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Final Report On Lausd Water Usage 10 22 09

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At the project inception in February 2009, Generation Power and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), which commissioned this study, set the following goals: …

At the project inception in February 2009, Generation Power and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), which commissioned this study, set the following goals:
1. Conduct physical water audits of at least 120 LAUSD school campuses, including water fixture counts, analysis of makes and models of toilets, and analysis of irrigation controllers and field conditions.
2. Develop an ongoing technical and media force for water conservation and campus sustainability.
3. Develop the organizational, technical, and knowledge capacity to have a significant and ongoing impact on water usage within the LAUSD.

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  • 1. Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools October 2009
  • 2. ContentsContents ........................................................................................................................... 2Our Water Crisis ................................................................................................................ 3Summary of Project............................................................................................................ 4 Project Goals .................................................................................................................. 4 Scope of Work ................................................................................................................ 4 Project Staffing and Workflow .......................................................................................... 5Summary of Findings.......................................................................................................... 7 Overall Water Usage and Cost ......................................................................................... 7 Indoor Water Fixtures ..................................................................................................... 8 Outdoor Irrigation Systems .............................................................................................10 Landscape.....................................................................................................................10 Management and Operations ..........................................................................................10 User Behavior ................................................................................................................11Strategies to Reduce Water Usage......................................................................................12 1. Replace outdated toilets and urinals..........................................................................12 2. Centralize control of irrigation ..................................................................................13 3. Implement low-flow irrigation systems ......................................................................13 4. Replace turf or high water use plants with drought tolerant plants ..............................13 5. Assign responsibility to track water usage and manage water use down ......................14 6. Share water usage information with school sites and create incentives for campuses to decrease usage .............................................................................................................15 7. Optimize central irrigation system per each irrigation zone..........................................15 8. Provide water conservation training to school and plant administrators ........................16 9. Launch an awareness and conservation campaign .....................................................16Next Steps........................................................................................................................18Implications Beyond the LAUSD .........................................................................................20Generation Power, the Social Enterprise of the Infrastructure Academy .................................21Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................23Appendices .......................................................................................................................24 Appendix 1: LADWP Water Conservation Rebates ............................................................24 Appendix 2: Estimated Labor Costs for New Toilets and Urinals ........................................26 Appendix 3: Schools Audited..........................................................................................272 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 3. Our Water CrisisSouthern California faces a severe water crisis. Supplies from its three external sources ofwater are all seriously constrained: 1. Eastern Sierra Nevada – The Eastern Sierra is Southern California producing less run-off due to lower snowfall over Water Reserve Levels the last several years. In addition, court restrictions to address Owens Valley dust mitigation and Mono Lake renewal have limited the amount of water available for export to the City of Los Angeles. 2. Colorado River – The Colorado River basin is experiencing a seven year drought. Since 2000 due to high demand and lower rainfall than previous decades, the reservoir has lost 100 feet of elevation and decreased its storage from 96% to 43% of capacity. In 2008, the Scripps Institute of Oceanography issued a paper titled “When will Lake Mead go dry?” which set the odds of Lake Mead drying up by 2021 at 50-50. Water imports from the Colorado River to Southern California have decreased from 325,000 acre-feet per year in 2000 to 265,000 acre-feet in 2009 (note: an acre-foot is one acre of water one foot deep). 