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Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

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  • 1. Presentation Slides to Accompany Organizational Behavior 10 th Edition Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, Jr. Chapter 12 —Fostering Interpersonal Communication
  • 2. Slide 12.1 Learning Objectives for Fostering Interpersonal Communication
    • Describe the basic elements of interpersonal communication
    • Discuss how interpersonal communication networks affect relationships among employees
    • Explain the fabric of abilities that foster dialogue
    • Describe how nonverbal communication affects dialogue
  • 3. Slide 12.2 Elements of Interpersonal Communication Receiver Sender Start Meaning Meaning Encoding Decoding Encoding Decoding Transmitters Channels Receptors Transmitters Channels Receptors
    • Interpersonal
    • Barriers
    • Cultural Barriers
  • 4. Slide 12.3 Examples of Media Richness Face-to-face dialogue * Videoconference * Telephone conversation * * Voice mail * E-mail * Informal letters/memos * Organization’s own videos * Formal written documents * Formal numerical documents Single Multiple Fast Slow Speed of Personalized Feedback Cues and Language * Organization’s Web site
  • 5. Slide 12.4 Personality Barriers in Interpersonal Communication
    • Low adjustment
    • Low sociability
    • Low conscientiousness
    • Low agreeableness
    • Low intellectual openness
    • Introversion
  • 6. Slide 12.5 Perceptual Barriers in Interpersonal Communication
    • Perceptual defense
    • Stereotyping
    • Halo effect
    • Projection
    • High expectancy effects
    • Fundamental attribution error
    • Self-serving bias
  • 7. Slide 12.6 Direct Barriers in Interpersonal Communication
    • Noise
    • Semantics
    • Language routines
    • Lying and distortion
  • 8. Slide 12.7 Cultural Barriers in Interpersonal Communication
    • Cultural Context
      • High-context culture
      • Low-context culture
    • Body Language
    • Ethnocentrism
  • 9. Slide 12.8 Examples of Cultures on the Cultural Context Continuum Source: Based on Hall, E. Understanding Cultural Differences . Yarmouth, ME.: Intercultural Press, 1989; Munter, M. Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Business writing and Speaking , 5 th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1999. Chinese High Context Low Context Korean Japanese Vietnamese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English North American Scandinavian Swiss German
  • 10. Slide 12.9 Five Alternative Communication Networks for a Five-Person Team
    • Star network
    • Y network
    • Chain network
    • Circle network
    • All-channel network
  • 11. Slide 12.10 Effects of Five Communication Networks Degree of centralization Very high FACTOR STAR Y CHAIN CIRCLE ALL- CHANNEL Very high Low High Leadership predictability Average group satisfaction Range in individual member satisfaction High High Low High Moderate Very low Moderate Moderate Moderate Very low High Very low Low Low Moderate Low TYPE OF COMMUNICATION NETWORK
  • 12. Slide 12.11 Elements in Communication Openness Closed Guarded Defensive Open Candid Supportive Low High Hidden Concealed Shared Revealed TRUST AGENDAS GOALS Is Linked to: Message Transmission
  • 13. Slide 12.12 Contextual Factors in Communication Openness
    • History of the relationship will affect trust and risk taking
    • Guarded interpersonal communication is understandable and rational:
      • In adversarial relationships but not in supportive relationships
      • When someone else has control over your fate
  • 14. Slide 12.13 Principles of Constructive Feedback for Fostering Dialogue
    • Establish trust between sender and receiver
    • Make feedback specific rather than general
    • Give feedback when receiver is ready to accept it
    • Check validity of feedback with receiver
    • Provide feedback on behaviors the receiver can change
    • Don’t overwhelm receiver with feedback
  • 15. Slide 12.14 Guidelines for Effective Active Listening
    • Have a purpose for listening
    • Suspend judgment, at least initially
    • Resist distractions and focus on the sender
    • Pause before responding to the sender
    • Rephrase the sender’s message
    • Seek out important themes
    • Use the differential between rates of speech and thought to reflect and search for meaning
  • 16. Slide 12.15 Basic Types of Nonverbal Cues Body motion Gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, etc. Personal physical characteristics Paralanguage Use of space Physical environment Time Body shape, posture, body or breath odors, hair color, skin color, etc. Voice qualities, speech habits, laughing, etc. Ways people use and perceive space Building and room design, furnishings, etc. Use of time, relationship of time and status, etc. TYPE OF CUE EXPLANATION AND EXAMPLES