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Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
Characteristicsoflife
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Characteristicsoflife

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  • 1. Study of Biology copyright cmassengale 1
  • 2. What is Biology?Biology is the study of all livingthings Living things are calledorganismsOrganisms include bacteria,protists, fungi, plants, & animals copyright cmassengale 2
  • 3. All Living Things ShareCommon Characteristics1. Basic Unit is the Cell2. They Reproduce3. All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)4. Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 3
  • 4. Common Characteristics5. Obtain & Use Materials & Energy6. Respond To Their Environment7. Maintain A Stable Internal Environment8. AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time copyright cmassengale 4
  • 5. Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale 5
  • 6. All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale 6
  • 7. Facts About CellsCells are the smallest living unitof an organismAll cells contain living materialcalled cytoplasmAll cells are surrounded by a cellmembrane that controls whatenters & leaves the cell copyright cmassengale 7
  • 8. More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobse.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars copyright cmassengale 8
  • 9. More Cell FactsThe simplest cells arecalled ProkaryotesThese cells DO NOThave a nucleus ormembrane-boundorganellesBacteria are examples copyright cmassengale 9
  • 10. More Cell FactsMore complex cells arecalled EukaryotesThese cells DO have anucleus and membrane-bound organellesPlants, animals,protists, & fungi areexamples copyright cmassengale 10
  • 11. Organisms are Grouped by their Number of CellsUnicellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of One CellMulticellular Organisms– Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells copyright cmassengale 11
  • 12. Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale 12
  • 13. Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents copyright cmassengale 13
  • 14. Two Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent copyright cmassengale 14
  • 15. Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale 15
  • 16. Genetic CodeDNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)carries the genetic code for allorganismsAll organisms contain DNADNA codes for the proteins thatmake up cells & do all the work copyright cmassengale 16
  • 17. Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 17
  • 18. Growth & DevelopmentOrganisms grow byproducing MORECELLS & by cellENLARGEMENTOrganisms develop asthey mature into anadult organism copyright cmassengale 18
  • 19. Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale 19
  • 20. Food RequirementsAutotrophs can maketheir own foodPhotoautotrophs usesunlight to make food(photosynthesis)Chemoautotrophs usechemicals such as iron& sulfur as theirenergy copyright cmassengale 20
  • 21. Food RequirementsHeterotrophs can NOT make theirown foodThey must consume otherorganismsHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat meatOmnivores eat plants & animals copyright cmassengale 21
  • 22. MetabolismSum of all the chemical reactionsin an organismAll require energySunlight is the ultimate energyfor life on Earth copyright cmassengale 22
  • 23. Metabolism Cellular Respiration – Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O copyright cmassengale 23
  • 24. Organisms Respond to StimuliOrganisms Respond to stimuli(Temperature, Water, FoodSupplies, etc.) In Order ToSurvive & Reproduce copyright cmassengale 24
  • 25. HomeostasisKeeping The Internal Environment(Homeostasis) Of The Cell orOrganism Within The Ranges RequiredFor LifeStable internal conditions of pH,temperature, water balance, etc. copyright cmassengale 25
  • 26. Living Things EvolveGroups Of Organisms(Not Individuals)Change Over Time InOrder To SurviveWithin ChangingEnvironments.Fossil records showchanges in groups oforganisms copyright cmassengale 26
  • 27. Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale 27
  • 28. LevelsAtomsMoleculesOrganellesCells – life starts hereTissuesOrgansSystemOrganism copyright cmassengale 28
  • 29. LevelsPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere copyright cmassengale 29
  • 30. copyright cmassengale 30
  • 31. copyright cmassengale 31

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