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OSHA Compliance with Flammable and Combustible Liquids
 

OSHA Compliance with Flammable and Combustible Liquids

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The presentation discusses the OSHA requirements using, storing, and handling flammable and combustible liquids. It provides information on design and construction of inside storage rooms and the ...

The presentation discusses the OSHA requirements using, storing, and handling flammable and combustible liquids. It provides information on design and construction of inside storage rooms and the risks associated with operations and processes using flammable and combustible liquids. If you wish for us to develop/provide occupational health and safety training for your organizaiton, feel free to contact us by email at windsgroup@aol.com.

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    OSHA Compliance with Flammable and Combustible Liquids OSHA Compliance with Flammable and Combustible Liquids Presentation Transcript

    • Flammable Liquids Standard: How to Prevent Explosions & Fire Hazards and Stay in Compliance Presented by: Bernard L. Fontaine, Jr., CIH, CSP The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Introduction • The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire • Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of NFPA approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards • Webinar does not cover risks on combustible dust or flammable gas or solids Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Session Objectives • You will be able to: – Identify a flammable and combustible liquids – Know the hazards of flammable and combustible liquids and the types of controls to prevent their ignition – Procedures to safely store, dispense, and handle these liquids Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • What’s the Big Deal? • Flammable and combustible liquids are easily ignited • Ignite with explosive force • Burn readily and give off twice the heat as paper or wood fire • Common materials taken for granted or used carelessly Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Fire Tetrahedron Fuel Combustible Flammable Liquid Heat Source Increased Surface Temperature Production of Vapor Oxygen Sustained Combustion Suitable Chemical Reaction Flame Established Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Liquids • Flammable—flashpoint below 100˚F (37.8˚C) – Isopropyl alcohol – Propane – Solvents such as acetone, MEK, paint thinner, varnish – Fuels such as gasoline – Aerosol cans Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Combustible Liquids • Flashpoint at or above 100 F – Oil, kerosene – Greases and lubricants – Oil-based paints • Although combustible liquids have higher flash points than flammable liquids, they can pose serious fire and/or explosion hazards when heated. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classifying Flammable Liquids Flashpoint Category N/A (1910.106 Not Applicable) unless 199.4 F 140 F Flammable 73.4 F heated for use to within 30 F of its FP, then treat as Category 4 Category 4 Category 3 Category 1 Category 2 < 95 F > Boiling Point Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classifying Flammable Liquids Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classifying Combustible Liquids Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classes of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flash Point (oF) 200 IIIA 140 Combustible (FP > 100oF) II 100 Flammable (FP < 100oF) 73 IA IB 100 Boiling Point (oF) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classes of Flammable Liquids Common Name Flash Point (oF) CLASS IA Ethyl Ether -49 CLASS IB Gasoline Methyl Ethyl Ketone Toluene Benzene -45 21 40 12 CLASS IC Xylene Turpentine Hydrazine Styrene 81-115 95 99 88 Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Classes of Combustible Liquids Common Name CLASS II Acetic Acid Naphtha Stoddard Solvent Flash Point (oF) 103 100-109 102-110 CLASS IIIA Cyclohexanol Formic Acid Nitrobenzene 154 122 190 CLASS IIIC Formalin Picric Acid 185 302 Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • What’s the Hazard? • Flammable and combustible liquids vaporize and form flammable mixtures with air when: – Exposed to air (containers are left open) – Leaks or spills occur – Heated or aerosolized Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Degree of Hazard Risk • Determined by: – The flashpoint , boiling point, and the vapor pressure of the solvent – The vapor’s concentration in the air – The presence of potential ignition sources – Remember—vapors burn or explode, not the liquid Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flashpoint • The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors at its surface to form an ignitable mixture in air • Low flashpoint = high flammability • Flammable liquids flashpoint is <100˚F and more dangerous • Combustible liquids flashpoint is ≤100˚F and < 200˚F Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Boiling Point • The temperature of the liquid at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Vapor Pressure • Pressure exerted by a vapor on the surface of the liquid • Amount of vapor that accumulates on surface of the liquid depends on temperature and the flammable or combustible liquid Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Range Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Range • Not all mixtures of fuel and air will burn • Solvents have variable flammable range • In order to burn, the fuel/air ratio must be within the flammable range, between the: – Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) – Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) Image credit: Tom Ouimet Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Measuring Flammable and Combustible Vapors • • • Real-time instruments read out in percent of LEL A reading of 25% LEL indicates the fuel-air mixture is 1/4 of the way to the lowest fuel concentration that can burn Never enter a >25% LEL atmosphere Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Sources of Ignition • Some potential sources of ignition are: – – – – – – – – Open flame Smoking Welding and cutting Hot surfaces Internal combustion engines Electrical/mechanical spark Lightning Static electricity • Flammable vapors can travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Static Electricity • Generated when a fluid flows through pipe or from an opening into a tank • Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough vapor to ignite flammable vapors • Bonding and grounding of storage containers is necessary to dissipate any stored static charge Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Prevent Fire and Explosion • Eliminate ignition sources prevent flames, sparks, and arcs • Eliminate static electricity ground or bond containers • Minimize vapor concentrations Image credit: Tom Ouimet Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Bonding Containers • Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire and clip to remove a difference of static charge between them • Bonding wires are placed between two containers during liquid filling or dispensing operations unless a metallic path is place in between them Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Grounding Containers • Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground. • Bonding eliminates a difference in potential between objects. • Does not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth. • Unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Industrial Plants Category 1, 2, or 3 (FP <100 F) flammable liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected (bonded and grounded) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Warning Signs and Labels • Signs identify areas where flammable and/or combustible liquids are stored, transferred, and used • Individual containers are labeled: – Global harmonization pictograms, hazard and precautionary statements, signal words – DOT label – HMIS® labels – National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Read Fine Print on Labels • Look for special warnings: – Special handling or storage instructions – Inhalation hazards - many flammable solvents are toxic and hazardous to inhale – Skin hazards – some toxic solvents absorb through skin, cause irritation or allergic rash, or directly damage the skin – Select and use impermeable gloves, protective clothing, and/or respirator Only an example Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Safety Data Sheet (SDS) - Primary Source of Chemical Information • Special storage and handling precautions • Dispensing techniques • Flammability limits • Reactivity hazards • Fire-fighting protective equipment and instructions • Hazardous combustion products Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • GHS HAZCOM and DOT Pictograms Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • NFPA Labeling System 4 2 3 Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Container and Portable Tank Storage Applies only to the storage of flammable liquids in drums or other containers (including flammable aerosols) not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and those portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons individual capacity NOTE: Exceptions apply. Refer to standard for more information. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Container and Portable Tank Storage • Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used. • Each portable tank shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions. • Flammable liquid containers shall be in accordance with Table H-12. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Containers - Table H-12 Container type Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Glass or approved plastic 1 pt. 1 qt. 1 gal. 1 gal. Metal (other than DOT drums) 1 gal. 5 gal. 5 gal. 5 gal. Safety cans 2 gal. 5 gal. 5 gal. 5 gal. Metal drums (DOT specifications) 60 gal. 60 gal. 60 gal. 60 gal. Approved portable tanks 660 gal. 660 gal. 660 gal. 660 gal. Note: Container exemptions: (a) Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer items, when packaged according to commonly accepted practices, shall be exempt from the requirements of 1910.106(d)(2)(i) and (ii). Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Use Safe Storage Practices • No open flames, smoking, sparks, or welding • Keep away from sunlight • Ventilate well • Store oxidizers separately • Use secondary containment • Return to storage immediately after use Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gallons of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gallons of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinet Must be conspicuously labeled, ―Flammable - Keep Fire Away‖ Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least two inches above the bottom of the cabinet Maximum of three (3) cabinets in any fire area Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Storage Cabinets Chemical storage cabinets used for flammables often come with capped bung openings that allow ventilation. It is NOT required by OSHA or any regulatory agency Cabinet manufacturers include venting bungs for users who are required to vent by state or local fire codes, individual company or insurance carrier policy Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids • Store away from exits, stairways, or areas normally used for egress of people • In offices storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipment Inside storage room • Storage must be in: closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, safety cans, designated fire area or properly designed inside storage room Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • NFPA/NEC Hazardous Locations NFPA and NEC define hazardous material categories for flammable gases and vapors, and combustible dusts, fibers, and flyings • Class I areas for flammable