Cellmembrane 09
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Cellmembrane 09

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thx for the power point is Ms.Young

thx for the power point is Ms.Young

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Cellmembrane 09 Cellmembrane 09 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7-4 Cell Structure and Function Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Cell Membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles
  • Image from: http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_membrane.html A CELL is . . . made of MOLECULES _______  ___________  ___________ ATOMS MOLECULES ORGANELLES
  • CELL MEMBRANE (also called plasma membrane)
    • Cell membranes are made mainly of ________________ & __________________
    PHOSPHOLIPIDS PROTEINS Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains
  • LIPID TAILS ARE HYDROPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC  HYDROPHOBIC  Image by Riedell
  • TRANSPORT PROTEINS help move substances across the cell membrane Animations from: http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/facdifan.gif http://www2.uic.edu/~myilma1/ionchannel.gif More on this in Chapter 7-3
  • WHAT DOES IT DO?
    • Acts as a boundary
    • Controls what enters and leaves cell
    Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cellmembrane.html http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
  • Cell membranes MOVE!
    • Molecules in cell membranes are
    • constantly moving and changing
    Click here to see FluidityAnimation Animation from: http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/fluidmem.gif
  • CELL WALL
    • Supports and protects cell
    Outside of cell membrane Made of carbohydrates & proteins Plant cell walls are mainly _____________ CELLULOSE http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/kids_space/images/brick_wall.jpg
  • CYTOPLASM (Between nucleus and cell membrane)
    • ORGANELLE- small structure with a specific function (job)
    Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cytoplasm.html Image from: http://faculty.stcc.cc.tn.us/jiwilliams/labprojectsmenu.htm Organelles suspended in gel-like goo
  • NUCLEUS
    • Largest organelle
    • in animal cells
    Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
  • NUCLEUS
    • Surrounded by NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
    • (also called NUCLEAR MEMBRANE)
    • DOUBLE MEMBRANE
    Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_11.GIF
  • NUCLEUS
    • NUCLEAR PORES
    • Openings to allow molecules to move in and out of nucleus
    Image from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCELL2.html
  • WHAT DOES IT DO? Contains genetic material (DNA) DNA is spread out as CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells DNA is scrunched up as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells
  • WHAT DOES IT DO?
    • Control center of cell
    Image from: Genetic code tells the cell’s parts what to do Image from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm
  • NUCLEOLUS Dark spot in nucleus = __________ Makes RNA for ribosomes Image from: http://lifesci.rutgers.edu/~babiarz/histo/cell/nuc3L.jpg NUCLEOLUS
  • CYTOSKELETON
    • Helps cell maintain shape
    • Help move organelles around
    Made of PROTEINS: MICROFILAMENTS (Actin) & MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) Image from: http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/default.htm Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved
  • CENTRIOLES
    • Appear during cell division to guide chromosomes apart
  • CENTRIOLES/MITOTIC SPINDLE
    • Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin)
    Image from: http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm
  • MITOCHONDRION (plural=MITOCHONDRIA)
    • Look like “little sausages”
    Image from: http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl/CURR/kin150/Images/mitochondria.jpg
  • MITOCHONDRIA
    • Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane
    Folded inner membrane increases surface area for more chemical reactions Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpe Has its own DNA
  • MITOCHONDRIA
    • Come from cytoplasm in EGG
    • You inherit your mitochondria from your mother!
    http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/p14%5b1%5d.jpg
  • WHAT DOES IT DO? Burns glucose to release energy Stores energy as ATP “ Powerplant of cell” Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/mito.html http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html Image by: Riedell
  • RIBOSOMES
    • Made of PROTEINS and RNA
    • Protein factory for cell Join amino acids to make proteins
    Image from: http://www.ust.hk/roundtable/hi-tech.series/1_b1.jpg  Image by: RIedell
  • RIBOSOMES
    • Can be attached to Rough ER
    • OR
    • free in cytoplasm
    Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe
  • ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 2 KINDS: SMOOTH or ROUGH Network of hollow membrane tubules Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_10B.GIF
  • ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Rough ER)
    • Makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of cell
    Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/er.html
  • ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
    • Has RIBOSOMES attached
    • Proteins are made on ribosomes and inserted into Rough ER to be modified and transported
    Image from: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/cells/ER.jpg
  • SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER)
    • Has NO ribosomes attached
    • Has enzymes for special tasks
    Image from: http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0073.JPG
  • SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER) Image from:http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20eight/smooth%20er.gif
    • Makes membrane lipids (steroids)
    • Regulates calcium (muscle cells)
    • Destroys toxic substances (Liver)
  • GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY)
    • Pancake like membrane stacks
    Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h Image from: http://www.rsbs.anu.edu
