Kinship and Family <ul><li>Kinship Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family forms in Industrial Cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of Kinship Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal versus Real Patterns of Kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exogamy and Endogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Levirate and Sororate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marriage Forms and Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyandry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marriage Finance and Arranged Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Residence Rules </li></ul>
Kinship Relations Diagrams Shorthand for representing kin relations Ego- point of reference Mother = Mo Father = Fa Brother = Br Sister = Si Child = Ch Husband = Hu Wife = Wi Therefore, father’s, brother’s, son = FaBrSo In-laws: sister-in-law = BrWi
Traditional Family Form Most enduring relationship Family of orientation- family we are born into (enculturation) Nuclear Family- parents and their offspring Consanguineal relatives (consanguine)- Blood related this can become problematic in certain cultures like the Trobriand Islanders Family of procreation- the family in which you become or have the potential to become, a parent. Affinal relatives-relation by marriage This whole complex system is called a kinship system Extended Family- two or more nuclear families who are related By blood, living in the same household, village, or territory.
Family Forms in Industrialized Cultures Family Patterns Expanded family- include person who are not kin Blended family- divorce and remarriage Matrifocal family- mother dominate with father present or absent Single-parent family Why? Increase in divorce rate possibly brought about by industrializing.
Goals of Kinship System Organize groups: family types residence groups descent groups Direct Behavior enculturation role - assigned behavior for a particular individual Example: mother-in-law avoidance taboos Persons status: ascribed achieved Group Security Example: Yanomamö
Marriage Rules Exogamy and Endogamy Exogamy- marriage outside of a designated group Some hypotheses: prevent incest Modern genetics extend territory Endogamy- marriage within a particular group work to maintain cultural identity
How do American parents try to ensure that their children marry the right person? We have informal means to encourage endogamy with regards to ethnic group origin, religion, and socioeconomic level, and these means are usually effective. What are they? Discuss and compare your ideas with your Classmates.
Levirate and Sororate Preferential marriage rules found in many cultures. Provide economic protection in the event of a spouse’s death. Also ensures that the children are raised by the lineage group. Levirate- if a woman’s husband dies, she should marry one of his brothers. Sororate- if a man’s wife dies, he should marry one of her sisters.
Marriage Form and Function Marriage is an event that marks an important transition for both parties. Cultural Universal: 1) Marriage includes an exclusive sexual relationship between the partners. 2) usually involves some degree in economic interdependency– including property and labor. 3) legitimizes the couple’s offspring in the eyes of the group. However, there are exceptions. Ex. Yanomamö
Monogamy- one women is married to one man Polygamy- more than one spouse Polygyny - man has more than one wife Functions: gain status and prestige; economic advantage. found in Horticultural and Pastoral societies Polyandry - woman has more than one husband very rare. In fact, only 3 out of 400 cultures practice this. Ex. Tibet
Marriage Finance and Arranged Marriage Bridewealth- gifts from the grooms family to the bride’s family Ex: Dowry- wealth brought with the bride when she marries. Ex: India
Residence Rules Neolocal residence- married couple sets up their own household away from both sets of parents (U.S.). Patrilocal residence- newly married couple goes to live with the groom’s father. Ex. Yanomamö , Muslim countries. 58% of cultures practice it. correlation with internal warfare Matrilocal residence- newly married couple goes to live with the bride’s mother. Ex. Native American Groups (Chumash)15% of societies correlation with external warfare Matrifocal residence- woman and children residing without coresidence of husband. Not a rule Avunculocal residence- newly married couple goes to live with the groom’s mother’s brother. Ex. 3%of cultures Bilocal residence- choice 7% of cultures All of the world’s cultures have customs dictating where one lives after marriage known as residence rules.
<ul><li>The Yanomamö are organized into named localized lineage groupings on the basis of patrilineal descent. </li></ul><ul><li>Lineage groups are quite shallow, seldom extending beyond two adult generations, and small, seldom reaching as many as 100 members. </li></ul><ul><li>Group dimensions are limited by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the frequent segmentation and relocation of lineages because of internal conflicts, usually over women, which plague larger units. </li></ul></ul>Yanomamö Lineage Organization
Yanomamö Lineage Organization: Continued <ul><li>Beside fostering mutual cooperation and support among their members, lineages function as territorial units, inhabiting a common settlement, and as elements of a marriage exchange and alliance system. </li></ul><ul><li>They are exogamous and also consult jointly in the selection of marriage partners for their male and female members. </li></ul><ul><li>Yanomamö lineages do not take on substantial corporate functions, such as </li></ul><ul><li>land ownership, that they frequently assume in other patrilineal societies. </li></ul>
Faces of Culture: Kinship and Descent <ul><li>What are the first two cultures introduced in </li></ul><ul><li>the movie? </li></ul><ul><li>2) How do these cultures organize their lineage </li></ul><ul><li>groups? </li></ul><ul><li>3) What problems do descent groups solve? </li></ul>