Ch.1 What Is Science
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Ch.1 What Is Science

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Ch.1 What Is Science Ch.1 What Is Science Presentation Transcript

  • Biology The Study of Life Ch. 1 Bio= Life logy= Study of
  • 8 Characteristics of Living Things
    • Made of cells
    • Reproduce
    • Universal genetic code
    • Grow & develop
    • Obtain & use energy
    • Respond to their environment
    • Maintain a stable internal environment
    • Change over time
  • A. Living Things are Made of Cells
    • A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings
    • Cells are the smallest unit of living things
    • Living organisms are grouped by the number of cells:
          • unicellular – single-celled organisms; ex. Bacteria, amoebas
          • multicellular – organisms made up of more than one cell; ex. Humans, frogs, fish, insects plants
  • B. Living Things Reproduce
    • Asexual- new organism has a single parent; example- single-celled organism splits in half. NO EXCHANGE OF GENETIC INFO
    • Sexual- two cells ( egg & sperm) from different parents unit to form an embryo. With sexual reproduction there is an exchange genetic material
  • C. Living Things are Based on a Universal Genetic Code
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid = DNA
    • The genetic code carried in the DNA molecule determines the inherited traits of every organism on Earth.
  • D. Living Things Grow & Develop
    • Growth- all living things grow at least part of their lives, single-celled organism simple increase in size.
    • Development- a single fertilized egg will develop into a multicellular organism
  • E. Living Things Obtain & Use Energy
    • Two main ways to obtain energy
        • a. Photosynthesis, obtaining energy directly from the sun and using it to make its own food.
          • Ex. Plants, some bacteria & protist can do this .
        • b. Other organisms have to obtain their energy from the food they eat.
  • E. Living Things Obtain & Use Energy
    • 2. All organism uses its energy for metabolism- the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
  • F. Living Things Respond to Their Environment
    • Organisms detect & respond to stimuli from their environment
    • A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds. 2 kinds:
        • External stimuli- comes from the environment outside an organism. Example- temperature
        • Internal stimuli- comes from within the organism. Example- level of sugar (glucose) in your blood; too low you feel hungry
  • G. Living things maintain a stable internal environment
    • Homeostasis - process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
        • Examples:
        • If body temp drops too low, “shivering” produces heat to warm you up
        • If temp is too hot, sweating” cools you down
  • H. Taken as a Group, Living Things Change Over Time
    • Evolution - the ability of a group of organisms to change over time is invaluable for the survival in a world that is always changing.
  • I. What is Science? Chapter 1
  • A. The Goal of Science is to:
    • a. Investigate & understand the natural world
    • b. To explain events in the natural world
    • c. Use those explanations to make useful predictions
  • B. Features of science that make it different from other human endeavors:
      • a. Science deals only with the natural world
      • b. Scientists collect & organize information in a careful, orderly way; looking for patterns & connections between events
      • c. Scientists propose explanations that can be tested by examining evidence
      • Therefore, science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
  • C. The Word Science…
    • refers to the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process.
  • II. Thinking Like a Scientist
    • A. Observation - gathering information about events and are processes in a careful, orderly way; involves using the senses, mostly sight & hearing
    • B. Data - the information gathered from observations, two categories
      • Quantitative data- numbers obtained from counting or measuring.
      • Qualitative data- descriptive & involve characteristics that can’t usually be counted
    • C. Inference- a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience
  • III. Explaining & Interpreting Evidence
    • Scientists try to explain events in the natural world by interpreting evidence logically and analytically.
  • IV. Science as a Way of Knowing
    • Science is Not “just facts” but a way of knowing!
    • Because of new tools, techniques, & discoveries, our understanding of science is Always Changing.
  • V. Science and Human Values
    • Our understanding of science is essential in making intelligent decisions about a wide variety of issues that affect our lives.
    AIDS Global warming Renewable fuels Alternative energy Stem Cell Research Cancer Endangered species Bird flu Cloning Nuclear power Pollution
  • How Scientists Work Chapter 1 sec. 2
    • Steps of the Scientific Method Designing An Experiment
    • State the problem- usually based on observations
    • Gather Information- obtain as much knowledge about the problem
    • C . Form a Hypothesis- a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations. Based on prior knowledge, logical inference and informed, creative imagination. Hypotheses must be proposed in a way that enables them to be tested.
  • I. Steps of the Scientific Method Designing An Experiment
    • D. Experiment- the way of testing the hypothesis
      • a. variable- the factors in an experiment that can change in an experiment. Example of variable: equipment used, type of material, amount of material, temperature, light and time.
      • b. Controlled experiment- when only one variable is different and all others are kept the same.
      • c. Manipulated variable- the variable that is deliberately changed
      • d. Responding variable- the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
  • I. Steps of the Scientific Method Designing An Experiment
    • E. Recording & Analyzing Results (Data)
      • Recording - keeping a record of experimental data
      • Analyzing - tables, graphs, etc.
    • F. Draw Conclusions- use the evidence to determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted.
    • A key assumption in science is that experimental results can be reproduced because nature behaves in a consistent manner.
    • When one particular variable is manipulated in given set of variables, the result should always be the same.
    • In keeping with the assumption, scientists expect to test one another’s investigations.
  • Side Note:
    • D = Dependent Variable
    • R = Responding Variable
    • Y = Y axis on graph
    • M = Manipulating Variable
    • I = Independent Variable
    • X = X axis on graph
  •