vapors and liquids ___________________________________________________________________________________________ • Division 1 – Normal operating conditions • Division 2 – Abnormal or upset conditions • Groups A-G liquids and Groups A-D environments Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • NFPA/NEC Hazardous Locations Examples of Class I – Division 1 and 2 locations • • • • Petroleum refineries and spray finishing areas Aircraft hangers and fuel servicing areas Utility gas plants Storage and handling of LPG or natural gas Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Inside Storage Rooms Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Inside Storage Rooms In ―inside‖ storage rooms • Maintain one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide • Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other • Dispensing shall be by approved pump or self-closing faucet only • Storage shall comply with Table H-13 Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Inside Storage Rooms NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code • Fire resistant rating of two (2) hours for walls, floor, and ceiling • Class B fire doors • Automatic fire protection systems • Mechanical ventilation depending on stored quantity • Class I – Division 2 electrical wiring and light fixtures Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Inside Storage Rooms Explosion-Proof (EX) Material Handling Equipment Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Storage Outside an Inside Storage Room Storage of drums • 55 gallon drums should be stored separate storage area away from heat and sunlight • Maximum size of drum that should be stored outside and inside storage room is 5 gallons Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Storage Inside Rooms – Table H-13 Fire Protection (1) Fire Resistance Provided Maximum Size Total Allowable Quantities – Gal./Ss. Ft/Floor Area Yes 2 hours 500 Sq. Ft. 10 No 2 hours 500 Sq. Ft. 4* Yes 1 hour 150 Sq. Ft. 5* No 1 hour 150 Sq. Ft. 2 Footnote(1) Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide, or other system. *Note: These numbers are shown incorrectly in 29 CFR 1910.106. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Office Occupancies Storage prohibited except if it is required for maintenance, operation of building and operation of equipment, and then… Shall be kept in closed metal containers stored in a storage cabinet or in safety cans or in an inside storage room Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Warehouses and Storage Buildings • General purpose public warehouses, and • Flammable liquid warehouses or storage buildings Refer to Table H-14 – Indoor container storage, or Table H-15 – Indoor portable tank storage Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer • Approved container of not more than five gallon capacity. • Spring-closing lid and spout cover. • Safely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flame Arrester Screen • Prevents fire flashback into can contents • Double wire-mesh construction • Large surface area: -Provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire -Vapor temp inside can remains below ignition point Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Dispense Flammable Liquids Safely • Ensure primary container or drum is grounded and bonded • Transfer liquid with a hand pump or grounded, explosion-proof motorized pump • Use spark-proof tools • Perform transfer in well vented area away from all ignition sources Automatic hazardous materials dispenser Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Transferring Flammable Liquids There is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled. OSHA allows only four methods for transfer: (a) Through a closed piping system (b) From safety cans (c) By gravity, through an approved self-closing safety faucet (d) By means of a safety pump Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Handle Liquids and Containers Safely • • • • Use only approved containers—never use glass Close containers when not in use Label containers properly Take only the amount needed for the job and use with adequate ventilation Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Handle Liquids and Materials Safely • Put rags soaked with flammable liquids in approved, closed containers • Avoid mixing flammable and combustible solvents • Do not weld or torch empty containers Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Self-Closing Safety Faucet • Bonding wire between metal drum and metal container • Grounding wire between metal drum and ground • Safety vent in drum Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Safety Pump • Faster and safer than using a faucet • Spills are less likely. • No separate safety vents in drum required • Installed directly in drum bung opening • Some pump hoses have integral bonding wires. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Waste and Residue • Combustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily Waste drum with disposal funnel Safety disposal can Oily-waste can (self-closing lid) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Storage Outside Buildings • Maximum of 1,100 gallons of flammable liquids • Area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers • Area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings • Storage shall comply with: Table H-16 – Outdoor container storage, or Table H-17 – Outdoor portable tank storage Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage • Shall be made of steel or other approved nonflammable materials • Other materials are permitted for underground use • Concrete tanks (must have a special interior lining) and be designed with sound engineering practices • Operating pressures must never exceed the design pressure Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Metal tanks • Welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods Filler metals used in tank brazing • Nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1000 