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ความรู้เบื้องต้นฐานข้อมูล 1

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • A database is a structured collection of records or data .
  • 3.
    • Database management systems (DBMS) are the software used to organize and maintain the database. Example is MS Access, SQL Server
  • 4.
    • Early 1970 the Database was used term in Europe and USA.
    • 1960s, the first developed DBM by Charles Bachman.
    • 1970, the relational model was proposed by E. F. Codd.
    • 1990s, attention shifted to object-oriented databases.
    • 2000s, the fashionable area for innovation is the XML database
  • 5.
    • Bit
    • Byte
    • Field
    • Record
    • File
    • Entity
    • Attribute
    • Primary Key
    • Foreign Key
    • Field Type
  • 6.
    • A bit is a binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1.
  • 7.
    • A byte is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits.
  • 8.
    • 1024 bytes= 1KB
    • 1024 KB = 1MB
    • 1024 MB = 1GB
    • 1024 GB = 1 Terabyte (TB)
    • Petabyte
    • Exabyte
    • Zettabyte
    • Yottabyte
    • Brontobyte
  • 9.
    • One or more related characters treated as a unit and constituting part of a record.
  • 10.
    • A group of related data, words, or fields treated as a meaningful unit.
  • 11.
    • A group of records in database.
  • 12.
    • an entity is an existing or real thing.
    • Example: Customer, Student, Item
  • 13.
    • an attribute is an specification that defines a property of an object, element, or file.
    • Example:
    • Customer
    • Attribute: Title, Firstname, Lastname,
    • Address, Telephone, Email
  • 14.
    • Primary key is that candidate key which is used to uniquely identify each and every attribute and instance of a particular entity.
    • Example – Purchase Order Master Table
  • 15.
    • A Foreign key is an attribute in some another entity which is already a primary key in some entity. Is used for the purpose of maintaining the integrity of the data.
    • Example – The Purchase Order Master and the Purchase Order Detail Relationship.
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Text. Essentially the strings or number. 255 character maximum.
    • Number. This category includes Byte (unsigned 8-bit), Integer (signed 16-bit), Long (signed 32-bit), Single (signed 32-bit), and Double (signed 64-bit).
  • 18.
    • Currency. A 64-bit fixed point number, designed to give the accuracy needed for financial data. 15 digits of whole dollars, plus four decimal places (hundredths of a cent).
    • The AutoNumber is an automatically assigned number.
  • 19.
    • Date/Time. The 8-byte floating point numbers, the integer part refers to the day, and the fraction part refers to the time.
    • Yes/No. A Logical field can be displayed as Yes/No, True/False, or On/Off.
    • Memo. Many texts. Up to 64K of text.
  • 20.
    • OLE Object. Use this type to store pictures, audio, video, or other BLOBs (Binary Large OBjects).
  • 21.
    • User
    • Operator
    • System Analyst
    • Programmer
    • Database Administrator
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • It defines a set of operations that can be performed on the data.
  • 24.
    • Hierarchical database model
    • Network database model
    • Relational database model
    • Object database models
  • 25.
    • Alternative
      • Star schema
      • XML database
  • 26.
    • hierarchical database model , data is organized into a tree-like structure. The structure allows repeating information using parent/child relationships: each parent can have many children but each child only has one parent.
  • 27.  
  • 28.
    • network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. the network model allows each record to have multiple parent and child records
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • A relational database model developed by E.F. Codd. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and integrity constraints. In such a database the data and relations between them are organised in tables . A table is a collection of records and each record in a table contains the same fields .
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • A data model is a logic organization of the real world objects (entities), constraints on them, and the relationships among objects. A DB language is a concrete syntax for a data model. A DB system implements a data model.
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • The star schema is the simplest style of data warehouse schema. The star schema consists of a few "fact tables" (possibly only one, justifying the name) referencing any number of "dimension tables".
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • An XML database is a data persistence software system that allows data to be stored in XML format.
    • XML Format
      • <firstname> Witoon </firstname>
      • <lastname>Thammatuch-aree</lastname>
  • 37.
    • One to Many
    • Many to One
    • One to One
    • Many to Many
  • 38.
    • One to Many relationship – occurs when one entity is related to many occurrences in another entity. For example, one club has many members.
  • 39.
    • A Many to One relation is the same as one-to-many, but from a different viewpoint.
  • 40.
    • A one-to-one relation is exception in databases. It can occur, but it's often a sign that the database design has opportunities for improvement.
  • 41.
    • Many to Many relationship – occurs when one entity is related to many occurrences in one entity. For example, one newspaper has many readers and one reader has many newspaper.
  • 42.
    • Avoid Inconsistency
    • Data Sharing
    • Reduce Redundancy
    • Data Integrity
    • Data Security
    • Application and Database
  • 43.  
  • 44.
    • Create Table and Relation for:
      • Group A = Customers
      • Group B = Suppliers
      • Group C = Employees
      • Group D = Items
    • Field name, Field type, Field size, Primary Key

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