3. State Water Project – The State Water Project, which currently provides one third of the region’s water is also constrained due to court actions over environmental concerns (threats to the Delta Smelt). In addition, according to the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, the Delta is under threat from a weakened system of earth levees which could collapse in a major earthquake and lead to massive salt water intrusion into the Sacramento Bay Delta region. This could lead to a two-year delay before fresh water deliveries could be restored to Southern California.While California has been experiencing less Capacity of Major Reservoirs (January 2009)rainfall than in previous years, geological analysis Oroville Dam 27%suggests that the last century has been much San Luis Reservoir 28%wetter than the average precipitation for the Pine Flat Reservoir 16%region over the last several hundred years. Lake Mead 48%Moreover, climate change will likely lead to Diamond Valley Lake 51% Source: Metropolitan Water District presentation, August 17, 2009 decreased rain and snowfall in California and decreased fresh water runoff. In comparison with other arid regions of the world (which also enjoy high standards of living), we use far more water per person. The bottom line is that we must learn to live in an arid region while consuming far less water.3 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 4. Summary of ProjectProject GoalsAt the project inception in February 2009, Generation Power and the Los Angeles Departmentof Water and Power (LADWP), which commissioned this study, set the following goals: 1. Conduct physical water audits of at least 120 LAUSD school campuses, including water fixture counts, analysis of makes and models of toilets, and analysis of irrigation controllers and field conditions. 2. Develop an ongoing technical and media force for water conservation and campus sustainability. 3. Develop the organizational, technical, and knowledge capacity to have a significant and ongoing impact on water usage within the LAUSD.Scope of WorkThe project was divided into six deliverables: 1. Physical School Water Audits Field teams of six students, working under the direction of an adult supervisor, will deploy to campuses for a half-day audit per campus. Audits will include: Physical inventory and data recording of all indoor water fixtures including types of toilets, urinals, faucets, showers, and classroom lab faucets (excluding fire sprinkler heads and fire hydrants). Digital pictures of all water fixtures will be taken. Physical inventory of the sprinkler heads and irrigation control systems for all irrigated areas of the campus. Digital pictures of all irrigation control systems will be taken. 2. Quantitative Analysis of LAUSD Water Usage We will review water bills to track longitudinal water usage and costs across schools to develop useful metrics and cross-school comparisons to better design water conservation programs and water fixture maintenance and improvements for LAUSD campuses. 3. Google Earth and GIS Analysis We will develop a water usage database of a subset of LAUSD school campuses for use in Google Earth and GIS software to analyze all irrigable areas and buildings. 4. Development of Summary Report At the completion of the 120 audits, we will finish the project with the development of a summary report detailing all work done. 5. Water Education Trip All student water conservation specialists will visit Mono Lake for a week of environmental education to learn about the impact of water use and the need for water conservation measures. Students will return from this week with a deeper understanding of water issues and a heartfelt concern for water conservation. 6. Media Event Upon completion of 120 school audits, we will hold a press conference with the leadership of the City of Los Angeles, the LADWP, and the LAUSD to report the findings and acknowledge the work of the student water conservation specialists.4 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 5. Project Staffing and Workflow I never imagined that my firstOur team consisted of approximately 40 young people official job would be flushing toiletsthrough the Spring and Summer and two adult leaders and timing how long the water ran(approximately 1/3 of the team were legally adults but were for or running across football fieldsinexperienced and ranged from 18-22 years of age). Michael getting wet while trying to flagWinters served as Interim General Manager and Carlos sprinklers. But working forBarajas was the Field Manager. Four community college Generation Power during the summer wasn’t as bad as it sounds.students served as field supervisors and data supervisors. I became an employee in July 2009Six team members were asked to serve as Crew Leads. The not knowing what to expect, notteam was 40% female and most of the students were low- only was I new to the company butincome and drawn from the Infrastructure Academy program I was lucky enough to become asites. Twenty of the student-employees qualified for team leader which came with manyWorkforce Investment Act (WIA) funding through the Los other responsibilities. The firstAngeles Conservation Corps, UCLA, or the Archdiocese. couple of days were hard becauseThese funds of $1,500 per student-employee effectively not only did I have to scarify myselfraised the project budget by $30,000. to wake up at 4 in the morning everyday but also had to learn how the company functioned. There wasThe field crew consisted of 27 young people who were a lot of filling out paperwork forassigned to four teams (one in the spring and three in the each restroom audit that was donesummer). Each team would arrive to the Generation Power and at first it all seemed sooffices at the Metropolitan Water District (next to Union complicated. As time went by it allStation) at 6:30am for a morning briefing. Crews would became easy for me because notreturn to the office by 3pm for dismissal. The data team, only did I learn how the processwhich consisted of 10 young people, worked a staggered worked but I also realized why beingschedule in the office. Over the course of the summer, a part of Generation Power was soemployee attendance was very high and there were very few important.unexcused absences. I started realizing how much water was being wasted on every day ofIndoor (Restroom) Audits: Teams would depart by 6:45 school. I also got the opportunity towith a list of five school sites they were to audit. Each team go camping with my co-workerswould arrive to a school site and meet with plant managers which was such a great experience.to obtain keys and school site maps. Restroom audit teams Not only did I continue to learnwere subdivided into two person teams, a timer and a data more about the history of Monorecorder. Each two-person team would identify the make Lake but I also had the chance toand model of the flush valve mechanism, count the number bond with my co-workers.of toilets and sinks, photograph the restroom fixture layout Working for Generation Power thisand draw a diagram of the restroom. Once the inventory and summer was a great experience.the pictorial work was complete, the team would flush and Not only did I realize the importancetime each of the toilets three times to evaluate time per of water but it helped me grow as aflush. The field teams were able to complete five and person.eventually six, seven, and even a record of eight schools perday. Maricela Zurita Generation Power Crew Lead Orthopedic Medical MagnetIrrigation Audits: After all of the indoor (restroom)assessments were completed our irrigation phase began. There were three teams dedicated toirrigation. The irrigation teams evaluated sprinkler control systems and inventoried the time andday of week for outdoor irrigation per controller. These teams manually turned on each zone,flagged each sprinkler to identify the make and model of sprinkler heads and identified any5 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 6. repair issues. The team also evaluated permeable soil conditions including excess run-off, dryareas, or extremely marshy areas. The field crews were able to complete 5-8 schools per day.Data Entry and Analysis: The data team would receive the data entry forms from the field teamand would input the various data sheets into several data sets for each of the schools. Eachdata specialist was responsible for a complete school data set and would organize the file in auniform manner. Photos were cataloged and all forms were cataloged into a physical and anelectronic file format for subsequent review. The data management team would evaluate thedata and then integrate it into separate centralized data sets. Periodically, the database wasreviewed and evaluated for data anomalies and errors. Once the data was fully verified, variousdata reports and findings were made and progress reports developed for the clients’ review.6 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 7. Summary of FindingsOverall Water Usage and Cost High Overall Water Usage in the Schools: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) is the largest landowner and water and energy customer in the City of Los Angeles. LAUSD water usage in 2008 was 2.6 billion gallons (7,979 acre feet) overall. LADWP water bills (for schools in the City of Los Angeles) reflect usage of 2.0 billion gallons, which is roughly equivalent to a football field of water over 6,000 feet tall! A Reducible Expense: LAUSD spends a significant amount of money on water. In 2008, the average monthly water bill for the district was $672,427. In addition, sewer bills cost the school district an additional $256,000 per month. Across 94 middle and high schools (for which we received water bills), the average monthly water bill in 2008 was $1,826 for a middle school and $3,235 for a high school. Unless the school district changes its infrastructure and the behavior of its water users, water bills will likely increase given the LADWP’s increase in rates and move to tiered billing. Reductions in water and sewer costs are “low hanging fruit” that could return funding to support instructional activities while preserving an increasingly scarce and vital natural resource. Per Student Costs: Water usage is predictably cyclical with the lowest demand in the winter and highest demand in the summer. On a per student basis middle schools consume more water. Interestingly, per student demand at middle schools has been increasing while high schools have been lowering their per student demand over time.7 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 8. Indoor Water Fixtures Number of Toilets and Urinals We conducted physical inspections of 120 LAUSD schools within the City of Los Angeles. We focused on the largest campuses which we expected had the most opportunities for water savings. Average Average # Students Urinals Students Total Average Toilets/ per per perAudited Schools # Schools Enrollment Enrollment # Toilets School Toilet # Urinals School UrinalHigh School 57 134,605 2,403 4,746 83.3 28.4 2021 35.5 66.6Middle School 63 109,582 1,739 3,913 62.1 28.0 1577 25.0 69.5 120 244,187 8,659 3,598 Extrapolating this data to the schools that we did not visit (and assuming that elementary schools have similar fixture ratios as middle schools) suggests that there are over 29,000 toilets and urinals. This does not include the many specialty schools including adult education centers, early education centers, SPAN schools, continuation schools, district offices, and so forth. # Toilets # Urinals Non-Audited Schools Estimated Estimated Estimated Estimated Elementary School 520 297,316 10,617 4,279 Middle School 9 15,651 559 225 High Schools 13 31,239 1,082 469 Total 662 588,393 20,917 8,571 Inefficient indoor water fixtures: 120 high schools and middle schools were audited and 19,793 water fixtures (toilets, urinals, and sinks) were cataloged.  Toilets: Of the 8,585 toilets cataloged, 62% (5,333) are out of date and consume 3.5 gallons per flush (gpf) or more. This is more than 2 gallons more per flush than LAUSD’s current toilet specification for new construction of 1.28 gallons per flush. Assuming the proportions remain constant for unaudited elementary, middle, and high schools, there are an additional 13,716 3.5 gpf toilets.8 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 9.  Urinals: Of the 3,428 urinals cataloged, 60% (2,056) consume 1.5 or more gallons per flush. An additional 39% (1,347) consume 1 gallon per flush; only 1% (25) are waterfree urinals. Extrapolating the percentages out for for unaudited elementary, middle, and high schools, there are an additional 3,724 1.5+ gpf urinals.  Long flush times: Toilet and urinal flush times are a function of local water pressure and the maintenance of the flushometer. Timings of toilets and urinals indicate that many of the rubber “diaphragms” and vacuums have worn out and need to be replaced and lead to significant additional wastage beyond the manufacturer’s specifications. Flush times are far beyond the targets of 6.5 seconds for a 1.5 gallon toilet and 4.5 seconds for a 1.0 gallon urinal. Toilets Urinals Target flush time Target flush time = 6.5 seconds = 4.5 seconds#ofFixtures Seconds Per Flush Seconds Per Flush 9 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 10. Clean Bathrooms: School restrooms are generally clean and well-maintained by school custodial staff. Restrooms are cleaned twice daily on most campuses.Outdoor Irrigation Systems Schools Complying with Drought Regulations: Most schools are in compliance with LADWP drought regulations which specify outdoor irrigation timing. Water Irrigation Timing Not Optimized: Many irrigation systems have identical settings for all irrigation zones and are not optimized to the specific needs of each plot of land. Some areas are underwatered while others are overwatered. Control Over Outdoor Water Usage is Contested: One of the challenges we observed in managing outdoor irrigation is the decentralized irrigation controllers on each campus. At many high schools, the plant manager does not have control (or full control) of the watering of sports fields. Site gardeners and district staff are sometimes physically locked out of the irrigation control system by athletic coaches who overwater fields. In some cases, they have even replaced facilities’ padlocks with their own. Inconsistent Irrigation System Maintenance: Many schools face challenges with broken irrigation pipes, student/community vandalism to sprinkler heads, and damage to sprinkler heads from lawn mowers and vehicles. In addition, we occasionally found electrical wires which were cut within the irrigation controller area rendering them unusable, main and local valves which had been manually shut off, dysfunctional pumps, and inconsistent water pressure across the same school campuses.Landscape Non-California Friendly Vegetation: While landscape audits were outside of the scope of this project, it was evident in our visits to many of the older campuses that many non-drought friendly plants are growing on campuses.Management and Operations Prioritize Water Conservation: LAUSD Facilities has emphasized energy reductions but has not made a similar investment in water conservation. Although some LAUSD staff are clearly responsible for plumbing and maintenance of water fixtures (and were very supportive of this project), there is not yet a systematic effort to reduce water usage. Lack of Information about Water Consumption or Costs: LADWP water bills are not routinely analyzed and no one at a school site that we met had ever seen their schools’ water consumption. Note: LAUSD Facilities recently launched the Utility Shared Savings Program to address this situation and provide schools with incentives to conserve water and energy. Lack of Water Efficient Tools: While we did not formally audit cleaning processes, we often noticed school facilities staff washing areas with hoses rather than more efficient tools such as water brooms.10 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 11. User Behavior Lack of Awareness of the Value of Water: In our many conversations with students, faculty, and staff, we found that most users were unaware of the severity of the water crisis and each individual’s need to conserve. For example, in our initial water audit at Roosevelt High School, we observed an enormous pool of water in the Gazebo area (that ranged in depth from a few inches to a foot) as submerged sprinklers ran for many hours. Students, teachers, and staff all noticed the water running but no one addressed the situation until our team intervened by working with the site maintenance staff to manually turn off the sprinklers.11 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 12. Strategies to Reduce Water UsageFollowing is a summary of the opportunities for water savings that the district should considerimplementing: Indoor 1. Replace outdated toilets and urinals Water Replacing toilets and urinals with high efficiency devices will provide Fixtures significant water savings. LADWP estimates that every 3.5 gpf toilet that is replaced with a new 1.28 gpf toilet nets a .0425 acre foot savings. 1.5 gpf urinals can be replaced with 0.25 gpf, 0.125, or waterfree urinals for significant water savings. This project is expected to last one year of full-time work for a team of 7.4 journeymen plumbers and 7.4 maintenance workers. Water conservation incentives are available from the LADWP in the amount of $500 per urinal and $300 per toilet. Materials costs would be covered through LADWP incentives. Replacing the 5,333 toilets and 2,053 urinals identified across the 120 middle and high schools that participated in the study would save 231 acre feet each year and an additional amount in sewer costs. This would save over $300,000 annually in water and sewer costs. Thereafter, at existing water rates, the project will save the district $34,615 each year in reduced water and sewer costs. The project will breakeven four years after it is completed. LAUSD Maintenance and Operations will have to determine whether to implement Ultra Low Flow or waterfree urinals. We encourage the district to consider waterfree urinals in those areas where they can be installed correctly and cost-effectively as they will never consume any additional water and have been successfully installed in many high-use facilities and other school districts. Estimated Cost: Materials cost: $1.6 million ($300 rebate * 5,333 toilets) for toilets $1,028,000 ($500 rebate * 2,056 urinals) for urinals Labor cost (to be borne by LAUSD): $1,699,470 (see Appendix B: Estimated Time and Labor Costs to Install New Toilets and Urinals) Action Steps:  Outline a retrofit plan based on replacing toilets and urinals at the highest consuming schools first  Negotiate agreements with equipment