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TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation
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TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation

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  • The basic gist of the competition is to design and construct a vehicle to perform a set of tasks, which change from year to year. The competition is typically held at the end of April.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 2011 Indoor Aerial Robotics Competition<br />Winston Moy<br />Advised by: Dr. Jennifer Wang<br />Emu (ēm(y)oō) : Flightless Australian bird resembling ostrich. Member of the family Dromaiidae.<br />
    • 2. Tasks<br />Structure<br />Design<br />Construction<br />Electronics Hardware<br />Selection<br />Implementation<br />Control Software<br />Research<br />Coding<br />
    • 3. Objective Overview<br />Unmanned/Micro Aerial Vehicle<br />Urban Navigation<br />Competition<br />April 30, 2011<br />
    • 4. Scoring<br />Size Multiplier (S)<br />1- ( VUAV / VMax )<br />Speed Points<br />40 * ( 120 / Trun )<br />Control Multiplier (C)<br />Autonomous = 100%, RC = 10%<br />Other (Misc)<br />Took-off = 5 pts, Design, likability = 6 pts, etc.<br />Score = S * C * ( Speed + Other )<br />
    • 5. Vehicle Constraints<br />Size<br />Contained within 5x5x5ft<br />Safety<br />Kill switch<br />Control<br />Autonomous or remote<br />Design<br />Custom or commercially available<br />
    • 6. Changes from Past Years<br />Greater focus on, and heavily favors, rotorcraft<br />Focus on vision and fight algorithms, not construction of the aircraft.<br />Heavily favors fully autonomous systems<br />
    • 7. The Competition<br />5 Teams<br />4 Quadrotors<br />At least 2 were bought online… or at Best Buy.<br />Who knows.<br />Parrot AR Drone<br />
    • 8. 2011 IARC Design<br />Partially Buoyant Vehicle<br />
    • 9. 2011 IARC Design<br />Modular Construction<br />
    • 10. 2011 IARC Design<br />Three Degrees of Freedom<br />
    • 11. 2011 IARC Design<br />Computations Done Remotely<br />Laptop processes video<br />Determines navigation<br />Blimp executes decision<br />Cam Feed<br />Control Commands<br />
    • 12. Physical Realization<br />Structure<br />
    • 13. Body Design - Original<br />7.4 V Battery<br />Arduino<br />1.5”<br />6”<br />5”<br />Top<br />3.7 V Battery<br />Servo<br />Side<br />Front<br />
    • 14. Body Design - Final<br />Interface Board<br />1.5”<br />7.4 V Battery<br />6”<br />5”<br />Top<br />Servos<br />Side<br />Front<br />
    • 15. Gondola Construction<br />Materials<br />
    • 16. Gondola Construction<br />Balsa: 1/4 and 1/8” square rods<br />
    • 17. Gondola Construction<br />Carbon Fiber Tubes: 3/16 and 1/8” OD<br />
    • 18. Gondola Construction<br />Frame<br />Identical dorsal <br /> and ventral <br /> structure<br />
    • 19. Gondola Construction<br />Frame<br />Identical dorsal <br /> and ventral <br /> structure<br />Glue cured while <br /> in compression<br />
    • 20. Gondola Construction<br />Frame<br />Identical dorsal <br /> and ventral <br /> structure<br />Glue cured while <br /> in compression<br />2-D until last<br /> possible moment<br />
    • 21. Gondola Construction<br />Carbon Fiber<br />Simplified engine mounting<br />
    • 22. Gondola Construction<br />Carbon Fiber<br />Arduino tail boom<br />
    • 23. Gondola Construction<br />Shaft Bearing Column<br />
    • 24. Gondola Design Elements<br />Servo-Shaft Interface<br />
    • 25. An ME’s favorite part…<br />Electronics<br />
    • 26. Microcontroller Requirements<br />Digital Output<br />PWM<br />Analog Input<br />Sensors<br />Wireless Hardware<br />Communication<br />?<br />
    • 27. Arduino Microcontroller<br />Arduino FIO<br />Built-in Xbee socket<br />6 P.W.M. channels<br />6 Analog I/O<br />3.3 Vout for sensors<br />Battery or USB powered<br />
    • 28. Arduino Microcontroller<br />Open Source IDE<br />Free!!!<br />Cross platform <br />Win/OS X/Linux<br />Easy serial comm. (USB, <br />radio, etc)<br />Many libraries, examples<br />Codes like C++<br />
    • 29. Other Hardware<br />Servos<br />E-Sky EK2-0508<br />Motor Controller<br />EZRun 18A-SL ESC<br />Brushless DC Motors<br />Sonar Range Finder<br />LV-MaxSonar-EZ1<br />Camera<br />Some unbranded, <br /> 2.4 GHz thing…<br />
    • 30. Circuit Board Goodness<br />How to tie components together?<br />Breadboard is too heavy, Arduino too far away.<br />
    • 31. Circuit Board Goodness<br />How to tie components together?<br />Back side of interface board.<br />
    • 32. Circuit Board Goodness<br />How to tie components together?<br />Consolidation will bring you victory!<br />
    • 33. Power<br />Tested smallest battery in inventory<br />500 mAh 7.4V LiPo<br />w/ a single motor<br />2 minutes at 100%<br /> &amp; 4 minutes at 50%<br />before noticeable drop<br />in output.<br />
    • 34. Power<br />~500 mAh appeared to be sufficient<br />Purchased a spare 450 mAh battery by Gens Ace based on discharge data<br />
    • 35. Software, Computer Vision, Flight Dynamics<br />Control<br />
    • 36. Software<br />Processing<br />OpenCV library<br />Arduino<br />Firmata<br />
    • 37. Camera Dataflow<br />Camera feed is composite (analog)<br />Enters system via USB<br />Stream passed through WinVDig<br />Identified as video input device<br />Filtered<br />Passed into OpenCV library<br />Blobs detected<br />
    • 38. Conceptualizing Emu<br />How to control a 3-DOF platform. Hmm…<br />Parameters<br />Lift<br />F-R Thrust<br />L-R Turning Moment<br />
    • 39. Conceptualizing Emu<br />How to control a 3-DOF platform.<br />Parameters<br />Lift<br />F-R Thrust<br />L-R Turning Moment<br />Altitude Priority Control<br />Software GUI/Dashboard<br />Intuitive controls<br />
    • 40. Hardware and Software Interface<br />Under Remote Control<br />WASD/RF<br />Direction &amp; Rise/Fall<br />Number keys<br />Mode toggle<br />In Autonomous Mode<br />Cruise altitude pre-programmed<br />Computer vision determines turning and moving forward<br />
    • 41. Flight Dynamics<br />Two propellers can be rotated independently<br />Thrusting Down = Lift<br />Thrusting Same Direction = Forward/Reverse<br />Opposing Thrust = Turning<br />Combination of above = effective motion<br />How do you mathematically define “turn right, while moving forward and going up”?<br />
    • 42. Flight Dynamics<br />Lifting force is a function <br /> of servo angle.<br />To compensate for loss of lift<br />at non-zero angles, engine power<br />should be multiplied by 1/cos()<br />θ<br />Lift = Thrust * cos(θ)<br />ThrustAdjusted = LiftDesired / cos(θ)<br />Note: Positive θ points the propellers forward, generates forward thrust.<br />
    • 43. Flight Dynamics<br />LiftDesired is adjusted dynamically<br />F-R thrust and turning moments<br /> are also functions of θ<br />θ<br />if (alt &lt; desired)<br /> LiftDesired ++;<br />else if (alt &gt; desired)<br /> LiftDesired - - ;<br />FF-R Thrust = ThrustAdj * sin(θ)<br />MTurning = ± ThrustAdj * sin(θ) * L<br />
    • 44. Flight Dynamics<br />Total F-R thrust:<br />Total Turning Moment:<br />F-R Thrust and Moments are known<br />User Defined or Autonomously Set<br />θ<br />FF-R Total = ThrustAdj * sin(θL ) +<br /> ThrustAdj * sin(θR )<br />MTotal = - L*ThrustAdj * sin(θL ) + L*ThrustAdj * sin(θR )<br />
    • 45. 2 Equations with 2 Unknowns<br />
    • 46. Flight Dynamics<br />Left Servo Angle:<br />Right Servo Angle:<br />Left Motor Power:<br />Right Motor Power:<br />
    • 47. Computer Vision<br />Processing + OpenCV 1.0 Library<br />‘blob()’ function applied to images, returns:<br />Area<br />Centroid<br />Inside another blob?<br />Perimeter<br />Pixels<br />Defining points<br />Bounding rectangle<br />
    • 48. OpenCV in Action<br />Raw Image<br />Filtered Image<br />Filtered Image<br />Blob Tracked<br />
    • 49. Images with Wireless Camera<br />Practice competition<br />Sampled colors to<br /> calibrate tracking &amp;<br /> blob-detection<br /> programs<br />
    • 50. Navigation Algorithm<br />Mode 0 – Off<br />Mode 1 – Take-Off<br />Mode 2 – Cruise<br />Mode 3 – Approach<br />Mode 4 – Landing<br />Mode 5 – Controlled Abort<br />Mode 6 – Emergency Stop<br />Mode 7 – Remote Operation<br />
    • 51. Navigation Algorithm<br />
    • 52. Progress Report, Brain Fluff, &amp; The Future<br />Conclusion<br />
    • 53. State of the Emu<br />
    • 54. State of the Emu<br />Frame is complete.<br />Servos and motors function properly<br />Last minute weight/balance shifting T.B.D.<br />Electronics<br />All systems fully functional.<br />R/F interference not catastrophic… ideally.<br />R/C code done. Autonomous is 70% done*<br />Control requires fine-tuning.<br />
    • 55. Budgetary Concerns<br />Parrot AR Drone is $300<br />Reused as many items as possible from last year’s failed vehicle (the Eagle)<br />Primary Costs (2011):<br />
    • 56. Future Directions<br />Structure<br />Camber angle with motors<br />Minimize balsa structure more<br />Feedback<br />Accelerometer &amp; Gyroscope<br />More sensors w/ serial comm.<br />Re-spec. Propellers, ESC’s, and Servos<br />Digital communication<br />Wi-fi or a non 2.4 GHz protocol<br />If I had more time, money, &amp; people…<br />
    • 57. Special thanks to…<br />For contributions large and small…<br />Dr. Wang – Support as advisor.<br />Dr. Grega – Letting me steal Aero Design supplies.<br />TCNJ Chemistry – Helium.<br />Brian Geuther – Tools, help, brain-storming.<br />Brian Carrigan – Circuit board prototyping supplies.<br />Steve Turner – Windows XP Pro.<br />
    • 58. Questions?<br />

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