F and below that of the metal joined Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Atmospheric tanks • Shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards • Not exceed 2500 gallons, if originally designed for underground but placed above ground • Not be used to store liquids at or above their boiling points Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Low pressure tanks and pressure vessels • Normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank. • May be used as atmospheric tanks. • Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks. • Shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Outside aboveground tanks • Spacing - (shell-to-shell) between any two flammable liquid above ground storage tanks shall be no less than three feet • Unstable liquids – Distance between tanks shall not be less than ½ the sum of their diameter Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Outside aboveground tanks Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - containers next to flammable storage tanks shall have a minimum of 20 feet of separation Must be a minimum of 20 feet between these tanks Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Normal and emergency venting • Required on all above ground tanks • Enough venting to prevent vacuum or rupture • Refer to Table H-10 for venting flow rates Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Results of Improperly Vented Tank Photo courtesy of the NFPA Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Drainage, dikes and walls • Area surrounding aboveground tanks shall be provided with drainage or be diked to prevent accidental discharge of liquid. • If diked, the area should be able to hold the capacity of a full tank. • Walls of diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquid tight. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Supports, foundations and anchorage for all tank locations • Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. • Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. • Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Supports, foundations, and anchorage in flood zones • When a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, check established flood stage markings • Liquid level in the tank must never go below the established maximum flood line Please note: There are many requirements for tanks that are located in flood zones. For more in-depth detail, refer to 1910.106(b)(5)(vi) Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Tank Storage Ignition sources Precautions to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors includes open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Pipes, Valves, and Fittings The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Eye—goggles for splash hazard • Hand—solvent-resistant chemical protective gloves • Body—chemical protective clothing such as an apron or coveralls • Lungs—respirator Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Common First-Aid Procedures • Inhale vapors–move to fresh air • Splash liquid to the face or eyes—flush the eyes/face for 15 minutes • Splash to skin—wash skin with soap and water • Ingest liquid—consult the MSDS, and call a doctor Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Fire Response • Remove yourself from physical danger • Notify others, trigger the fire alarm • Use a Type ABC fire extinguisher • Call for help • Continually evaluate for evacuation • Don’t fight structural fires yourself Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Spill Response • Report all spills immediately and clean up small spills • Large spills require a specialized response team • Eliminate ignition sources • Evacuate the area • Help clean up only if properly trained Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Key Things to Remember • Flammable and combustible liquids can ignite with explosive force • Keep away from ignition sources • Follow proper storage, dispensing, and handling procedures • Use only approved containers that are properly labeled. • Review labels and SDSs for additional information Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Class Exercise Liquid Flashpoint Boiling Category (° F) Point (° F) Diesel Fuel #2 126 320 Toluene 40 231 Motor Oil 392 599 Isoamyl Acetate 77 288 Ethyl Ether - 49 94 Phenol 174 360 NOTE: Use the FP (Flash Point) and the BP (Boiling Point) to determine the Category using the Flammable Liquid Chart. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Class Exercise (Answers) Liquid Flashpoint Boiling Category (° F) Point (° F) Diesel Fuel #2 126 320 3 Toluene 40 231 2 Motor Oil 392 599 N/A Isoamyl Acetate 77 288 3 Ethyl Ether - 49 94 1 Phenol 174 360 4 NOTE: Use the FP (Flash Point) and the BP (Boiling Point) to determine the Category using the Flammable Liquid Chart. Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Summary In this webinar, we discussed the following: • Scope of the OSHA general industry and construction standards • Four elements of the fire tetrahedron and how the standards aim to reduce risk and interrupt those elements • Classifying flammable liquids • Storage requirements for liquids covered under the standard Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • References • OSHA General Industry – 29 CFR 1910.106 – Flammable Liquids • OSHA General Industry – 29 CFR 1910.107 – Spray Finishing Using Flammable/Combustible Materials • OSHA Construction Industry – 29 CFR 1926.152 Fire Protection & Prevention - Flammable Liquids • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code • NFPA 45 Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals • NFPA 70 – Classification of Hazardous Locations • National Electrical Code (NEC)– Classification of Hazardous Locations Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
    • Flammable Liquids Standard: How to Prevent Explosions & Fire Hazards and Stay in Compliance Questions or Comments? Copyright © 2014 The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.