manufacturers, contractors, and labor to complete the work12 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 13. Outdoor 2. Centralize control of irrigationIrrigation We recommend the installation of a centralized irrigation systemSystems that is managed by central facilities staff or at the local district level. LAUSD Facilities recently began to scope out this program. West Basin Municipal Water District is willing to fund the audit and installation of centralized irrigation systems in the 110 schools in its service area. Estimated Cost: TBD, water rebates of $50 per station available Action Steps:  Identify high water use schools with significant irrigable area  Conduct certified irrigation audits to assess water pressure, irrigation zones, and settings for a centralized irrigation system  Select and install a centralized irrigation system  Assign responsibility for district-level management 3. Implement low-flow irrigation systems Current sprinkler systems may overwater fields by pumping too much water too quickly. Implementation of low-flow sprinkler heads would reduce the amount of flow per second which could be more appropriate given the type of sedimentation. LADWP rebate incentives are available at $13 for rotors retrofit and $5 per sprinkler head retrofit. The district is also considering implementation of subsurface irrigation systems which would minimize evaporation and reduce damage to sprinklerheads. Estimated Cost: TBD, LADWP rebate incentives are available at $13 and $5 per sprinkler head depending on the type Action Steps:  Identify high water use schools with significant irrigation costs  Procure and install new sprinkler heads  Apply for rebatesLandscape 4. Replace turf or high water use plants with drought tolerant plants Replacing high water use plants with California friendly plants (as have been planted in new school construction) would lower the water requirements of each campus. The State of California has encouraged and increasingly is requiring (AB 325, AB2717, and AB1881) the implementation of water efficient landscaping. The13 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 14. City of Los Angeles is also promoting sustainable development practices which emphasize outdoor water conservation and drought- tolerant vegetation. The next step would be to conduct school-specific landscape audits (starting with the highest water using campuses) and engage local school stakeholders in a plan to change the landscaping to more drought-friendly vegetation. Ideally, each school (beginning with the most water inefficient) would develop and implement a sustainable landscaping plan that addresses visual appearance, functionality, local water storage (water buckets and cisterns), and water usage. Additional incentives and partnerships may be available through the LADWP and the City of Los Angeles as well as non-profit organizations including Million Trees LA, Tree People, and the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Watershed Council. These projects present tremendous learning opportunities for students to engage in service learning activities and to engage local communities. Estimated Cost: Will vary greatly by school site, LADWP incentives available for turf removal at $1 per square foot of turf replaced with drought-tolerant landscaping, in-kind resources and labor available Action Steps:  Conduct landscape audits of schools with extensive irrigable area and landscaping  Develop school-specific plans to replace landscaping with school community input  Match plans with available funding sources and in-kind resourcesManagement 5. Assign responsibility to track water usage and manage water use down Identifying someone with responsibility to lower water usage while ensuring adequate service quality will be essential to making long- term progress. The district has an energy management unit which is also responsible for water but given the relatively low cost of water compared to energy, water receives far less attention. Yet, the potential for water and cost savings more than justifies allocation of a position. This individual would oversee the implementation of the recommendations in this document and continually prioritize the best opportunities to conserve water, apply for rebate funds, manage work, and save money. Estimated Cost: 0.5 FTE14 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 15. Action Steps:  Define job description  Identify and hire internal candidate for role 6. Share water usage information with school sites and create incentives for campuses to decrease usage Disseminating water usage and cost information to school sites on a monthly basis would likely result in decreased water usage as plant management staff and end users became aware of their consumption as well as targets to reduce usage. Moreover, creating incentives for schools and end users to decrease their water consumption would engage each school community in the task. Enabling schools to retain cost savings locally (which LAUSD Facilities Management has recently arranged through the Utilities Shared Savings Program) will provide a financial incentive for schools to decrease consumption. The development of contests and competitions could also engage students, teachers, and administrators by changing attitudes and behaviors that drive usage. An additional benefit is that these end users, particularly children, will bring their new expectations to hundreds of thousands of homes in Los Angeles. Estimated Cost: TBD, ROI for water and energy reduction Action Steps:  Roll-out Utilities Shared Savings Program  Develop process to regularly gather and process data  Develop electronic channels to convey information to schools  Manage ongoing process 7. Optimize central irrigation system per each irrigation zone Upon implementation of a central irrigation system, optimize outdoor irrigation by employing a field team to assess the condition of each plot periodically to ensure that each plot was watered a sufficient but not excessive amount. Multiple checks over the course of a year would be necessary to optimize the watering solution per irrigation zone. Estimated Cost: TBD Action Steps:  “Tune” settings over time with a field team based on frequent soil and vegetation checks15 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 16. 