditions of pH,temperature, water balance, etc. copyright cmassengale 25
    • Living Things EvolveGroups Of Organisms(Not Individuals)Change Over Time InOrder To SurviveWithin ChangingEnvironments.Fossil records showchanges in groups oforganisms copyright cmassengale 26
    • Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale 27
    • LevelsAtomsMoleculesOrganellesCells – life starts hereTissuesOrgansSystemOrganism copyright cmassengale 28
    • LevelsPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere copyright cmassengale 29
    • copyright cmassengale 30
    • copyright cmassengale 31