Introduction to the Camera WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative ...
Objective <ul><li>To introduce basic camera skills and  </li></ul><ul><li>techniques as it relates to filming an  </li></u...
In This Session <ul><ul><li>Basic rules of filming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different shot types or focal lengths and ho...
Ground Rules for Filming <ul><li>Keep the camera steady and use a tripod when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Never “Hosepipe” ...
Build a meaningful sequence with your shots <ul><li>Click on this link to see a video example illustrating how different s...
Build a meaningful sequence with your shots 12/13/11 WITNESS.org The different shots in the video (shown here as stills) w...
WIDE SHOT (WS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>A shot that shows the full context of a scene </li></ul><ul><li>Often used as ...
LONG SHOT (LS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>A shot framed so that the subject and their surroundings can be seen </li></ul...
MEDIUM SHOT (MS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>Between a long shot and a medium shot (e.g. from the waist up) </li></ul><ul...
MEDIUM CLOSE-UP (MCU) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>Between a medium shot and a close-up (e.g. from the chest up) </li></ul...
CLOSE-UP (CU) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>The subject is very large in the frame, revealing detail only (for example the ...
Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Frame your subject so they are positioned on the intersection of any 2 or more lines. </li></ul>12/...
Rule of Thirds Example <ul><li>Click on this link to see different examples of composition following the rule of thirds : ...
Viewpoint  12/13/11 WITNESS.org
View Point Example <ul><li>Click on this link to see different camera viewpoints in a sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>http://w...
Viewpoint in Interviews 12/13/11 WITNESS.org  
Framing an Interview  12/13/11 WITNESS.org
Talking Space <ul><li>Incorrect </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org Correct
Headroom 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
Headroom <ul><li>Incorrect </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org Correct
Eye-Line 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
What Works? What Doesn’t? 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
Setting Up an Interview 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
Camera Exercise 45 minutes <ul><li>Roles  </li></ul><ul><li>In groups of three each participant should  </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Interview <ul><li>Using a  lavaliere microphone  and a  tripod  </li></ul><ul><li>take turns recording a short intervi...
The Interview <ul><li>Click on this link to see video examples of the interview exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.you...
The Action Sequence <ul><li>Using a  shot gun microphone  and a  tripod </li></ul><ul><li>take turns recording your interv...
The Action Sequence <ul><li>Click on this link to see video examples the action sequence exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>http:...
Summary <ul><li>Make sure your camera shots are steady and held for at least 10-15 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Affectively use ...
Introduction to the Camera WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative ...
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Introduction to the Camera

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http://www.witness.org | This session will introduce the basics and best practices of using a camera. The facilitator will provide an overview of the participants’ camera or cameras, demonstrate how to operate the camera and use its various components. After the introduction, participants will conduct a hands-on exercise.

WITNESS Training Curriculum - Part of module 2

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  • Materials Needed for Exercise Projector with Speakers One complete camera package for every three people. One complete camera package for demonstration 3.2a“Production Basics” Handout 3.2b Camera Exercise Handout Time: 1 hr 30 min
  • Stress the importance of using a tripod for stable shots while noting that it may make the camera person more conspicuous “ Hose-piping”: continually moving the camera up and down across a subject in an effort to capture it all. Shots should be held but not limited to 10-15 seconds so that each shot will be useful when edited In any filming situation you should always be aware of distracting noise. Whenever possible film in well lit areas making sure to keep the main light source behind the camera.
  • Explain the rule of thirds referencing the still above Rule of Thirds: You should put horizontal or vertical lines, such as the horizon or someone standing in your picture along imaginary lines that divide the frame into thirds. This is far more interesting for the eye. It’s better to have the horizon either two thirds from the top of the frame or two thirds from the bottom. And if you are filming someone standing in front of a wider scene it’s good to have them standing slightly to the left or to the right of the frame.
  • Explain Viewpoint referencing the above stills. Note the different perspectives of the protest examples. The camcorder’s viewpoint or angle will provide your audience with a unique perspective on what is taking place within a scene. -The camera’s viewpoint will dictate whom the audience will identify with. Collecting different viewpoints can make your scenes more visually compelling.
  • Referencing the video explain how capturing action through different angels or viewpoints can make a scene more dynamic.
  • Explain how different viewpoints can change the way an audience might perceive an interviewee - in interviews a higher angle will diminish your subjects a low angle will make your subject seem more powerful Reference the above stills to demonstrate how the camera’s viewpoint has created undesirable perspectives
  • Use the above still as an example of a properly framed interview. Keep the camera’s viewpoint at eye level. Preferably use a medium close-up shot to frame an interview Close-up shots can be used to show emotion (use sparingly) Its best not to change shot types while your interviewee is speaking - Remember to follow the rule of thirds keeping your subjects eyes a third of the way down from the top of the frame.
  • Explain talking space using the above slides of how and how not to frame an interview In an interview always allow enough talking space: If they are looking over to the left of the frame you should move them further to the right of your viewfinder and vice versa so that they have space to move their head while they are talking without disappearing out of the frame.
  • Explain headroom using the above slide -When framing an interview allow just a little space between the top of the head and the frame - Too much headroom will look strange.
  • Explain headroom using the above slides of how and how not to frame an interview - In a close-up it is better to lose more of the person’s headroom than it is to lose much of their chin from the frame.
  • Explain eye line using the above slide - in an interview its better not to have your subject looking directly at the camera. The eyes should be directed just outside of the frame looking at the person asking the questions. ***Keep in mind talking space
  • Ask participants to critique the above photos based on: TALKING SPACE HEADROOM EYE-LINE RULE OF THIRDS
  • instruct participants on how to set up a formal interview: Sit the interviewee on a stable chair so they will not move during the interview Allow enough space between the interviewee, the camera and the background Use a lavaliere microphone and tripod during interviews The camera person sits behind the camera monitoring the picture and sound The interviewer sits close to the tripod and maintaining eye contact with the interviewee The camera should be placed at eye level with the interviewee and interviewer Ask for volunteers to demonstrate how to set up an interview and guide them in a proper arrangement
  • Organize participants into groups of three and explain the alternating roles that each participant will take
  • Introduce the interview portion of the exercise and review the questions with participants
  • Introduce the action sequence portion of the exercise and review shot types with participants
  • Upon Completion of the exercise the facilitator will screen footage from the exercise providing feedback based on the topics discussed throughout the session. Solicit critiques from participants on the footage being screened.
  • Introduction to the Camera