8. Provide water conservation training to school and plant administrators Educating school maintenance staff and plant administrators on the importance of water and opportunities to conserve water would likely have a huge impact as they have significant responsibility for how water is used and how to avoid gross wastage. Estimated Cost: TBD Action Steps:  Develop training program  Offer training through existing maintenance channelsUser 9. Launch an awareness and conservationBehavior campaign and contests about water usage to reduce end user (student, faculty, and staff) usage Emphasizing the water shortage and the need to conserve can have a tremendous impact on user behavior. LADWP water restrictions and greater user awareness about water shortages led to a citywide 17% decrease in water usage in July 2009 compared to July 2008 without major infrastructural changes. The school district achieved an impressive 28% decline in water consumption over the same period. A campaign should focus more heavily on high water users, such as maintenance staff. Given that there are seven hundred thousand students in LAUSD, a student-oriented campaign, perhaps including competitions, would have the benefit of impacting hundreds of thousands of families as young people would bring home the messages of water conservation. Providing students with opportunities to create Public Service Announcements (PSAs), service learning opportunities, and public speaking would also help to develop student voice and communication skills which would be a positive instructional outcome and would deepen students’ appreciation for water as a scarce natural resource. Estimated Cost: TBD Action Steps:  Identify funding source(s)  Solicit a proposal  Track progress on a school by school basis16 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 17. 17 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 18. Next StepsWater conservation is a green jobs win-win situation:  LAUSD Facilities Management wins by reducing its costs by taking advantage of utility incentives and water savings over time  Labor wins through the creation of green jobs and the development of a pipeline of future talent interested in plumbing and related occupations  Students win through the creation of learning and training opportunities for careers in the green economy  The environment wins as nature gets to keep more waterImplementation of the strategies described in the next section will take years and will requirean ongoing initiative and multiple programs. Most of the direct costs can be paid for by thewater agencies or through reduced utilities costs. Indeed, many of these projects haverelatively short payback periods and will generate significant cost savings over time. In thischallenging fiscal environment, the district must take advantage of every opportunity to reducecosts.As mentioned in the project goals, Generation Power seeks to be an ongoing technical andmedia force for water conservation and campus sustainability and to develop the organizational,technical, and knowledge capacity to have a significant and ongoing impact on water usage.We recommend the district begin to implement the above recommendations by pursuing thefollowing steps. Generation Power is eager to assist LAUSD, the LADWP, and others concernedwith water conservation and we have identified opportunities that we could assist in reducingwater usage. We offer a low-cost, dedicated field team and data analysis capacity and apassion for this work. We have developed detailed proposals in separate documents for theLAUSD and LADWP to consider. 1. Landscape Audits 70% of water use is spent outdoors and the LAUSD is the largest land owner with tremendous opportunity to reduce its water usage. Generation Power would like to conduct certified landscape audits using catch-cans to assess overall water usage through sprinklers and perform a vegetation survey. This work will be important to the implementation of a centralized irrigation system and can address the challenges of over- and under-watering different plots of land. 2. Water Conservation Program Management Although many of these projects have an immediate ROI, ensuring that they happen in a large, multi-site organization like LAUSD will require ongoing effort and leadership. Generation Power would like to provide program management to track water and energy data, publicize this information, develop campaigns and other incentives to reduce water usage, and conduct ongoing indoor and outdoor assessments. We would leverage our low-cost field workforce to continually gather data and disseminate information and our data center to gather information and analyze it for program design. Generation Power18 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 19. would report into an individual within the district assigned the responsibility of reducing overall water usage. 3. Commencement of a program to replace toilets and urinals The 7,000 toilets and urinals represent an immediate opportunity for water savings, work for LAUSD Facilities staff, and an immediate payback. Generation Power would like to assist this major retrofit project through the development of a pre-apprenticeship program with the Plumber’s Union. Pre- apprentices would participate in classroom instruction in LAUSD schools and serve as helpers on the projects. The plumbers union, which would be intimately involved in the development and management of the program, would select the strongest pre- apprentices for entry into the union as apprentices. Creating a pre-apprenticeship program would connect this project work with an instructional and workforce development opportunity to benefit young people from Los Angeles. 