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Introduction to Storytelling
 

Introduction to Storytelling

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http://videoplan.witness.org | This session introduces and reviews key principles of using storytelling for advocacy video.

http://videoplan.witness.org | This session introduces and reviews key principles of using storytelling for advocacy video.

WITNESS Training Curriculum - Part of module 5

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  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Is there one way to tell a story…. No! But the most effective stories often have Dramatic momentum Tension or ‘conflict’ Powerful characters and Telling details
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Point-of –view -- Point of View : Who provides the guiding information in the film? Who orientates us and explains what is happening? Who frames what we are seeing? Who gives you credibility ? VOICES: What story will be persuasive, compelling, or motivating for this audience? Whose story do you want to tell? What will resonate with the target audience? What will make them feel compelled to do something? Should tell both sides of the story and give a balanced view for credibility sake? For a powerful story sake? To ensure there’s not deception? CN 4 TYPES OF CREDIBILITY: What voices is it important to have in the video in order to have emotional, political, and ethical credibility and impact?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Point-of –view -- Point of View : Who provides the guiding information in the film? Who orientates us and explains what is happening? Who frames what we are seeing? Who gives you credibility ? VOICES: What story will be persuasive, compelling, or motivating for this audience? Whose story do you want to tell? What will resonate with the target audience? What will make them feel compelled to do something? Should tell both sides of the story and give a balanced view for credibility sake? For a powerful story sake? To ensure there’s not deception? CN 4 TYPES OF CREDIBILITY: What voices is it important to have in the video in order to have emotional, political, and ethical credibility and impact?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Emotional credibility: Who speaks to our heart , and to our storytelling instincts? Analytical credibility: Who speaks to our head ? Ethical credibility: Whose voices must be in for ethical reasons? I.e. Are those most victimized/marginalized given space to speak out? Political credibility: Who speaks to the audience? Who needs to be in to satisfy them?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Emotional credibility: Who speaks to our heart , and to our storytelling instincts? Analytical credibility: Who speaks to our head ? Ethical credibility: Whose voices must be in for ethical reasons? I.e. Are those most victimized/marginalized given space to speak out? Political credibility: Who speaks to the audience? Who needs to be in to satisfy them?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Emotional credibility: Who speaks to our heart , and to our storytelling instincts? Analytical credibility: Who speaks to our head ? Ethical credibility: Whose voices must be in for ethical reasons? I.e. Are those most victimized/marginalized given space to speak out? Political credibility: Who speaks to the audience? Who needs to be in to satisfy them?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Possible to screen Shoot on Sight rights alert
  • Rightful place: http://hub.witness.org/node/5093 Pro: exact structure of legal case & evidence Screened at African Commission alongside legal submission and in-person advocacy WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy The Gathering Storm - Africa (play without sound / subtitles) (TRT 2:32) The Gathering Storm – Asia (play with eyes close, just listening) (TRT 3:33) Other options include: (can either juxapose two videos, one with sound, one without or just play one video to show how audio and visual complement each other. For just visuals first then add audio: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndTIIPgEu0w (nao partam a minha cassia) (TRT 1:21) http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/nyregion/1-in-8-million/index.html#/freda_degannes (TRT 2:03) http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/nyregion/1-in-8-million/index.html#/maurice_decaul (TRT 2:34) http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/nyregion/1-in-8-million/index.html#/mark_mocha (TRT 2:45)  
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Emotional credibility: Who speaks to our heart , and to our storytelling instincts? Analytical credibility: Who speaks to our head ? Ethical credibility: Whose voices must be in for ethical reasons? I.e. Are those most victimized/marginalized given space to speak out? Political credibility: Who speaks to the audience? Who needs to be in to satisfy them?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy One-minute clip / one scene of XXX . Consider XXX or external example of just audio and then just video and then the marriage of them both, www.url.org Testimony, overheard conversations, narration music, silence, wild sound, sound effects.