    1. 1. Introduction to the Camera WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial ShareAlike 3.0 License.  You can also find more video advocacy training materials at www.witness.org. 
    2. 2. Objective <ul><li>To introduce basic camera skills and </li></ul><ul><li>techniques as it relates to filming an </li></ul><ul><li>action and conducting interviews. </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    3. 3. In This Session <ul><ul><li>Basic rules of filming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different shot types or focal lengths and how they are used in a video sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic camera composition including: the rule of thirds and viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to properly frame and set up a formal interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using different shot types to film an action sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The completion of a camera exercise </li></ul></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    4. 4. Ground Rules for Filming <ul><li>Keep the camera steady and use a tripod when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Never “Hosepipe” </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the 10-15 second rule </li></ul><ul><li>Get good sound </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting matters </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    5. 5. Build a meaningful sequence with your shots <ul><li>Click on this link to see a video example illustrating how different shot types are used to tell a visual story: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ocZQ--Br7vA </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    6. 6. Build a meaningful sequence with your shots 12/13/11 WITNESS.org The different shots in the video (shown here as stills) were used to tell a simple story.
    7. 7. WIDE SHOT (WS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>A shot that shows the full context of a scene </li></ul><ul><li>Often used as an establishing shot to orientate viewers </li></ul>
    8. 8. LONG SHOT (LS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>A shot framed so that the subject and their surroundings can be seen </li></ul><ul><li>Used to show your audience what action is taking place within a scene </li></ul>
    9. 9. MEDIUM SHOT (MS) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>Between a long shot and a medium shot (e.g. from the waist up) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to bring your audience closer to the action or subject while maintaining a respectful distance </li></ul>
    10. 10. MEDIUM CLOSE-UP (MCU) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>Between a medium shot and a close-up (e.g. from the chest up) </li></ul><ul><li>Shot most often used in framing an interview </li></ul>
    11. 11. CLOSE-UP (CU) 12/13/11 WITNESS.org <ul><li>The subject is very large in the frame, revealing detail only (for example the face or hands). Can be used to pick out detail in a scene </li></ul><ul><li>In an interview, a CU can be used for more intimate moments </li></ul>
    12. 12. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Frame your subject so they are positioned on the intersection of any 2 or more lines. </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    13. 13. Rule of Thirds Example <ul><li>Click on this link to see different examples of composition following the rule of thirds : </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3bTpx0UKxTE </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    14. 14. Viewpoint 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    15. 15. View Point Example <ul><li>Click on this link to see different camera viewpoints in a sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwUwn53OxNM </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    16. 16. Viewpoint in Interviews 12/13/11 WITNESS.org  
    17. 17. Framing an Interview 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    18. 18. Talking Space <ul><li>Incorrect </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org Correct
    19. 19. Headroom 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    20. 20. Headroom <ul><li>Incorrect </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org Correct
    21. 21. Eye-Line 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    22. 22. What Works? What Doesn’t? 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    23. 23. Setting Up an Interview 12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    24. 24. Camera Exercise 45 minutes <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>In groups of three each participant should </li></ul><ul><li>take turns performing the following three </li></ul><ul><li>roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Person: Records the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer: Conducts the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewee: Responds to the questions   </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    25. 25. The Interview <ul><li>Using a lavaliere microphone and a tripod </li></ul><ul><li>take turns recording a short interview using two </li></ul><ul><li>different shot types: </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Close-Up Shots: </li></ul><ul><li>- Tell me about yourself and how you got involved in human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>- Why did you decide to attend this Video Advocacy Training? </li></ul><ul><li>Close-Up: </li></ul><ul><li>- How will video help you in your human rights work? </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    26. 26. The Interview <ul><li>Click on this link to see video examples of the interview exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZ7RBepEgz8 </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    27. 27. The Action Sequence <ul><li>Using a shot gun microphone and a tripod </li></ul><ul><li>take turns recording your interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>performing a simple action. </li></ul><ul><li>Record the action using three shots: </li></ul><ul><li>Long Shot </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Shot </li></ul><ul><li>Close Up </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    28. 28. The Action Sequence <ul><li>Click on this link to see video examples the action sequence exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=misIwDje6DQ </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Make sure your camera shots are steady and held for at least 10-15 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Affectively use different shot types and viewpoints to tell a visual story </li></ul><ul><li>Frame shots using the Rule of Thirds </li></ul><ul><li>Properly frame interviews keeping in mind: viewpoint, talking space, eye line and headroom </li></ul>12/13/11 WITNESS.org
    30. 30. Introduction to the Camera WITNESS invites you to use, remix and share this curriculum.  All materials are under Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial ShareAlike 3.0 License.  You can also find more video advocacy training materials at www.witness.org. 
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