Test Your Mobile Application’s Performance
with AT&T’s Application Resource Optimizer
Doug Sillars, PhD
Application Optimi...
How Fast is Your App?
How Fast is Your App?
How Fast is Your App?
“Zombies appear to be
incapable of running.
The fastest have been
observed to move at a
rate of bare...
How Important is Speed Anyway?
Traditional Web (PC) Stats:
• Yahoo! 400ms delay leads to 5-9% drop in traffic (1)
• 1 seco...
What Do Mobile Users Expect?
High Performance Apps
•  Speed
–  64% of mobile users expect pages/apps to load in <4 seconds...
What Do Mobile Users Get?
Our Customers Expect More!!!!
• Top Mobile frustrations “web page slow to load” (1)
• Battery li...
As a Developer, What Can I Do?
• Learn How Mobile is Different
• Optimize:
–  Learn the best practices
–  Test your applic...
How is Mobile Different?
Internet
IP applications
Mobile applications
Wireless
State
Machine
Mobile apps often do not cons...
Data Transfer
LTE RRC State Machine
Timer Expiration
Radio Off Radio On
IDLE
Continuous
Reception
Tail
For AT&T’s Model:
T...
Data Transfer
LTE RRC State Machine
Timer Expiration
Radio Off Radio On
IDLE
Continuous
Reception
Tail
• LTE has higher th...
It’s All Connected
Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions:
•  RRC State transitions control
It’s All Connected
Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions:
•  RRC State transitions control
–  Speed/User Expe...
It’s All Connected
Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions:
•  RRC State transitions control
–  Speed/User Expe...
It’s All Connected
Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions:
•  RRC State transitions control
–  Speed/User Expe...
AT&T Application Resource Optimizer
• Free diagnostic tool
• Open Source
• Test any Platform
• Emulate any carrier network...
What Platforms Can I Test With?
All of them!
• All Platforms: Pcap/tcpdump network trace
•  Ex: Wi-Fi Hotspot (like Connec...
How Does ARO Work?
Transfer Trace Files Process Trace
Test Your Application
• PCAP only:
•  Network traffic collected
• Na...
Everyone Wins With ARO
•  Faster Response Times
•  Improved Battery Life
•  Efficient Data Plan Usage
•  Enriched User Exp...
What’s the Industry Doing?
• Quality App Directory - App Quality Alliance (AQuA)
(http://www.appqualityalliance.org/)
• Sm...
So, How Does ARO Make My App Faster?
ARO is the test kit to identify areas where performance
improvements exist
Simple, co...
From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps
1. Close Connections
2. Cache Your Data
3. Manage Every Connection
From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps
1. Close Connections
2. Cache Your Data
3. Manage Every Connection
Closing Connections? How Does That Help?
>80% of applications
do NOT close
connections when
they are finished!
Closing Connections: Example
38% more power on LTE!
(18% more power on 3G)
Closing Connections: CODE
MultiRes Sample app from Android SDK
– Modified to download images
HttpURLConnection getimageclo...
From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps
1. Close Connections
2. Cache Your Data
3. Manage Every Connection
Caching Your Data
17% of all mobile traffic is duplicate download of
the same unaltered HTTP content (1)
“It’s just a 6 KB...
Even if caching IS supported – it is OFF by default!!
Caching Support by Library
Android Connection Libraries iOS Librarie...
Caching Methods (How do I do it?)
ETags
Cache Control Headers
• Each file has a Unique Tag
• Revalidated on server for eac...
Comparing ETag vs. Cache Control
Network Usage Battery Drain Data Usage Speed
NO Cache
YES entire file
downloaded
Full net...
Caching: Worth the Effort?
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setConten...
Caching Performance
File still valid in cache
Radio never turns on
100% less
power!
MultiRes sample app – modified to add ...
Caching Performance
File in cache has expired,
revalidate at server
If radio has gone back to
IDLE, this can take 2.5s
LTE...
From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps
1. Close Connections
2. Cache Your Data
3. Manage Every Connection
Grouping Connections
38J of energy used!!
Imagine an app that:
1. Downloads an image every 60s
2. Downloads an Ad every 60...
Grouping Connections
16J of energy used!!
58% savings!
Now, look what happens if your connections are grouped together
1. ...
How Do I Group Connections
if (Tel.getDataActivity() >0){
if (Tel.getDataActivity() <4){
//ok, we are passed the minimum t...
Grouping Connections for Speed
Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your
application by managing connection...
Grouping Connections for Speed
Threading file downloads vs. serial download
Grouping Connections for Speed
Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your
application by managing connection...
Grouping Connections for Speed
Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your
application by managing connection...
More Best Practices
Look for error codes: no 4xx 5xx
HTTP response codes should occur:
More Best Practices
Look for error codes: 404s
Error messages should be short and sweet
Ad Download every 30s
More Best Practices:
Periodic Connections
Regular 3 minute Polls for updates (20% battery/day)
Summary
• Our customers expect high performance
• App performance optimizations are easy…
Once you know the issues
• Best ...
everyone wins
with ARO
Developer.att.com/ARO
Developer.program@att.com
@dougsillars
thank you!
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Doug Sillars on App Optimization

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Doug Sillars' from AT&T talks about App Optimization and what AT&T is doing with ARO to make apps faster at AnDevCon Boston

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Doug Sillars on App Optimization

  1. 1. Test Your Mobile Application’s Performance with AT&T’s Application Resource Optimizer Doug Sillars, PhD Application Optimization Guru Developer Advocacy, AT&T @dougsillars
  2. 2. How Fast is Your App?
  3. 3. How Fast is Your App?
  4. 4. How Fast is Your App? “Zombies appear to be incapable of running. The fastest have been observed to move at a rate of barely one step per 1.5 seconds.” – Max Brooks, Zombie Survival Guide
  5. 5. How Important is Speed Anyway? Traditional Web (PC) Stats: • Yahoo! 400ms delay leads to 5-9% drop in traffic (1) • 1 second of latency (2) –  Customer satisfaction drops 16% –  Conversion to sales drops 7% • 10 Golden Principles of Successful Web Apps: –  “Speed is always the most important feature” (3) Sillars’ Corollary: If speed is important on the web, it follows that speed is even more important for mobile • 71 % of users expect mobile sites to be as fast as desktop (4) (1) slideshare.net/stoyan/dont-make-me-wait-or-building-highperformance-web-applications (2) http://econsultancy.com/us/blog/10195-the-need-for-online-speed-in-america (3) 10 Golden Principles Of Successful Web Apps http://www.businessinsider.com/10-golden-principles-successful-web-apps-2010-3 (4) http://econsultancy.com/us/blog/9162-the-importance-of-speed-for-mobile-commerce
  6. 6. What Do Mobile Users Expect? High Performance Apps •  Speed –  64% of mobile users expect pages/apps to load in <4 seconds (1) •  Battery Life –  Better Battery life (6.1 satisfied of 10) !!! (2) –  72% rate phone as very good or excellent •  Only 21% rate battery life as very good or excellent (3) •  Reasonable data usage –  No one wants to hit their cap (1) http://www.keynote.com/docs/reports/Keynote-2012-Mobile-User-Survey.pdf (2) http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2200-smartphone-customer-satisfaction-battery-life.html (3) Personal communication from Swiftkey study
  7. 7. What Do Mobile Users Get? Our Customers Expect More!!!! • Top Mobile frustrations “web page slow to load” (1) • Battery life top reported problem (2) (1) http://www.keynote.com/docs/reports/Keynote-2012-Mobile-User-Survey.pdf (2) http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2200-smartphone-customer-satisfaction-battery-life.html
  8. 8. As a Developer, What Can I Do? • Learn How Mobile is Different • Optimize: –  Learn the best practices –  Test your application –  Fix issues before your customers discover them • Get ahead of the game – be ready for industry standards and grading systems It can’t be MY developers, they’re the best • AT&T’s Application Resource Optimizer (ARO) –  http://Developer.att.com/ARO –  In 2012, <2% of tested apps required no optimization
  9. 9. How is Mobile Different? Internet IP applications Mobile applications Wireless State Machine Mobile apps often do not consider the uniqueness of the wireless network Optimized mobile applications improve user experience with improved battery life and perceived faster speed
  10. 10. Data Transfer LTE RRC State Machine Timer Expiration Radio Off Radio On IDLE Continuous Reception Tail For AT&T’s Model: T1 = 100ms T2 = 20ms T3 = 10,00ms 100ms 10s
  11. 11. Data Transfer LTE RRC State Machine Timer Expiration Radio Off Radio On IDLE Continuous Reception Tail • LTE has higher throughput than 3G • This does not improve application behaviour -  The higher power actually accentuates any issues your application might have! 100ms 10s
  12. 12. It’s All Connected Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions: •  RRC State transitions control
  13. 13. It’s All Connected Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions: •  RRC State transitions control –  Speed/User Experience
  14. 14. It’s All Connected Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions: •  RRC State transitions control –  Speed/User Experience –  Device battery life
  15. 15. It’s All Connected Application traffic triggers RRC State transitions: •  RRC State transitions control –  Speed/User Experience –  Device battery life –  Network efficiency
  16. 16. AT&T Application Resource Optimizer • Free diagnostic tool • Open Source • Test any Platform • Emulate any carrier network • Analysis of both Native Apps and the Mobile Web • Winner of the 2013 GSMA Smartphone Application Challenge award at MWC Allows YOU as a developer to SEE exactly how data is flowing from your app!