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Emotional credibility: Who speaks to our heart , and to our storytelling instincts? Analytical credibility: Who speaks to our head ? Ethical credibility: Whose voices must be in for ethical reasons? I.e. Are those most victimized/marginalized given space to speak out? Political credibility: Who speaks to the audience? Who needs to be in to satisfy them?
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy One-minute clip / one scene of XXX . Consider XXX or external example of just audio and then just video and then the marriage of them both, www.url.org Testimony, overheard conversations, narration music, silence, wild sound, sound effects.
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy STYLE -- Audience, messages, stories and voices should help you define the style Ask: What is the style that will resonate / have most credibility with your target audience? Hand held v. tripod Fast-paced v. slow paced Glitzy or gritty Interviews or narration Music choice Looking directly into the camera v. your traditional interview set up v. intentionally using an awkward set up, including high or low angles of interviews Concealed identify / voice Etc. Stories from the same genre/approach draw on these filmic forms and share certain conventions of structure and story-telling: Personal point-of-view (Michael Moore – ‘Roger and Me’) News-journalistic (investigations on evening news – ‘Benny Farm’) Journey around a central character (Joey Lozano in ‘Seeing is Believing’) Location-centered film (Fred Wiseman – Titticut Follies) Survey/thesis film (‘Seeing is Believing’) Music video (Breakthrough TV – Mann Ke Manjeere) Public Service announcement (PSA) (concept-based) Viral videos on YouTube (humor, pop culture, celebrity)
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy STYLE -- Audience, messages, stories and voices should help you define the style Ask: What is the style that will resonate / have most credibility with your target audience? Hand held v. tripod Fast-paced v. slow paced Glitzy or gritty Interviews or narration Music choice Looking directly into the camera v. your traditional interview set up v. intentionally using an awkward set up, including high or low angles of interviews Concealed identify / voice Etc. Stories from the same genre/approach draw on these filmic forms and share certain conventions of structure and story-telling: Personal point-of-view (Michael Moore – ‘Roger and Me’) News-journalistic (investigations on evening news – ‘Benny Farm’) Journey around a central character (Joey Lozano in ‘Seeing is Believing’) Location-centered film (Fred Wiseman – Titticut Follies) Survey/thesis film (‘Seeing is Believing’) Music video (Breakthrough TV – Mann Ke Manjeere) Public Service announcement (PSA) (concept-based) Viral videos on YouTube (humor, pop culture, celebrity)
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy STRUCTURE -- - Audience, messages, stories and voices should help you define the style & structure Ask: What forms the spine of your video (testimonies, title cards, a single character, assemble of characters / interviewees, reenactments, verite footage) Simple compilation of testimonies and interviews, which can’t really stand alone for an audience that may be unfamiliar with the issue, but that could serve for animating a community discussion? A longer-form story-focused film about the issue, using one or two characters/cases as the narrative thread that draws empathy. Video report that offer visual evidence (images, testimonies, interviews, photos, etc) within an analytical framework Raw material for a news report Advertisement-sturcture 60 – 90 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) that will simply put the idea there by playing with images and music, but not allow any analysis etc. Four filmic approaches to point of view: Narration or titlecard-driven : We are guided by a named or anonymous narrator Interview-driven : We are guided through by a series of interviews Observational-verite : We see ‘life as it happens’ with no apparent intervention Character-led : We are led through by a person involved in the narrative
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Needs research and review by Sam as I did this off the top of my head with no research.
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Needs research and review by Sam as I did this off the top of my head with no research.
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Often an advocacy video includes/ends with: A direct request to viewers from a person in the video An individual in the video framing an analysis of why a situation is occurring and what audiences can do Highlighting key advocacy work already happening References to opportunities to learn more, and materials available for offline organizing and discussion at screenings Always make your request concrete, specific, and relevant to your audience Don’t just complain….
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy Goes to PART D of the Facilitator’s notes in Modual 5.1.
  • WITNESS: Strategies for using video as a tool in human rights advocacy

Introduction to Storytelling Introduction to Storytelling Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Storytelling WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial ShareAlike 3.0 License.  You can also find more video advocacy training materials at www.witness.org. 
