The definition of bullying is when a person exposed over and over to negative action from one or a group of people. (Anat Brunstien Klomek, 2010)
Why We Need to Study and Find the Cause of Bullying
Bullying has been put into the spotlight because of the string of suicides that have been in the media lately.
In the United States fifteen to twenty percent of school kids are bullied on a regular basis. (Chan, 2009)
In a study in the UK sixty-five percent of sexual minorities experienced bullying. Of that group ninety- seven percent heard homophobic slurs hurled at them. (Chan, 2009)
Correlating evidence that LGBT youth are more prone to bullying than heterosexual youth.
Youth who identify as gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, transgender are three times more likely to be bullied than their heterosexual counterparts, according to a study done by doctors at a Nationwide Children’s Hospital. (Anonymous, 2010)
Overall as much a two million kids in the United States are dealing with sexual orientation issues. Whether or not a child identifies themselves as a sexual minority over 1.6 million of school age students are being bullied because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation. (Susan M. Swearer, 2008 )
Sexual minorities are three times more likely to be assaulted or be in a fight at school. They are also three times more likely to have been threatened or injured by a weapon. (Susan M. Swearer, 2008)
One study shows that twenty-six percent of boys who were bullied said that they were being bullied because they thought they were gay. (Dorothy L Espelage, 2008)
The saying “you’re so gay” or “that is so gay” have been linked to negative psychological consequences among boys. (Dorothy L Espelage, 2008)
In 2005 a study of 3,450 public/private and parochial schools thirty-three percent of students said that they were verbally or physically attacked because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation. (Dorothy L Espelage, 2008)
Cyber bulling includes attacks on electronic devices such as phones, computers, I Pads.
They can range from humiliating photos, dissemination of false or private information, or targeting victims in cruel online polls or blogs. ( Iowa State University ; New study reveals prevalence of cyberbyllying and its psychological impact on nonheterosexual youth, 2010 )
Online survey of 444 junior high, high school and college students that were between the ages of 11-22, fifty-four percent of the LGBT and allied youth were victims of cyber bullying in the past 30 days.
Forty-five percent said that they felt depressed as a result of being cyber bullied. ( Iowa State University ; New study reveals prevalence of cyberbyllying and its psychological impact on nonheterosexual youth, 2010 )
The Physical and Psychological Results of Bullying
For victims of bullying victimization may be the direct cause of twenty percent of their emotional problems.
Victims feel periods of loneliness, anxiety, depression, helplessness, school absenteeism, physical health problems, psychiatric problems, and eating disorders. (Chan, 2009
Stress of coming to terms with sexuality and then having to deal with social heterosexism and homophobia can place a LGB youth at high risk for suicide, drug use and school problems. (Michelle Birkett, 2009)
Anat Brunstien Klomek, A. S. (2010). The Association of Suicide and Bullying in Childhood to Young Adulthood: A Review of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Research Findings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 282-288.
Anonymous. (2010). Nationwide Children's Hospital; Study examines sexual oreintation and bullying among adolescents. News Rx Health & Science , 239.
Chan, P. C. (2009). Psychosocial implications of homophobic bullying in schools: a review and directions for legal research and the legal process. The International Journal of Human Rights , 143-175.
Joanna Almeida, R. M. (2009). Emotional Distress Among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation. J Youth Adolecence , 1001-1014
Joseph G Kosciw, E. A. (2009). Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolecence , 976-988.
Michelle Birkett, D. L. (2009). LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes . Journal of Youth and Adolecence , 989-1000.
Susan M. Swearer, R. K. (2008). "You're So Gay!": Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males? Student Psychology Review , 160-174.