  17. 17. What Platforms Can I Test With? All of them! • All Platforms: Pcap/tcpdump network trace •  Ex: Wi-Fi Hotspot (like Connectify) and Wireshark/NetMon to collect •  iOS: Remote Virtual Interface uses Instruments to collect pcap over 3G/LTE • Android and Windows 8: Native Collector •  Note: Android collector requires root
  18. 18. How Does ARO Work? Transfer Trace Files Process Trace Test Your Application • PCAP only: •  Network traffic collected • Native Collector adds: •  Video •  User Input •  Peripheral Usage •  CPU usage • Applies Radio and Power models to data • Graded against 15 Best Practices • Learn how your application ACTUALLY behaves!
  19. 19. Everyone Wins With ARO •  Faster Response Times •  Improved Battery Life •  Efficient Data Plan Usage •  Enriched User Experience End User •  App-specific Analysis •  Key Areas to Improve •  Cross Platform and Network Agnostic •  Free and Open Source Developer •  Increased Network Availability •  Signaling Load Reduction •  Efficient Spectrum Usage •  Improved Radio Availability Wireless Carrier
  20. 20. What’s the Industry Doing? • Quality App Directory - App Quality Alliance (AQuA) (http://www.appqualityalliance.org/) • Smarter App Challenge – GSMA (http://mobileappchallenge.com/smarterapp/) • Mobile Content Action Team – CTIA (http://www.ctia.org/business_resources/wic/index.cfm/AID/10333) • Other carriers • All are using ARO!! (http://developer.att.com/ARO) • Numerous Customer facing apps help customers preserve battery and reduce data usage Get ahead of the game: Optimize NOW!
  21. 21. So, How Does ARO Make My App Faster? ARO is the test kit to identify areas where performance improvements exist Simple, common sense development best practices – Reducing connection times – Caching files – Eliminating Errors The fixes identified by ARO will tune your application to higher performance and speed
  22. 22. From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps 1. Close Connections 2. Cache Your Data 3. Manage Every Connection
  23. 23. From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps 1. Close Connections 2. Cache Your Data 3. Manage Every Connection
  24. 24. Closing Connections? How Does That Help? >80% of applications do NOT close connections when they are finished!
  25. 25. Closing Connections: Example 38% more power on LTE! (18% more power on 3G)
  26. 26. Closing Connections: CODE MultiRes Sample app from Android SDK – Modified to download images HttpURLConnection getimagecloseconn = (HttpURLConnection) urln.openConnection(); getimagecloseconn.setRequestProperty("connection", "close"); getimagecloseconn.connect(); String cachecontrol = getimagecloseconn.getHeaderField("Cache-Control"); InputStream isclose = getimagecloseconn.getInputStream(); bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(isclose); getimagecloseconn.disconnect(); https://github.com/attdevsupport/ARO/tree/master/2013DevSummitTurbocharge
  27. 27. From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps 1. Close Connections 2. Cache Your Data 3. Manage Every Connection
  28. 28. Caching Your Data 17% of all mobile traffic is duplicate download of the same unaltered HTTP content (1) “It’s just a 6 KB logo” – 6 KB * 3 DL/session *10,000 users/day = 3.4GB/month Reading from local cache is 75-99% faster than downloading from the web (1)“Web Caching on Smartphones: Ideal vs. Reality”, http://www.research.att.com/~sen/pub/Caching_mobisys12.pdf
  29. 29. Even if caching IS supported – it is OFF by default!! Caching Support by Library Android Connection Libraries iOS Libraries Android & Safari Test Name UC HUC HC WV HRC T20 NSUR ASIHR AB SB Basic caching ™ ™ ™ ˜ ˜ ™ ˜ Revalidation ™ ™ ™ ˜ ˜ ™ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Non-caching directives ™ ™ ™ ˜ ˜ ™ ˜ » ˜ ˜ Expiration directives ™ ™ ™ ˜ ˜ ™ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ URL with query string ™ ™ ™ ˜ ˜ ™ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Partial caching ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ Redirection ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™