4. Continual indoor assessment of pre-1970 schools and benchmarking of new schools to assess the lifespan of diaphragms Our audit of 120 schools have provided a thorough overview of all of the makes and models of water fixtures and irrigation systems and provide an outstanding baseline of information for plumbers to retrofit each of these devices without re-visiting all of the restrooms. Generation Power would like to continue these assessments through the elementary schools and the 21 middle and high schools that were not completed to ferret out all outstanding high use water fixtures. In addition, we would like to benchmark new schools to understand the water efficiency of toilets upon installation and performance over time to assess the lifespan of diaphragms.19 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 20. Implications Beyond the LAUSDAccess to fresh water is increasingly a global challenge. As populations grow and climateschange, management of this most vital of resources will become ever more important.This is certainly true in Southern California and the Western United States. We believe that wemust radically reduce current water consumption levels in order to create a sustainable life cyclein an arid region whose indigenous water supply could probably only support several hundredthousand people but which now is home to millions upon millions. Attitudes about water needto change radically as they already have in other arid regions of the world such as Australia andIsrael.School districts and the public sector offer tremendous opportunity to reduce waterconsumption and promote water awareness to the public. Efforts to conserve water,particularly in Southern California and the Western states, must address changes to plumbingsystems, infrastructure, and attitudes and beliefs about water.20 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 21. Generation Power, the Social Enterprise of theInfrastructure AcademyGeneration Power is a social enterprise of the Infrastructure Academy, a non-profit organizationdedicated to building a pipeline of diverse, well-qualified young people for the careeropportunities of the green economy. Generation Power provides training and employment toyoung people to green their communities as they learn to perform valuable work and improvetheir work skills.Approximately 40 outstanding young people worked over 9,600 hours on this project from May– September 2009. They did an extraordinary job. Field Teams Data Team Dallana Acosta David Marron Felix Lu Juan Adan Rogelio Martinez Justin Bradshaw Maria Aparicio Dana Medina Daisy Velasquez Jennifer Araque Victor Menjivar Ryan Domingo Mitzi Barroso, Salvador Osario Grace Guzman Nelson Castillo Luis Ramirez Lesley Nolasco Daniel Chagoya Irving Rodriguez Ian Trainor Dante Chatman Daniel Romo Maria Zurita David De La Torre Ingrid Salazar Moises Flores Osario Salvador Cinthia Gregorio Edgar Ulloa Claudia Gregorio Alejandro Vega Ken Lou Maricela Zurita Brenda Majano Supervisors Management Brian Duvardo Cindy Alvarez, Operations Coordinator Malcolm McLaren Carlos Barajas, Field Manager Jose Pineda Marcus Castain, CEO Michael Winters, Interim General Manager21 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 22. 22 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 23. AcknowledgementsCompletion of this project required the support of many people across several differentorganizations. We appreciate all of their help and look forward to working with them to beginimplementing these recommendations to conserve water in Los Angeles.  Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP): Thank you to former CEO and General Manager David Nahai and the Board of Commissioners for believing in the Infrastructure Academy and providing us with the resources to connect young people to green career opportunities. We appreciate the support of John Chen, Director of Customer Service, who supported this project and his water conservation team including Maria Sharma and Mark Gentili who worked with us to make it happen. Also, thank you to Heidi Bass, LADWP’s premier account manager responsible for LAUSD who provided ongoing enthusiastic support.  Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD): Thank you to the hard-working Maintenance and Operations staff who provided us with access to the schools and data. Special thank yous to Neil Gamble, Mike Brady, Greg Lewis, and Amber Allison. We also appreciate Robert Walton from Roosevelt High School who hosted our teams many times for training sessions. We also received tremendous support from plant managers, custodians, and other staff (too numerous to name) who every day do their best to provide students, teachers, and staff with schools that are safe, clean, and functional. We are also in awe of the never-ending support from J. Gonzalez whose steadfast commitment to marrying the environment with career and technical education has been invaluable.  Metropolitan Water District: We appreciate the support of the Metropolitan Water District and specifically to Gil Ivey, Fidencio Mares, and Margie Wheeler for providing us with office space and a home base for our young employees. Thank you also to Bill McDonnell who planted the seeds of this project in 2008 by encouraging us to explore water usage at the schools.  WIA Providers: We appreciate the Los Angeles Conservation Corps, UCLA Office of Instructional Development, Archdiocese Youth Employment, and the City of Los Angeles Community Development Department for providing Workforce Investment Act funding to some of our eligible young people.  Infrastructure Academy Staff: We appreciate the Infrastructure Academy team for providing invaluable teamwork and support for bringing this vision to reality. Thank you to the staff in the spring and summer of 2009: Cindy Alvarez, Marcus Castain, Elizabeth Guerrero, Jorge Madrid, and Acasia Wilson.23 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 24. AppendicesAppendix 1: LADWP Water Conservation Rebates24 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 25. 25 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 26. 26 Estimated Labor Time and Costs to Install New Toilets and Urinals No. of Time per Number workdays to Crew Hours of Crew Units installed Total complete Size Wage work Site time Hours installed during shift Fixtures project (1 Year) Rate Labor Cost© Infrastructure Academy Toilet Journeymen 8 7 8 1.5 4.0 5,333 1,333 5.33 $ 70 $ 746,620 Toilet Maintenance Worker 8 7 8 1.5 4.0 5,333 1,333 5.33 $ 45 $ 479,970 Urinals Journeymen 8 7 8 1.5 4.0 2,056 514 2.06 $ 70 $ 287,840 Urinals Maintenance Workers 8 7 8 1.5 4.0 2,056 514 2.06 $ 45 $ 185,040 Cost Savings at Current Water Rates Sum of Labor Costs $ 1,699,470 Acre- Cost Per Annual Feet Acre- Sewer Cost Savings Feet Cost Savings Toilets 231 1000 380 $ 318,780 Labor Cost Per Toilet Installed $ 230Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools Urinals 70 1000 380 $ 96,600 Labor Cost Per Urinal Installed $ 230 $ 415,380 Project Duration (years) 1.0 Time to Breakeven (years) 5.1 Monthly Savings Post-Project $ 34,615 No. of Journeymen 7.4 No. of Maintenance Workers 7.4 Appendix 2: Estimated Labor Costs for New Toilets and Urinals October 2009
