Audio Lingual Method & Drilling
This method was developing on 1940 in USA; the expert many take definition of ALM
such as Diane Larse and Freeman. They said that ALM is focuses in repetition some word to
memorize. There is principle of ALM like in ALM the students do not use mother tongue
language so they have to speak to target language like native speaker in English and they
receive of pronunciation and grammar for the teacher furthermore they focused on training
active, drilling, memorizing vocabulary, dialogues, reading text, listening and speaking areas.
In this class the teacher can give stimulation like produce of sound only one word
like “apple” so when the teacher speaks to “apple” the student have to repeat for teacher
said also it has function in order that the student can able to absorb the new word in English
like native speaker. Apart from that, teacher uses repetition in pronunciation of word for
memorize the new word for the student, the teacher also makes of dialogues or game in
this method they have purpose in order that students can goal of memorize to vocabulary
and know about structure of grammar in English context.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Developed by James asher, he is a professor emeritus of psychology at San Jose State
University. TPR is one of method, which uses instruction with give commend to students
and when the teacher give instruction for students they give respond like when the teacher
said that “stand up”! Students give reflect and they want to stand up and so forth. This
method has function in the class such as the students do not feel bore in the class and can
know their ability about vocabulary and listening.
This method is suitable in the class, which have students very active and noisy
because when we use TPR they have focus only for the teacher so the teacher can control as
well as good of the class.
Blended Learning and Role Playing
Blended learning is learning approach, which source of learning as online because the
students have integrate long distance. In addition, this use via technology and more effective
learning because the student can improve their knowledge with the technology which they
use in long learning process, teacher also as manager and controller in the class so when the
students get confuse the teacher can solve their problem. However, any schools, which have
not facility in, blended learning so that they not suitable use method in their class.
In this model, we can use role-play; role-play is a technique in which key idea and
skill. Students make a dialogue or small drama in the class with their friend and they can
make figure in the story like “Bawang Merah and Bawang Putih” in this story there are any
figure that the students can use in role-play. This is function for the student improve their
skill in speak as automatically.
Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT)
CBLT was developing in 1970s, this method in uses sciences as modal in learning
process on develop of students’ innovative and effective themselves.
CBLT is focus on students’ outcome when the student get problem in learning process
the teacher should know about it. In addition in use this method the teacher must make of the
subject base on syllabus in order that the goal of the school can grasp as good, in improve of
subject for this method are grammatical, sociolinguistics, and discourse competence.
Furthermore, for application in the school base on peraturan mentri no. 23/2006.
This method make group as heterogenic base on the student capability. Therefore, when the
teachers make a group they have to know about degree of students’ capability in a subject.
Furthermore, what is collaborative learning? CL is a team learning process, which constructed to
attribute any information in the learning process.
Collaborative learning takes the teachers’ role as facilitating, coaching, and giving motivation
to the students and the teacher has position in the class on forming group. In addition, the function
of CL are making happy, deep understanding, and improving students’ leadership. Deep
understanding, it means that when the teacher gives a assignment for their group they can solve this
problem with known as general and specific item and as automatically the student can improve their
skill in communication.
Community Language Learning
Community language learning is approaches in which students work as together and the
function of CLL is develop for students in learning process. In uses this method learning process
make as dynamic and creative. The form of class in use of CLL is circle; the teacher should as
controller and counselor in the class in order that classroom to be interactive, cooperation not
competition and the student can interaction with their friends.
This method emphasize for the students in order that they use L2 not L1 it means that the
students can improve communication in target language as fluency.
Cooperative learning is instructional use of small groups through which students work
together to maximize their own and each other's learning. Cooperative learning is instructional use
of small groups through which students work together to maximize their own and each other's
learning. In this model makes of the jigsaw, jigsaw is a cooperative learning technique in which
students work in small groups in cooperative learning into three or five group. Moreover, the
teachers can give example before they make assessment for the student and before close of
presentation for the subject, the teacher should give conclusion.
Direct method has created in the 19th
century by Francois Gouin and Charles Berlitz,
this method has purpose for necessary to GTM. In this method, students have to
pronunciation of word like native speaker and the teacher can give word which help in
learning process and student speak as together. But in pronoun of word the teacher can not
mention of mean for word, the teacher only show of thing without say of mean as direct.
The function of the teacher in the class is as facilitator, partner of students, and
demonstrator. The teacher can give reading passages for student and they speak as loudly in
order that the teacher knows about students’ ability.