  30. 30. Caching Methods (How do I do it?) ETags Cache Control Headers • Each file has a Unique Tag • Revalidated on server for each request – High Performance Web Sites: Rule 1 – Make Fewer HTTP Requests (1) – Adding a connection drains battery, adds 500-3,000 ms latency • Important to carefully assign Max-Age times • App will not check file on server until Max-Age is reached – Retrieval is strictly file processing time (1) http://developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/posts/2007/04/rule_1_make_few/
  31. 31. Comparing ETag vs. Cache Control Network Usage Battery Drain Data Usage Speed NO Cache YES entire file downloaded Full network connection made High Slowest ETag Yes – ETag in cache is validated on server Full network connection Low Slow Cache Control No N/A N/A Fast Any Caching is better than no caching, but for mobile, Cache Control is preferred
  32. 32. Caching: Worth the Effort? public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); //establish a cache try { File httpCacheDir = new File(getCacheDir(), "http"); long httpCacheSize = 10 * 1024 * 1024; // 10 MiB HttpResponseCache.install(httpCacheDir, httpCacheSize); // } catch (IOException e) { Log.i(TAG, "HTTP response cache installation failed:" + e); } Add this! Android 4.0: Don’t leave older devices in the cold: Consider adding reflection for older versions of Android http://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/http/HttpResponseCache.html
  33. 33. Caching Performance File still valid in cache Radio never turns on 100% less power! MultiRes sample app – modified to add caching 98% faster!
  34. 34. Caching Performance File in cache has expired, revalidate at server If radio has gone back to IDLE, this can take 2.5s LTE: 14% less power! MultiRes sample app – modified to add caching 3G: 30% less power! 30% faster! 89% faster!
  35. 35. From Zombie to Sprinter in 3 Easy Steps 1. Close Connections 2. Cache Your Data 3. Manage Every Connection
  36. 36. Grouping Connections 38J of energy used!! Imagine an app that: 1. Downloads an image every 60s 2. Downloads an Ad every 60s 3. Sends Analytics to a Server every 60s
  37. 37. Grouping Connections 16J of energy used!! 58% savings! Now, look what happens if your connections are grouped together 1. Downloads an image every 60s 2. Downloads an Ad every 60s 3. Sends Analytics to a Server every 60s 16J of energy used!! 58% less energy
  38. 38. How Do I Group Connections if (Tel.getDataActivity() >0){ if (Tel.getDataActivity() <4){ //ok, we are passed the minimum time to check //and we found network activity- //download the image here using image getter imagegetter(counter, numberofimages); //and show the ad AdRequest adRequest = new AdRequest(); adRequest.addTestDevice(AdRequest.TEST_EMULATOR); adView.loadAd(adRequest); // Initiate a generic request to load it with an ad adView.loadAd(new AdRequest());
  39. 39. Grouping Connections for Speed Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your application by managing connections properly: Threading file downloads vs. serial download Removing redirects to files Pre-fetching files that are used often
  40. 40. Grouping Connections for Speed Threading file downloads vs. serial download
  41. 41. Grouping Connections for Speed Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your application by managing connections properly: Removing redirects to files Redirection adds ~2-3 seconds for each request { 2 sec
  42. 42. Grouping Connections for Speed Not only can you save battery, but you can speed up your application by managing connections properly: Pre-fetching files that are used often
  43. 43. More Best Practices Look for error codes: no 4xx 5xx HTTP response codes should occur:
  44. 44. More Best Practices Look for error codes: 404s Error messages should be short and sweet
  45. 45. Ad Download every 30s More Best Practices: Periodic Connections Regular 3 minute Polls for updates (20% battery/day)
  46. 46. Summary • Our customers expect high performance • App performance optimizations are easy… Once you know the issues • Best Practices: –  Close Connections –  Cache Data –  Group Connections • Fewer connections • Threaded Connections • No redirects • 4XX HTTP response codes • Periodic Connections
  47. 47. everyone wins with ARO
  48. 48. Developer.att.com/ARO Developer.program@att.com @dougsillars thank you!

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