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  • 1. Chemistry in Biology
  • 2. Elements in the Human Body (CHON 96%)
  • 3. We’ve got chemistry…(which is the study of matter)
    • The atom is the basic unit of matter.
    • (building block of matter)
    • Atoms consist of subatomic particles
    • Protons (+ charge)
    • Neutrons ( no charge)
    • Electrons (- charge)
  • 4.
    • Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus.
    • Electrons orbit the nucleus .
    • Protons & neutrons have about the same mass , and electrons are much less ( 1/1840 the mass of p & n)
  • 5. Using the Periodic Table to calculate:
    • Protons = atomic number
    • Electrons = atomic number (neutral atom, not in an ion)
    • Remember Protons are positive and Electrons are negative so they are equal!
    • Neutrons = atomic MASS – atomic number
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • ELEMENT: pure substance, consisting of only 1 type of atom.
    • COMPOUND: substance formed from the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in
    • definite proportions.
  • 9.
    • H 2 O - water contains H and O in a definite proportion (2 to 1) This is the formula for water.
    • What is the formula for table salt?
    Examples of Compounds:
  • 10. Isotopes
    • atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
    • Brainpop video:http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078695104/164155/00038306.html
  • 11. Isotopes of Carbon Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14
  • 12. Radioactive Isotopes
    • When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off radiation that can be detected and used for many applications.
  • 13. Chemical Bonds
    • Involve valence (outermost) electrons.
    • There are 2 types.
  • 14. 1) Ionic Bonds
    • Involves a transfer of electrons.
    • Produces ions ( charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons)
    • Metal + Nonmetal
  • 15.  
  • 16. 2) Covalent Bonds
    • Electrons are shared between atoms.
    • Smallest unit of this type of compound is called a molecule .
    • Nonmetal + Nonmetal or diatomic molecules have this type of bond.
  • 17. Chemical Reactions
    • Chemical reaction - process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.
    • Clues that a chemical reaction has taken place: 1) heat or light
    • 2) see bubbles
    • 3) something new
  • 18. Chemical Equations
    • Chemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change.
    • Reactants are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.
    • Products are the substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow.
  • 19.
    • Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water.
  • 20. Energy of Reactions
    • The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
  • 21. What is an enzyme?
    • An enzyme is a special type of protein called a catalyst
    • Catalyst: substance that speeds up a reaction because it lowers the activation energy
    • Cells use enzymes to speed up reactions
    • Very specific: usually only catalyzes one item called the SUBSTRATE
  • 22.  
  • 23. How do enzymes work?
    • Enzyme comes in contact with substrate at certain spot called ACTIVE SITE
    • Fits together like a “lock & key”
        • Bonding at active site weakens the bonds in the substrate
    • Makes it easier to change substrate
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. What are enzymes used for? What regulates them?
    • Used for digestion, photosynthesis, & DNA reproduction
    • Regulated by changes in pH, temperature, other proteins, and chemicals
  • 27. Enzyme Lab!
  • 28. Warm up -
    • Make a Venn Diagram for Ionic and Covalent Bonds.
    • Copy the following: 1) What is this called? Label the reactant(s) and the product(s)
    • H 2 O 2  2H 2 O + O 2
  • 29. Water is soooo special!
    • Most abundant compound in living things .
    • Liquid at temperatures found over much of earth.
    • Expands when freezes, which causes density less than liquid water. (unusual for a liquid)
  • 30. What is polarity???
    • Polarity is the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms in a covalent bond.
    • In water, the oxygen is slightly negative because the electrons are attracted more to it than Hydrogen.
  • 31.
    • The hydrogen atoms in water have a slight positive charge because they are missing the electrons attracted more to oxygen.
  • 32.
    • Because of polarity, the water molecules attract each other. This is called cohesion .
    • Water is also attracted to molecules of different substances. This is called adhesion .
  • 33.
    • Example of adhesion: water on the sides of a graduated cylinder.
    • Capillary action is caused by this.
  • 34. Water Lab!!!!
  • 35. Warm up Enzymes p. 159
    • What is the function of an enzyme?
    • What type of organic compounds are enzymes?
    • What substance takes part in an enzymatic reaction, but is unchanged by the reaction?
    • Draw Figure 6.18 and label it. (p. 160)
  • 36. Mixtures
    • Two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined. They can be separated Physically!
  • 37. Solutions vs. Suspensions
    • Can be made with water …the universal solvent.
    • Solution = solvent + solute
    • solution = homogeneous mixture
  • 38.
    • Water can dissolve ionic compounds and other polar molecules …it is known as the greatest solvent on earth!
    Universal solvent!
  • 39.
    • Water and non-dissolved material with small particles that are suspended in the water.
    Suspension
  • 40. Acids & Bases
    • pH scale: indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
    • Below 7 = acid, the lower the number, the more acidic.
    • Above 7 = Base , the higher the more basic
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44. Buffers
    • Weak acid/bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH.
  • 45. Carbon Compounds C 6 carbon 12.011
  • 46. What is organic chemistry?
    • The study of all compounds containing the element CARBON
    • Natural elements: make up 96% of the mass of a human: CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN (CHON)
    • Trace elements: only needed in small amounts, called “minerals”:
  • 47. What is a macromolecule?
    • A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s of smaller units called MONOMERS
    • Monomers link together to form large POLYMERS
    • formed by polymerization
  • 48. The types of macromolecules: CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS NUCLEIC ACIDS PROTEINS
  • 49. Carbohydrates
    • Made of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms
    • Main source of energy for living things
    • Plants & some animals use for structural purposes
    • Examples: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide (sugars & starches)
  • 50.
    • Simple sugars are monosaccharide.
    • Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide
    • Longer carbohydrate molecules are called polysaccharides (starches).
  • 51. Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 A Starch Go to Section:
  • 52. Lipids (Fats, Oils & Waxes)
    • Made mostly from carbon & hydrogen
    • Used to store energy & waterproof coverings
    • Olive oil, peanut oil
  • 53.
    • A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature.
  • 54. Nucleic Acids
    • Made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, & phosphorus
    • Made of monomers called nucleotides
    • Nucleotides consist of
    • 1) a 5 carbon sugar
    • 2) a phosphate group
    • 3) a nitrogenous base
    • Store and transmit genetic information.
  • 55. Proteins
    • Made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
    • Polymers of amino acids
    • Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes
    • Some used to form bones & muscles
    • Others transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease