TCNJ Indoor Aerial Robotics Presentation

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  • The basic gist of the competition is to design and construct a vehicle to perform a set of tasks, which change from year to year. The competition is typically held at the end of April.

Transcript

  • 1. 2011 Indoor Aerial Robotics Competition
    Winston Moy
    Advised by: Dr. Jennifer Wang
    Emu (ēm(y)oō) : Flightless Australian bird resembling ostrich. Member of the family Dromaiidae.
  • 2. Tasks
    Structure
    Design
    Construction
    Electronics Hardware
    Selection
    Implementation
    Control Software
    Research
    Coding
  • 3. Objective Overview
    Unmanned/Micro Aerial Vehicle
    Urban Navigation
    Competition
    April 30, 2011
  • 4. Scoring
    Size Multiplier (S)
    1- ( VUAV / VMax )
    Speed Points
    40 * ( 120 / Trun )
    Control Multiplier (C)
    Autonomous = 100%, RC = 10%
    Other (Misc)
    Took-off = 5 pts, Design, likability = 6 pts, etc.
    Score = S * C * ( Speed + Other )
  • 5. Vehicle Constraints
    Size
    Contained within 5x5x5ft
    Safety
    Kill switch
    Control
    Autonomous or remote
    Design
    Custom or commercially available
  • 6. Changes from Past Years
    Greater focus on, and heavily favors, rotorcraft
    Focus on vision and fight algorithms, not construction of the aircraft.
    Heavily favors fully autonomous systems
  • 7. The Competition
    5 Teams
    4 Quadrotors
    At least 2 were bought online… or at Best Buy.
    Who knows.
    Parrot AR Drone
  • 8. 2011 IARC Design
    Partially Buoyant Vehicle
  • 9. 2011 IARC Design
    Modular Construction
  • 10. 2011 IARC Design
    Three Degrees of Freedom
  • 11. 2011 IARC Design
    Computations Done Remotely
    Laptop processes video
    Determines navigation
    Blimp executes decision
    Cam Feed
    Control Commands
  • 12. Physical Realization
    Structure
  • 13. Body Design - Original
    7.4 V Battery
    Arduino
    1.5”
    6”
    5”
    Top
    3.7 V Battery
    Servo
    Side
    Front
  • 14. Body Design - Final
    Interface Board
    1.5”
    7.4 V Battery
    6”
    5”
    Top
    Servos
    Side
    Front
  • 15. Gondola Construction
    Materials
  • 16. Gondola Construction
    Balsa: 1/4 and 1/8” square rods
  • 17. Gondola Construction
    Carbon Fiber Tubes: 3/16 and 1/8” OD
  • 18. Gondola Construction
    Frame
    Identical dorsal
    and ventral
    structure
  • 19. Gondola Construction
    Frame
    Identical dorsal
    and ventral
    structure
    Glue cured while
    in compression
  • 20. Gondola Construction
    Frame
    Identical dorsal
    and ventral
    structure
    Glue cured while
    in compression
    2-D until last
    possible moment
  • 21. Gondola Construction
    Carbon Fiber
    Simplified engine mounting
  • 22. Gondola Construction
    Carbon Fiber
    Arduino tail boom
  • 23. Gondola Construction
    Shaft Bearing Column
  • 24. Gondola Design Elements
    Servo-Shaft Interface
  • 25. An ME’s favorite part…
    Electronics
  • 26. Microcontroller Requirements
    Digital Output
    PWM
    Analog Input
    Sensors
    Wireless Hardware
    Communication
    ?
  • 27. Arduino Microcontroller
    Arduino FIO
    Built-in Xbee socket
    6 P.W.M. channels
    6 Analog I/O
    3.3 Vout for sensors
    Battery or USB powered
  • 28. Arduino Microcontroller
    Open Source IDE
    Free!!!
    Cross platform
    Win/OS X/Linux
    Easy serial comm. (USB,
    radio, etc)
    Many libraries, examples
    Codes like C++
  • 29. Other Hardware
    Servos
    E-Sky EK2-0508
    Motor Controller
    EZRun 18A-SL ESC
    Brushless DC Motors
    Sonar Range Finder
    LV-MaxSonar-EZ1
    Camera
    Some unbranded,
    2.4 GHz thing…
  • 30. Circuit Board Goodness
    How to tie components together?
    Breadboard is too heavy, Arduino too far away.
  • 31. Circuit Board Goodness
    How to tie components together?
    Back side of interface board.
  • 32. Circuit Board Goodness
    How to tie components together?
    Consolidation will bring you victory!
  • 33. Power
    Tested smallest battery in inventory
    500 mAh 7.4V LiPo
    w/ a single motor
    2 minutes at 100%
    & 4 minutes at 50%
    before noticeable drop
    in output.
  • 34. Power
    ~500 mAh appeared to be sufficient
    Purchased a spare 450 mAh battery by Gens Ace based on discharge data
  • 35. Software, Computer Vision, Flight Dynamics
    Control
  • 36. Software
    Processing
    OpenCV library
    Arduino
    Firmata
  • 37. Camera Dataflow
    Camera feed is composite (analog)
    Enters system via USB
    Stream passed through WinVDig
    Identified as video input device
    Filtered
    Passed into OpenCV library
    Blobs detected
  • 38. Conceptualizing Emu
    How to control a 3-DOF platform. Hmm…
    Parameters
    Lift
    F-R Thrust
    L-R Turning Moment
  • 39. Conceptualizing Emu
    How to control a 3-DOF platform.
    Parameters
    Lift
    F-R Thrust
    L-R Turning Moment
    Altitude Priority Control
    Software GUI/Dashboard
    Intuitive controls
  • 40. Hardware and Software Interface
    Under Remote Control
    WASD/RF
    Direction & Rise/Fall
    Number keys
    Mode toggle
    In Autonomous Mode
    Cruise altitude pre-programmed
    Computer vision determines turning and moving forward
  • 41. Flight Dynamics
    Two propellers can be rotated independently
    Thrusting Down = Lift
    Thrusting Same Direction = Forward/Reverse
    Opposing Thrust = Turning
    Combination of above = effective motion
    How do you mathematically define “turn right, while moving forward and going up”?
  • 42. Flight Dynamics
    Lifting force is a function
    of servo angle.
    To compensate for loss of lift
    at non-zero angles, engine power
    should be multiplied by 1/cos()
    θ
    Lift = Thrust * cos(θ)
    ThrustAdjusted = LiftDesired / cos(θ)
    Note: Positive θ points the propellers forward, generates forward thrust.
  • 43. Flight Dynamics
    LiftDesired is adjusted dynamically
    F-R thrust and turning moments
    are also functions of θ
    θ
    if (alt < desired)
    LiftDesired ++;
    else if (alt > desired)
    LiftDesired - - ;
    FF-R Thrust = ThrustAdj * sin(θ)
    MTurning = ± ThrustAdj * sin(θ) * L
  • 44. Flight Dynamics
    Total F-R thrust:
    Total Turning Moment:
    F-R Thrust and Moments are known
    User Defined or Autonomously Set
    θ
    FF-R Total = ThrustAdj * sin(θL ) +
    ThrustAdj * sin(θR )
    MTotal = - L*ThrustAdj * sin(θL ) + L*ThrustAdj * sin(θR )
  • 45. 2 Equations with 2 Unknowns
  • 46. Flight Dynamics
    Left Servo Angle:
    Right Servo Angle:
    Left Motor Power:
    Right Motor Power:
  • 47. Computer Vision
    Processing + OpenCV 1.0 Library
    ‘blob()’ function applied to images, returns:
    Area
    Centroid
    Inside another blob?
    Perimeter
    Pixels
    Defining points
    Bounding rectangle
  • 48. OpenCV in Action
    Raw Image
    Filtered Image
    Filtered Image
    Blob Tracked
  • 49. Images with Wireless Camera
    Practice competition
    Sampled colors to
    calibrate tracking &
    blob-detection
    programs
  • 50. Navigation Algorithm
    Mode 0 – Off
    Mode 1 – Take-Off
    Mode 2 – Cruise
    Mode 3 – Approach
    Mode 4 – Landing
    Mode 5 – Controlled Abort
    Mode 6 – Emergency Stop
    Mode 7 – Remote Operation
  • 51. Navigation Algorithm
  • 52. Progress Report, Brain Fluff, & The Future
    Conclusion
  • 53. State of the Emu
  • 54. State of the Emu
    Frame is complete.
    Servos and motors function properly
    Last minute weight/balance shifting T.B.D.
    Electronics
    All systems fully functional.
    R/F interference not catastrophic… ideally.
    R/C code done. Autonomous is 70% done*
    Control requires fine-tuning.
  • 55. Budgetary Concerns
    Parrot AR Drone is $300
    Reused as many items as possible from last year’s failed vehicle (the Eagle)
    Primary Costs (2011):
  • 56. Future Directions
    Structure
    Camber angle with motors
    Minimize balsa structure more
    Feedback
    Accelerometer & Gyroscope
    More sensors w/ serial comm.
    Re-spec. Propellers, ESC’s, and Servos
    Digital communication
    Wi-fi or a non 2.4 GHz protocol
    If I had more time, money, & people…
  • 57. Special thanks to…
    For contributions large and small…
    Dr. Wang – Support as advisor.
    Dr. Grega – Letting me steal Aero Design supplies.
    TCNJ Chemistry – Helium.
    Brian Geuther – Tools, help, brain-storming.
    Brian Carrigan – Circuit board prototyping supplies.
    Steve Turner – Windows XP Pro.
  • 58. Questions?