  • SO WHAT’S YOUR STORY?
  • Storytelling puts the human into human rights .
    • Story is at the heart of video …
    • without a compelling story,
    • your audience will not be moved to act.
  • What is visual storytelling for human rights? DEFINED: The strategic use of images, pictures, and sounds to tell stories that can pressure, shame, move or compel key audiences to take action that will protect, defend and uphold human rights. GOAL: The story inspires the action you want from the audience.
    • Stories are about people
    • Stories need to be fixed in time and space
    • Stories speak the audience’s language
    • Stories stir up emotions
    • Stories don’t tell. They show.
    • Stories have at least one “moment of truth”
    • Stories have clear meaning
    • The people in your story have to want something
    • Let your characters speak for themselves
    • Audiences bore easily so stories need challenges/obstacles
    Andy Goodman’s 10 Rules for Storytelling How can you Tell a Good Story? Part 1: The Philosophy
    • Is there one way to tell a story…. No!
    • But the most effective stories often have
      • Dramatic momentum
      • Tension or ‘conflict’
      • Powerful characters we care about and
      • Telling details
    STORYTELLING
    • Not necessarily violence, but conflict between individuals, between individuals and an external institution etc., or conflicts of personality, of ideas, or daily struggles of life against an unfair world
    DRAMATIC CONFLICT
    • Have at least one memorable fact and one detail that will remain in people’s minds…..
    MEMORABLE FACTS & DETAILS
    • The 6 Guiding Principles of Story:
    • VOICES: The people (or text) who tell the story
    • STRUCTURE : The way in which your film is organized or in other words, the backbone
    • AUDIO/VISUAL ELEMENTS: What you hear and see on screen
    • STYLE: What your films ‘looks & feels’ like
    • ETHICAL REPRESENTATION: How you honor a person’s dignity and respect their privacy
    • SPACE FOR ACTION: A concrete and specific act your audience can take to create change
    HOW
  • PRINCIPLE 1: VOICES WHO WILL TELL YOUR STORY?
  • Voice Options
    • Survivors of human rights abuses
    • Relatives of the person/s abused
    • Witnesses of human rights abuses
    • Experts
    • Journalists
    • Narrator
    • Peer-reviewed citations / Other Texts
    • Who / what else?
    • What should you consider when
    • choosing which voices to include?
    EXPLORE
      • Emotional: The voices that speak to the viewer’s heart
      • Analytical: The voices that support the facts
      • Ethical : The voices that must be included for ethical reasons and agency
      • Political: The voices your audience trusts and needs to hear from
    ESSENTIAL: CREDIBILITY
    • What are the building blocks in the video & what links these independent blocks together (transitions)?
    Transition Transition Story Expert Fact Expert Story Expert Fact Expert Story PRINCIPLE 2: STRUCTURE
  • WHOSE VOICES WERE INCLUDED? EXCLUDED?
      • Beginning : Set up the story, the situation, the argument, a common assumption (challenge it…)
      • Middle : Tell the story, engage your viewers to understand and care
      • Ending : Conclude and ‘hand it off” to the audience
    BEGINNING – MIDDLE - END
    • CASE STUDY
    • Location/Partner: Kenya, CEMERIDE and Minority Rights Group
    • Objective: Secure ruling from African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on displacement of Endorois people from their ancestral lands in Kenya
    • Audience: African Commission, to be followed up with a public engagement campaign using a different version of video
    • Message: Endorois people have suffered violations of their rights under specific articles of the African Charter
    • Story/ Voices:
    • Timing/Distribution: :
      • Impact:
  • PRINCIPLE 3: AUDIO & VISUAL WHAT WILL WE HEAR? SEE?
    • Location/Partner: Burma, Burma Issues
    • Objective: Support the push to refer Burma to the UNSC under ‘threat to the peace’
    • Message: Actions of Burma’s military regime in eastern Burma are a threat to the peace
    • Story/ Voices: Condensed summary of situation, with emblematic story of one older woman
    • Timing/Distribution: :Used in solidarity organizing and shown to officials in Indonesia, UK, USA and at UN, alongside presentations. Also viewed almost a million times on YouTube.