The Lexical Approach
The lexical approach was developing by M. Lewis in the 1990s. Lexical approach is
as foreign language teaching method and focus on vocabulary item.
There are four categories in lexical approach, namely; word, polywords, collocation,
fixed expression, semi fixed expression. Word is assembling for letter which has meaning,
pollyword is unite from some word which has new meaning, like stand up, note book, etc.
Fixed expression is expression which use in the formal area and while semi fixed expression
is the expressing which in context informal. Emphasis of this method on vocabulary so before
the teacher teaches for the class the student have to bring dictionary in order that they can
search of meaning in their dictionary it is contrary for the direct method which has the
teachers’ role more explain for word in English speaking. Moreover, the students can work
together and share their idea in make a subject the teacher has to make base on syllabus.
Small group and large group
There are any two in part of group, namely small and large group and any
distinguishes in small and large group. Small group is a group, which has 8 to 12 learner in
one group while large group is quote in one group divide of more than one hundred students.
Furthermore, in small or large group the students more interaction for another students it has
function the student can build of social relation as good.
The teachers have duty of the class, before they give of assignment for the learner the
teachers should introduce of topic as clearly in order than the student know what they should
do in assignment, for the last meeting the teacher should give conclusion. Cause of quote of
learner in large group more much in explain to learner the teacher have to give an eye contact
in order that the students more focus in subject and give one problem for one group after they
finish to solve problem they presentation for their material in front of class. Different for
large group in small group the teacher more easily in manage class and in make group the
teacher can make as dynamic, but they have similar purpose in learning process. This method
focus in discuss and the students can drill in speaking and listening.
Neuron linguistic programming
Created by Richard Bandler and John grinder in 1970s.NLP is an approach to
communication as personal development and psychotherapy it has function to detect of the
brains’ function because in use this approach the learner more use their brain and the student
more remember for their visual and auditory. Furthermore, the teacher in make assessment
more use related between visual and auditory and the teacher have to describe what they hear
or look long learning process. The students have task to classify right or wrong in a problem.
Project Based Learning
Project based learning is one method in real word learning to find question for the
student and they have to answer and this method was creating in 21st
century. in this method
can use as collaboration, and the purpose of this method can improve the students’ ability and
students active in the class because they can develop their knowledge as good.
The position of the teachers are actor and facilitators in the class step in this method
the teacher should prepare of the planning, creating good situation and know about what the
teacher should do in the class.
In the 1970-1980 by Stephen krahsen and Trecy Terrell and it has goal to foster
naturalistic language acquisition a in classroom setting clarification and the language in use
this method as tool communication.
The teacher has position in the class as facilitators and the students’ emphasis in
communication in second language.
Peer teaching and group dynamic
Peer teaching is method in process of learning and one of technique of teaching. The
teacher more explain the topic for the student in order that the student can understand about
the subject, the teacher should divide of group, and the ending of the last of meeting has gave
conclusion. The assessment is doing learning process.
In this method, the teacher must know about the student ability because this method
has high-level thinking and need long time in application in class and the benefit in use this
method is students can interaction as together and give aspiration about the problem. group
dynamic is the group which divide as randomly and we can use many ways in share the
Communicative Language Teaching
The aim of CLT makes the communication competence and there are 4 skill in
English are listening, writing, reading, and speaking. So, in use of this method the student
more communicative and built interaction and use language as tool in interaction. When the
student speaks to word in English, the teacher should give direction in pronunciation in order
that the student can speak as good.
There are 3 characteristics in CLT, these are gap, choice, and feedback. Gap is
duration when the someone wants to answer the question and this is doing in the brain while
choice is when the someone gives more one question for person, s/he have to choice which
one want to answer and feedback is answer for the question which the someone speak to the
Participatory is based on solving the learner’s problem in real life, for instance the
students have problem in their environment so the teacher in the learning process ask to
student in order that they can story about their problem and the students can solve their
problem it means that the teachers know about problem of the lesson students’ have.
In this method, the students more active in the class and the teacher can make a group
in the class because this is more efficient in crack of problem and make public speaking in
The theory was developed in 1983 by Dr. howard Garder at Harvard university. This
can help the teacher in students’ intelligences in order that the teacher can easy in class
management. Multiple intelligences is traditional notion of intelligence based on IQ testing,
there are eight in intelligences, namely; linguistic, logical-mathematic, musical, spatial, body
kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
The multiple intelligences can help them use their mind well. There are five
approached to curriculum by Linda Campbell, namely; lesson design, students’ project,
assessment, interdisciplinary, and apprenticeship. Lesson design is the teachers should
prepare the subject before the teachers teach in the class; students’ project is the aim of the
curriculum has full fill as well as good. After the teacher has finished off explain the subject
the teacher should give assessment in order that the teacher knows about the student absorb
of the subject.