  • 27. Appendix 3: Schools Audited Indoor Audit # School Name Date Irrigation Completed Date 1 32nd/USC Per Art Magnet 7/27/09 09/03/09 2 Adams Middle School 7/30/09 08/20/09 3 Arleta High School 8/5/09 08/19/09 4 Arroyo Seco Museum Science 8/3/09 09/02/09 5 Audubon Middle School 8/3/09 09/01/09 6 Bancroft Middle School 7/17/09 08/11/09 7 Banning High School 7/31/09 08/12/09 8 Belmont High School 7/27/09 08/10/09 9 Berendo Middle School 5/15/09 08/10/09 10 Bethune Middle School 7/28/09 08/13/09 11 Bravo Medical Magnet 7/29/09 No areas available for irrigation 12 Burbank Middle Shool 7/30/09 09/05/09 13 Burroughs Middle School 8/3/09 08/11/09 14 Byrd Middle School 7/9/09 09/05/09 15 Canoga Park High School 5/19/09 08/21/09 16 Carver Middle School 7/28/09 08/21/09 17 Chatsworth HighSchool 7/14/09 08/20/09 18 Civitas 7/29/09 Part of Roybal L.C. 19 Cleveland High School 7/13/09 08/21/09 20 Clinton Middle School 7/27/09 08/12/09 21 Cochran Middle School 8/4/09 08/12/09 22 Columbus Middle School 8/4/09 08/27/09 23 Crenshaw High School 6/16/09 08/25/09 24 Dana Middle School 6/9/09 08/20/09 25 Dorsey High School 7/28/09 09/02/09 26 Downtown Business Magnet 7/29/09 No areas available for irrigation 27 Eagle Rock Jr/Sr High School 8/3/09 09/02/09 28 El Camino Real High School 7/20/09 08/25/09 29 El Sereno Middle School 5/21/09 06/29/09 30 Emerson Middle School 8/3/09 08/11/09 31 Fairfax High School 7/24/09 09/02/09 32 Foshay Learning Center 8/4/2009 08/25/09 33 Franklin High School 7/30/09 09/03/09 34 Fremont High School 7/31/09 09/02/09 35 Frost Middle School 7/10/09 08/19/09 36 Gardena High School 7/31/09 08/12/09 37 Gompers Middle School 8/4/09 08/13/09 38 Grant High School 5/12/09 06/23/09 39 Hale Middle School 7/15/09 08/26/09 40 Hamilton High School Complex 7/22/09 08/13/09 41 Harbor Teacher Prep Academy 7/30/09 No irrigation 42 Harte Prep Middle School 7/31/09 09/05/09 43 Henry Middle School 7/10/09 08/18/09 44 High Tech High School 8/4/09 09/05/09 45 Hollenbeck Middle School 5/15/09 08/10/09 46 Hollywood High School 7/21/09 08/31/09 47 Holmes Middle School 7/13/09 08/18/0927 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 28. Indoor Audit# School Name Date Irrigation Completed Date 48 Irving Middle School 7/17/09 08/07/09 49 Jefferson High School 7/23/09 09/02/09 50 Jordan High School 7/29/09 08/21/09 51 Kennedy High School 7/13/09 08/19/09 52 King Middle School 5/28/09 08/08/09 53 Laces Magnet 7/24/09 08/28/09 54 Lawrence Middle School 7/14/09 08/27/09 55 Le Conte Middle School 7/14/09 08/10/09 56 Liechty Middle School 7/27/09 08/13/09 57 Lincoln High School 7/30/09 09/02/09 58 Los Angeles Acad Middle School 7/28/09 08/19/09 59 Los Angeles Global Studies HS 7/27/09 No Irrigation 60 Los Angeles High School 7/24/09 08/31/09 61 Los Angeles High School for the Arts 7/28/09 Part of Belmont 62 Maclay Middle School 7/8/09 08/19/09 63 Madison Middle School 7/13/09 08/17/09 64 Mann Middle School 8/3/09 08/12/09 65 Manual Arts High School 7/28/09 07/31/09 66 Marina Del Rey Middle School 7/21/09 08/14/09 67 Mark Twain Middle School 7/20/09 08/12/09 68 Markham Middle School 7/29/09 08/13/09 69 Marshall High School 5/27/09 08/31/09 70 Mid City Magnet 8/3/09 08/11/09 71 Millikan Middle School 5/22/09 09/05/09 72 Monroe High School 7/10/09 08/20/09 73 Mt. Gleason Middle School 5/28/09 In fire storm 74 Muir Middle School 7/29/09 08/12/09 75 Mulholland Middle School 7/16/09 09/01/09 76 Narbonne High School 6/10/09 09/01/09 77 New Tech HS at Jefferson 7/23/09 Part of Jefferson 78 New Tech HS at Jordan 7/29/09 Part of Jordan 79 Nightingale Middle School 8/3/09 08/27/09 80 Noble Middle School 7/14/09 08/28/09 81 North Hollywood High School 5/14/09 06/22/09 82 North Ridge Acad High School 8/4/09 08/18/09 83 North Ridge Middle School 7/16/09 08/28/09 84 Olive Vista Middle School 7/9/09 08/18/09 85 Orthopaedic Hospital Magnet 7/27/09 08/06/09 86 Pacoima Middle School 7/8/09 08/07/09 87 Palms Middle School 7/20/09 08/13/09 88 Panorama High School 7/9/09 08/28/09 89 Poly Technic HighSchool 7/10/09 08/31/09 90 Porter Middle School 7/10/09 08/18/09 91 Portola Middle School 7/15/09 09/01/09 92 Reed Middle School 5/18/09 08/17/09 93 Revere Middle School 7/20/09 09/02/09 94 Roosevelt High School 5/11/09 06/18/09 95 Roybal Learning Center 8/5/09 No water to irrigation 96 S.O.C.E.S. Middle School 7/14/09 Under construction28 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009
  • 29. Indoor Audit# School Name Date Irrigation Completed Date 97 San Fernando High School 7/9/09 08/19/09 98 San Pedro High School 6/8/09 08/21/09 99 Santee Education Complex 7/21/09 08/26/09100 Sepulveda Middle School 7/13/09 Under construction101 Stevenson Middle School 7/29/09 08/10/09102 Sun Valley Middle School 7/9/09 08/17/09103 Sutter Middle School 5/22/09 08/26/09104 Sylmar High School 7/8/09 08/18/09105 Taft High School 7/20/09 08/27/09106 University High School 7/22/09 09/01/09107 Valley Alternative Magnet 8/4/09 08/22/09108 Van Nuys High School 7/21/09 08/24/09109 Van Nuys Middle School 7/16/09 09/02/09110 Venice High School 7/22/09 08/26/09111 Verdugo Hills High School 5/26/09 08/21/09112 Virgil Middle School 7/17/09 08/06/09113 Webster Middle School 7/20/09 08/11/09114 West Adams Prep High School 5/13/09 06/30/09115 Westchester High School 7/23/09 08/27/09116 Westside Leadership Magnet 7/28/09 08/12/09117 Wilmington Middle school 7/30/09 08/20/09118 Wilson High School 5/20/09 09/03/09119 Woodland Hills Academy 7/15/09 08/25/09120 Wright Middle School 7/21/09 09/09/0929 Opportunities to Conserve Water in Los Angeles Schools © Infrastructure Academy October 2009