      • Impact: Supported organizing work; ultimately no referral to UNSC
  • WHAT VISUALS WERE INCLUDED? EXCLUDED?
    • A-roll (interviews)
    • Observed conversations
    • B-roll
    • Re-enactments
    • Still photos
    • Documents
    • Graphics (maps, charts, etc.)
    • Split screens
    • Title cards + Lower Thirds
    • Subtitles
    • Archival or stock footage
    VISUALS TO CONSIDER
  • WHAT AUDIO WAS INCLUDED? EXCLUDED?
  • AUDIO TO CONSIDER
    • Testimony
    • Overheard conversations
    • Narration
    • Music
    • Silence
    • Wild sound
    • Sound effects
    • Style: The ‘look’ and ‘feel’ that will resonate with your target audience.
    • 1. Hear Us, Memory’s Story (6 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L68KxQcjbls
    PRINCIPLE 4: STYLE
    • Click on the links below to watch clips and answer these questions:
    • What are the elements of style (aka, look + feel) in these clips? Compare and contrast.
    • What clip resonated with you most & why?
        • Hand held camera work v. On a tripod
        • Fast-paced v. slow paced
        • Glitzy (Highly-produced) v. Gritty (Home-spun)
        • Interviews v. Narration
        • Directed v. Verité
        • Music choice
        • Interviews: Looking directly into the camera v. the traditional interview set up looking at interviewer v. intentionally using an awkward set up, including high or low angles of interviews
        • Concealed identify / voice
        • Investigative report feel v. Movement-building feel
        • Other?
    STYLE CONSIDERATIONS
    • What are the ethical issues that arise in this clip?
    • What ethical challenges will you face in your project? Brainstorm this list.
    PRINCIPLE 5: ETHICAL REPRESENTATION Click on this link to watch a video and answer the questions below: http://youtu.be/d3Pc-FgEB7k (Begin at 2:15 – end at 2:51)
  • Potential Ethical Challenges
    • How will you get informed consent?
    • How will you protect safety & security?
    • How will you protect privacy?
    • How will you protect a person’s dignity?
    • Will you share the decision-making process with interviewees?
    • Will you pay your interviewees?
    • Will you let interviewees review cuts?
    • How do you handle hostile interviewees?
    • Will you use footage you don’t have permission for?
    • Will you reenact events that happened in the past?
    • Framing, style & editing
    • Other?
    CONSIDERATIONS
  • Ethical Representation Key Best Practices of Ethical Representation in Human Rights Filmmaking
    • Cause no harm
    • Be sure to be proud to send the final cut to your interviewees
    • Do not re-vicitmize your interviewees. Lift them up.
    • Ensure future ethical use of the footage (consider the remix culture)
    • Other?
    • Advocacy video turns it over to the audience to take action
    • Need to build a ‘space for action’ into the video – not make it a closed, sealed space
    • This ‘space for action’ should point to a solution … a possible happy ending
    PRINCIPLE 6: SPACE FOR ACTION
    • How much does the audience feel implicated or involved in the story and in the ending?
    • After watching are they detached, removed, helpless? Or included, hopeful, engaged, shamed, motivated, inspired, outraged?
    • Is the story closed-off or is there room for change?
    • Do you provide clear options for action?
    INSPIRING THE ACTION YOU WANT?
  • Recap Storytelling for Advocacy
    • Story is at the heart of video
    • Human rights stories are about people
    • Stories don’t tell -- they show
    • Story serves advocacy. A film is for a purpose, not about something.
    • Advocacy story-telling is about effectively communicating your message to an audience in order to generate action.
    • Build your storytelling on your audience analysis – what will reasonate with them?
  • Introduction to Storytelling WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial ShareAlike 3.0 License.  You can also find more video advocacy training materials at www.witness.org.