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Chapter 2
 

Chapter 2

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    Chapter 2  Chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chemistry in Biology
    • Elements in the Human Body (CHON 96%)
    • We’ve got chemistry…(which is the study of matter)
      • The atom is the basic unit of matter.
      • (building block of matter)
      • Atoms consist of subatomic particles
      • Protons (+ charge)
      • Neutrons ( no charge)
      • Electrons (- charge)
      • Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus.
      • Electrons orbit the nucleus .
      • Protons & neutrons have about the same mass , and electrons are much less ( 1/1840 the mass of p & n)
    • Using the Periodic Table to calculate:
      • Protons = atomic number
      • Electrons = atomic number (neutral atom, not in an ion)
      • Remember Protons are positive and Electrons are negative so they are equal!
      • Neutrons = atomic MASS – atomic number
    •  
    •  
      • ELEMENT: pure substance, consisting of only 1 type of atom.
      • COMPOUND: substance formed from the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in
      • definite proportions.
      • H 2 O - water contains H and O in a definite proportion (2 to 1) This is the formula for water.
      • What is the formula for table salt?
      Examples of Compounds:
    • Isotopes
      • atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
      • Brainpop video:http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078695104/164155/00038306.html
    • Isotopes of Carbon Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14
    • Radioactive Isotopes
      • When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off radiation that can be detected and used for many applications.
    • Chemical Bonds
      • Involve valence (outermost) electrons.
      • There are 2 types.
    • 1) Ionic Bonds
      • Involves a transfer of electrons.
      • Produces ions ( charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons)
      • Metal + Nonmetal
    •  
    • 2) Covalent Bonds
      • Electrons are shared between atoms.
      • Smallest unit of this type of compound is called a molecule .
      • Nonmetal + Nonmetal or diatomic molecules have this type of bond.
    • Chemical Reactions
      • Chemical reaction - process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.
      • Clues that a chemical reaction has taken place: 1) heat or light
      • 2) see bubbles
      • 3) something new
    • Chemical Equations
      • Chemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change.
      • Reactants are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.
      • Products are the substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow.
      • Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water.
    • Energy of Reactions
      • The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
    • What is an enzyme?
      • An enzyme is a special type of protein called a catalyst
      • Catalyst: substance that speeds up a reaction because it lowers the activation energy
      • Cells use enzymes to speed up reactions
      • Very specific: usually only catalyzes one item called the SUBSTRATE
    •  
    • How do enzymes work?
      • Enzyme comes in contact with substrate at certain spot called ACTIVE SITE
      • Fits together like a “lock & key”
          • Bonding at active site weakens the bonds in the substrate
      • Makes it easier to change substrate
    •  
    •  
    • What are enzymes used for? What regulates them?
      • Used for digestion, photosynthesis, & DNA reproduction
      • Regulated by changes in pH, temperature, other proteins, and chemicals
    • Enzyme Lab!
    • Warm up -
      • Make a Venn Diagram for Ionic and Covalent Bonds.
      • Copy the following: 1) What is this called? Label the reactant(s) and the product(s)
      • H 2 O 2  2H 2 O + O 2
    • Water is soooo special!
      • Most abundant compound in living things .
      • Liquid at temperatures found over much of earth.
      • Expands when freezes, which causes density less than liquid water. (unusual for a liquid)
    • What is polarity???
      • Polarity is the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms in a covalent bond.
      • In water, the oxygen is slightly negative because the electrons are attracted more to it than Hydrogen.
      • The hydrogen atoms in water have a slight positive charge because they are missing the electrons attracted more to oxygen.
      • Because of polarity, the water molecules attract each other. This is called cohesion .
      • Water is also attracted to molecules of different substances. This is called adhesion .
      • Example of adhesion: water on the sides of a graduated cylinder.
      • Capillary action is caused by this.
    • Water Lab!!!!
    • Warm up Enzymes p. 159
      • What is the function of an enzyme?
      • What type of organic compounds are enzymes?
      • What substance takes part in an enzymatic reaction, but is unchanged by the reaction?
      • Draw Figure 6.18 and label it. (p. 160)
    • Mixtures
      • Two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined. They can be separated Physically!
    • Solutions vs. Suspensions
      • Can be made with water …the universal solvent.
      • Solution = solvent + solute
      • solution = homogeneous mixture
      • Water can dissolve ionic compounds and other polar molecules …it is known as the greatest solvent on earth!
      Universal solvent!
      • Water and non-dissolved material with small particles that are suspended in the water.
      Suspension
    • Acids & Bases
      • pH scale: indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
      • Below 7 = acid, the lower the number, the more acidic.
      • Above 7 = Base , the higher the more basic
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Buffers
      • Weak acid/bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH.
    • Carbon Compounds C 6 carbon 12.011
    • What is organic chemistry?
      • The study of all compounds containing the element CARBON
      • Natural elements: make up 96% of the mass of a human: CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN (CHON)
      • Trace elements: only needed in small amounts, called “minerals”:
    • What is a macromolecule?
      • A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s of smaller units called MONOMERS
      • Monomers link together to form large POLYMERS
      • formed by polymerization
    • The types of macromolecules: CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS NUCLEIC ACIDS PROTEINS
    • Carbohydrates
      • Made of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms
      • Main source of energy for living things
      • Plants & some animals use for structural purposes
      • Examples: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide (sugars & starches)
      • Simple sugars are monosaccharide.
      • Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide
      • Longer carbohydrate molecules are called polysaccharides (starches).
    • Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 A Starch Go to Section:
    • Lipids (Fats, Oils & Waxes)
      • Made mostly from carbon & hydrogen
      • Used to store energy & waterproof coverings
      • Olive oil, peanut oil
      • A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature.
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, & phosphorus
      • Made of monomers called nucleotides
      • Nucleotides consist of
      • 1) a 5 carbon sugar
      • 2) a phosphate group
      • 3) a nitrogenous base
      • Store and transmit genetic information.
    • Proteins
      • Made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
      • Polymers of amino acids
      • Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes
      • Some used to form bones & muscles
      • Others transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease