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Session 9   Common Toxicities
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Session 9 Common Toxicities

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  • Onion or garlic toxicity can cause Hemolytic Anemia or Heinz Body Anemia. The toxic amount is unknown. If you stop giving the onion or garlic compound, the anemai goes away, If not, the animal would require a blood transfusion. Onion and Garlic Powder is toxic to cats.

Transcript

  • 1.
    • Common Toxicities
  • 2.
    • Toxicant : “Any substance that when introduced into or applied to the body can interfere with the life processes of cells or the organism.”
    • Toxin : “A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated during the metabolism and growth of …animal species.”
    • Decontamination : “the process of removing or neutralizing injurious agents.”
    • Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians, 6 th Ed.
    • McCurnin & Bassert
  • 3.
    • Corrosive : (also caustic ) “highly reactive substance that causes damage to living tissue.”
    • Emesis : Act of vomiting
    • Demulcents : a medication that is soothing or bland in nature
  • 4.
    • Cardiotoxic : Compound that is toxic to cardiac tissues
    • Hepatotoxic : Compound that is toxic to liver tissues
    • Nephrotoxic : Compound that is toxic to renal tissues
  • 5.
    • What is the current clinical status?
    • What was animal exposed to and by what route?
    • Did owner take any steps to treat?
    • Age and weight of animal
    • How much was ingested; when was exposure?
    • Any history of medical problems; recent surgeries; on medications?
  • 6.
    • Assess patient’s condition:
      • Respiratory rate, CRT, mucous membrane color, heart rate, temperature;
      • If seizing, assess while stabilizing animal
    • Treat the patient:
      • Provide patent airway; CPR if necessary
  • 7.
    • Occular exposure : via the eye
        • Treatment: flush eyes repeatedly with water or saline solution for 30 minutes
    • Dermal exposure : via the skin
        • Treatment: bathe in mild liquid dish detergent; repeat as necessary & towel dry
  • 8.
    • Oral ingestion : via the mouth (most common route)
      • Treatment options:
        • 1. Dilution : performed with milk or water. Recommended in cases of corrosive ingestion. Usual dosage is 1-3 ml/lb of animal.
        • 2. Gastric Lavage : uses warm water plus something to change the pH
        • 3.. Induce vomiting (emesis)
  • 9.
    • Emesis :
    • Determined by species, length of time since ingestion & type of poison
    • Productive only within 3 hours of ingestion
    DO NOT induce vomiting in animals with a history of cardiovascular disease, epilepsy or recent GI surgery; or those in a coma or severely depressed; or if the animal is hyperactive or has recently vomited. Dogs, cat, pigs & ferrets have the ability to vomit
  • 10.
    • THE TOXICANT MATTERS! When NOT to induce vomiting:
    • Corrosive material (results in re-exposure of esophageal tissues)
    • Hydrocarbon-containing materials (ex. gasoline, fuel oil, propane, kerosene (possible aspiration of toxicant)
    • Instead of inducing emesis, dilute with water or milk; use demulcents & GI protectants
  • 11.
    • 3% Hydrogen Peroxide solution
        • - 1 tsp per 5lbs. Usually works within 15-20 minutes
    • Syrup of Ipecac ( NEVER Fluid of Ipecac)
        • - Caution, can cause cardiovascular problems
    • Apomorphine Hydrochloride
        • - Injectable solution or capsule for conjunctival use
  • 12.
    • Activated Charcoal
        • - Made into a slurry with water, administered via large syringe or stomach tube. Don’t use with caustic materials, ethanol, heavy metals
    • Enemas
        • - Use when you want to eliminate toxicants from lower GI tract. NEVER use premixed human enema solutions
  • 13.
    • Household (indoor & outdoor)
    • Plants
    • Food
    • Pharmaceuticals
  • 14. www.aspca.org/apcc
  • 15.
    • Acids (Toilet bowl cleaners, drain openers, metal cleaners, anti-rust compounds, pool sanitizers)
      • Signs: tissue damage at site of contact & in GI tract; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney damage
    • Alkali (Oven cleaners, bleach, denture cleaner, hair relaxers, electric dishwashing soaps, cement)
          • Signs: lesions are deeper than acid compounds; esophageal ulcers or perforations
  • 16.
    • Detergents (shampoos, laundry detergent)
        • - Low in toxicity when used alone; can be caustic with other substances
    • Fabric Softeners, Potpourri oil, hair mousse, disinfectants, sanitizers
        • - Rapidly absorbed, can produce systemic toxicity,oral ulcers, stomatitis in cats – even in low doses
  • 17.
    • Batteries
        • Contain alkaline compounds; causes burns, and battery casing cause GI obstruction or lacerations
    • Pennies
        • Pennies minted post 1983 contain 99.2% zinc. In stomach gastric acids leach zinc, gets absorbed in blood stream & causes intravascular hemolysis
  • 18.
    • Cigarettes/Nicotine
          • Signs develop within 45 mins; excitation, tachypnea, salivation, collapse, cardiac arrest, death
    • Mothballs
          • Contain naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene. VERY toxic to cats, causes Heinz bodies
  • 19.
    • Ice Melt
        • High in NaCl; can cause fatal hypernatremia; signs include twitching, PU/PD
    • Metaldehyde (snail, slug bait)
        • Signs within minutes; hypersalivation, GI cramping, severe seizures, nystagmus
  • 20.
    • Rodenticide
    • (Anticoagulants) Warfarin – anticoagulant, blocks Vitamin K clotting factor
    • Signs within 5-10 days include hemorraghing, pale mucuous membranes, weakness, coughing.
    • Treatment includes blood transfusion, oral or SQ Vitamin K
  • 21.
      • 11. Rodenticides
      • (Hypercalcemia-inducing) Cholecalciferol - enhances absorption of calcium from intestines, causing calcium deposits in kidneys;
      • Signs: renal failure, V/D; PU/PD; renal failure within 2 days.
      • Treatment includes inducing vomiting within 4 hours of ingestion. After 4 hours use activated charcoal
  • 22.
    • Antifreeze
      • Contain methanol, propylene glycol or ethylene glycol.
      • Ethylene glycol is most dangerous form
      • Sweet, palatable
      • 1½ tsp. can kill a cat; ½ cup can kill a 20lb dog
    TREATMENT IS ONLY EFFECTIVE IN CLINICAL PHASE 1 CLINICAL PHASE 1 1st hour: animal appears drunk 12 hours: V/D, PU/PD, ataxia, depression, seizures CLINICAL PHASE 2 24-96 hours: CaOx crystals form in renal tubules Renal failure begins
  • 23.
    • Cardiotoxic Plants:
      • Rhododendron (incl. azaleas) – signs within 4-12 hrs
      • Oleander, Lily of the Valley, Foxglove – entire plant is toxic
      • Castor Beans – contain Ricin; entire plant is toxic, but seeds have highest amount of ricin. 1 ricin seed can kill a human
      • Kalanchoe – leaves and stems are toxic to dogs & cats
  • 24.
    • Nephrotoxic Plants:
    • All Lilies (Easter, Tiger, Day, etc.) – even minor exposure can cause toxicosis.
    • Consider all feline exposure to lilies life threatening! Death can occur 3-6 days post ingestion
    • Rhubarb – leaves only
  • 25.
    • Hepatotoxic Plants:
    • Cycads
    • Mushrooms
  • 26.
    • Moldy Food
      • contain Mycotoxins; grows on grains, nuts, dairy, found in compost piles; muscle tremors & seizures
    • Raw Yeast Dough – secretes ethanol as it rises; rises faster inside body because of temperature, ethanol is absorbed in blood stream, causes GDV/Bloat; blindness, cardiac arrest, death
  • 27.
    • Grapes and Raisins
    • Toxic pathway remains unknown, but is under current investigation by ASPCA
    • Causes acute renal failure in dogs
    • Initial clinical symptoms: Vomiting, Diarrhea
    • Life threatening renal failure usually occurs within 24 hours
  • 28.
    • Chocolate
    • Toxic Ingredient: Theobromine
    • CNS and CV stimulant
    • increases blood pressure
    • Clinical Signs : excitement, trembling, vomiting, muscle spasms, seizures
    Beware Cocoa Mulch!
  • 29. Theobromine Concentrations Milk chocolate : 44mg/oz. (1 oz per 1 lb of body weight) Semisweet chocolate : 150mg/oz. (1 oz per 3 lbs of body weight) Baker's chocolate : 390mg/oz. (1 oz per 9 lbs of body weight)
  • 30.
    • Garlic, Onions – (raw, cooked or onion/garlic powder)
    • Toxic Ingredient: Thiosulphate
    • Poisoning can occur with a single ingestion of large quantities or with repeated meals containing small amounts of onion.
    • Toxic amount is unknown
  • 31.
    • Onion or garlic toxicity may cause hemolytic anemia or Heinz body formation.
    Caution Source: University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine
  • 32.
    • High Fat Foods – Acute pancreatitis
    HOLIDAYS!
  • 33.
    • Alcohol
    • Avocado
    • Macadamia Nuts and Walnuts
    • Coffee and all caffeinated beverages
    • Salt
    • Xylitol sweetened foods
  • 34.
    • Acetaminophen
        • Liver toxic in dogs; even low doses are toxic to cats. Signs: depression, dyspnea, icterus, facial or paw edema
    • Ibuprofen
        • Causes renal damage, CNS damage, seizures, ataxia, coma in dogs. Cats are twice as sensitive. Most common signs: bloody diarrhea, PU/PD
  • 35.
    • Aspirin
        • Extreme caution in cats. Can kill them.
    • Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine
          • Stimulants found in OTC cold meds and nasal decongestants. Causes kidney failure
    • Psoriasis Medicines
        • Causes hypercalcemia which shuts down kidneys and heart
  • 36.
    • TOXICITIES PROJECT
  • 37.