    • Animation from: http://www.franklincollege.edu/bioweb/A&Pfiles/week04.html
    See a Golgi movie
  • It’s ALL connected !
  • LYSOSOMES
    • Membrane bound sacs that contain PROTEINS called digestive enzymes
    Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/lysosomes.html Digest food, unwanted molecules, old organelles, cells, bacteria, etc
  • LYSOSOMES Image modified from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html See lysosomes in action :
  • LYSOSOMES Image from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html See LYSOSOMEMOVIE
  • http://www.mgm.ufl.edu/images/bharfe/image3.jpg http://research.yale.edu/ysm/images/78.3/articles-apoptosis-cells.jpg “ PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH” = ______________________ APOPTOSIS Lysosomes help digest unwanted cells See animation
  • Apoptosis plays a role in : Embryonic development Normal body cell maintenance Immune system responses Cancer AIDS infection Transplant rejection http://www.cellsalive.com/apop.htm
  • FLAGELLA & CILIA
    • Made of
    • PROTEINS
    • called
    • MICROTUBULES
    • (9 + 2 arrangement)
    Image from: http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/flagella.jpg
  • FLAGELLA Help in cell movement
  • CILIA
    • Move cell itself
    Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm
  • CILIA
    • Move substances past cells
    http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm?edit_realword=hwbreathe
  • CILIA
    • Many
    • short
    FLAGELLA
    • Few
    • Long
    WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm
  • WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT PLANT CELLS?
    • Cell wall
    • HUGE vacuoles
    • Chloroplasts
    • No centrioles
    Plant vs Animal cells
  • CELL WALL
    • Supports and protects cell
    Outside of cell membrane Made of carbohydrates & proteins Plant cell walls are mainly _____________ CELLULOSE http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/kids_space/images/brick_wall.jpg
  • VACUOLES
    • Storage space
    Image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/plant_cell.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/Cells/cell93.gif
  • VACUOLES
    • Storage space for WATER, salts, proteins (enzymes), carbohydrates, and waste
    Vacuoles SMALL in ANIMAL CELLS NO VACUOLES IN BACTERIA Image from: http://www.metoliusfriends.org/csca/images/tupperware.jpg
  • Contractile vacuoles control excess water in cells (HOMEOSTASIS) 1 http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjun99/vidjun1.gif
  • CHLOROPLASTS
    • Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose)
    http://stallion.abac.peachnet.edu/sm/kmccrae/BIOL2050/Ch1-13/JpegArt1-13/04jpeg/04-28_chloroplasts_1.jpg http://www.seorf.ohiou.edu/~tstork/compass.rose/photosynthesis/chloro_sun_bathing.gif
  • CHLOROPLASTS
    • Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane
      • Contains own DNA
    http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/04/HTML/source/04-17-chloroplast-nl.htm
    • Thylakoid membrane sacs contain enzymes for photosynthesis
  • Plant Cell Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell Membrane Chloroplast Vacuole
  • WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT BACTERIAL CELLS?
    • Cell wall
    • NO NUCLEAR MEMBRANE
    • DNA is circular
    • No membrane bound organelles
    http://www.eurekascience.com/ICanDoThat/bacteria_cells.htm See video
  • BACTERIA have a CELL WALL BUT… IT’S MADE OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES than plant cell walls! _______________ NOT CELLULOSE! More on this in Chapter 18! Image from: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg PEPTIDOGLYCAN
  • WHICH IS BIGGER? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria
  • DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL CELLS, PLANT CELLS, AND BACTERIA ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL BACTERIA Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Cell membrane Cell membrane Cell membrane Nuclear membrane Nuclear membrane NO nuclear membrane NO cell wall Cell wall made of CELLULOSE Cell wall made of PEPTIDOGLYCAN Has ribosomes Has ribosomes Has ribosomes DNA in multiple chromosomes DNA in multiple chromosomes DNA is a single circular ring CYTOSKELETON CYTOSKELETON CYTOSKELETON Small vacuoles Really big vacuole NO vacuoles Has lysosomes Has lysosomes NO lysosomes Has centrioles NO centrioles NO centrioles NO chloroplasts Chloroplasts NO chloroplasts SMALLER SMALL SMALLEST
    • BACTERIA are PROKARYOTES
    PLANTS & ANIMALS are EUKARYOTES No membrane bound organelles Organelles with membranes
    • USE WORDS FROM THE WORD BANKS TO COMPLETE THE VENN DIAGRAM COMPARISON
  • SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
    • 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.
    • Transport
    • cell membranes, homeostasis
    • Photosynthesis and respiration
    • ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts
    LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things
    • 9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of major taxa.
    • Kingdoms
    • Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera
    Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things
  • Core High School Life Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the function of a given structure; predict how homeostasis is maintained within living systems; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: describe and give examples of chemical reactions required to sustain life (…role of enzymes) describe the relationship between structure and function explain how homeostasis is maintained within living systems; High school students performing at the BASIC level name chemical reactions required to sustain life (… role of enzymes) recognize that different structures perform different functions identify DNA as the structure that carries the genetic code define homeostasis;
  • SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS
    • 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.
    • Transport
    • cell membranes, homeostasis
    • Photosynthesis and respiration
    • ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts
    LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things