Learning strategies training and classroom management
In learning strategies training the teacher should know about strategy in the class for
instance; like reading there are 3 technique in reading so the teacher should know about it in
order that when they application in the class can be good, but this is strategies the students do
not use on dictionary. This is has benefit of learning strategies training can help grasp
effective in learning target language.
Classroom management is technique of the teacher in the class; the teachers should
know things that they do in the class as specific, in classroom management any step in
treatment I the class for allocation time and how much the teacher should arrive in the class.
Problem based learning
Students are presenting with problem as generated learning issue related to learn in
order that the students can understand of the problem. It has function for students in order
that the students have responsibility in their assignment. After the students finish to the
assignment they have to presentation for their own material and the teacher can make small
group as reflect to interaction and make active communication in the class.
Problem based learning is one of way which using in the class because any steps in
the class in order that the students interest to teacher are love, belonging, for survival, power,
and reproduction. It has benefit in implementation in the class, if the teacher gives problem in
the class the student can improve their knowledge because when the teacher take on the
problem as automatically student have to search of material which relation for the problem so
this method is the best for the students.
Suggestopedia has function in the class as treatment for the students be enjoy when
they receive for the subject because before the teacher start to teach they should listen to the
music in order that the student can be interactive when they study. According to the expert,
this is way in learning process help in students’ physiology and give reflection for the
students. Therefore, this is focus in listening and in making sugestopedia in the class have to
base on the curriculum.
Situational language teaching
This approach more focus in vocabulary and grammar and in application of this
approach the student more active in speaking in the class and the target of language in absorb
for the teacher. In addition, the teacher has the syllabus as guide in grasp of goal.
The teacher in the class as controller when the teacher pronunciation of English the
teacher should give direction in order that they know how good pronunciation and each
students activities and students presentation about their assignment and they have
responsibility in their task. The teacher can show picture and the students can mention part of
the picture in English and the student can write about word in English it can benefit for the
The pioneer of silent way is Caleb Gallegno, the teachers can give word chart and
they can give new name of each chart, the form of word on new chat are word, pronouns,
conjunction, article, preposition, common adjective and etc.
The teacher take of media like box, key, and pen so teacher should give new name of
three media and the students have to mention with good pronunciation ,Therefore the student
can offer of the thing and the students can mention again it has function in the students’ brain
and can help student in memorizing. Caleb gallegno also give way in this method with color
stick it has function remember and addition of vocabulary and practice for the students also.
So, when we want to implementation in the class we should prepare of media, which help in
use this method like color stick. The function of this method is the student can improve their
vocabulary as well as in they learn and memorize of the new vocabulary and the teacher only
silent in the class but they only show a picture or something which relate about the subject.
Whole language is approach in learning process, which provides the language as
communication but not separate student. This is focus in basic class because the students only
understand of text and read as aloud. The principle of whole language is readiness so the
teachers more focus in read and the teachers in assessment they make portfolio so the teacher
has concept product and process in take on evaluation.
In whole language, the students make social interaction in the class and the student
should give motivation to the student in order that they can spirit in learning process.
Grammar translation method
This method was widely used in the USA in 1890s, was called grammar translation
method because it has principle who advocated translation into the target language through
the application of rules of grammar. Therefore, when the students say something they have to
speak according to traditional grammar and in pronunciation they speak like native speaker
without using mother tongue in speak English.
The student should understand the text which teacher’ give and they write in the
foreign language. There are many technique for assessment in GTM namely; fill in the blank,
completion, composition, antonym or synonym and reading comprehension question.
The term of portfolio 1970s but in specific for education was founded in 1990s.
Many areas in use portfolio not only educational we use of portfolios but also in management
in the office, they use portfolio also as presentation result of data. What is a portfolio?
Portfolio is large of student assignment which containing works in process as well start to
finish work based on syllabus and curriculum. Before the teacher, starts to explain the
material the teacher should give explanation about contact of value long one semester in
order that the students know and prepare in order that they can goal of standard competency.
There are any disadvantages and advantages in application in the class, the strange in
use portfolio are the students more active because they know about value, which they grasp in
one semester and these advantages in portfolio the teacher more explain and it has more spent
time on learning process.