Session 10   feedstuffs swine-sheep
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Session 10 feedstuffs swine-sheep






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    Session 10   feedstuffs swine-sheep Session 10 feedstuffs swine-sheep Presentation Transcript

    • Feedstuffs
      Large Animal Nutrition
      Swine, Sheep and Goats
    • Feedstuffs
      Feedstuffs- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful function
      Provide source of nutrients and energy
      Combined to produce rations
      Modify characteristics of diet
    • International Feed ID System
      System for classifying feedstuffs based on descriptive characteristics
      Based on the primary nutrient provided by the feedstuff
      Each feedstuff is assigned an International Feed Number ( IFN)
    • There are 8 international Feedstuff classes
      1. Dry Roughages
      2. Pasture Range and Grasses
      3. Ensiled Roughages
      4. High Energy Concentrates
      5. Protein Sources
      6. Minerals
      7. Vitamins
      8. Additives
    • 1. Dry Roughages
      Bulky feed that has low weight per unit of volume
      High crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibility
      Contains greater than 18% crude fiber and less than 70% total digestible nutrients
    • Dry Roughagae Examples
      Hay- legume ( alfalfa), grass legume, non legume
      Straw and chaff
      Corn cobs
      Cottonseed hulls
      Shells and hulls
      Sugarcane byproducts
      Paper and wood byproducts
    • 2. Pasture and Range grasses
      Grazed plants
      Soilage or greenchop
      Cannery and food crop residues
    • 3. Silages and Haylages
      • fermented, high moisture feed made from the entire plant. Stored in silos
      corn, sorghum
      Grass, grass-legume, legume
    • 4. High Energy Concentrate
      Cereal grains
      Beet and citrus pulp
      Animal, marine and vegetable fats
      Roots and tuber
    • 5. Protein Supplements
      Contains greater than 20% crude protein
      animal, avian, marine sources
      Milk and by-products
      Legume seeds
      Brewery and distillery by-products
      Urea, ammonia
    • 6. Mineral supplements and 7. Vitamin supplements
      Must be added by sources that animal is able to absorb
      Vitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatly
      Plants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storing
      Animals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins
    • 8. Additives
      Non- nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feed
      Added in very small quantities
      Antibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobials
      Buffers, colors, flavors
      Hormones, enzymes
    • Estimating Nutritional Value of a Feed
      Goal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuffs matches the animal’s needs
      Three methods for Estimating
      Chemical Analysis
      Digestion and Balance Trials
      Feeding Trials
    • Chemical Analysis
      Subdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount present
      Problem: Doesn’t estimate how well the animal utilizes the feed
    • Digestion and Balance Trials
      Measures the digestibility of a feed
      Feed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of time
      Problem: Not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissue
    • Feeding Trials
      Used extensively
      Usually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trials
      Can evaluate growth, egg production, wool production
    • Swine Nutrition
      Sow – adult female
      Boar- adult male
      Piglet- young pig
      Gilt- sexually mature female, no litter yet
      Barrow- castrated male
    • Swine Nutrition- Water
      Neonates 80% water, finishing pigs 55% water
      Requirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of feed, urine output, etc.)
      General guidelines 1-11/2 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumed
      Lactating sows require more for milk production
      Water quality affects consumption, high total dissolved solids can cause diarrhea, high levels of sulfates should be avoided
    • Swine Nutrition- Energy
      Required for buildup of lean and fat tissue
      Nursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milk
      Growing pigs- most energy from cereal grains
      Sows and finishing pigs- some energy is gained from volatile fatty acids from fermentation in large intestine
      Dietary need is directly related to body weight
      Amount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of diet
    • Energy source feedstuffs for Swine
      Cereal grains ( especially swine)
      Damaged grains
      Grain by- products
      Purified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets)
      Fat ( tallows, animal and vegetable fats)
      Processed food waste
    • Swine Nutrition – Protein and Amino acids
      Pig carcasses contain 50% muscle. About 8% of the whole body is edible protein
      Pigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissues
      Amino acids required are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
      Lysine is the first limiting amino acid, high requirements, low content in feedstuffes ex. Corn
      Most diets are based on soybean meal due to its higher lysine content
    • Protein Source Feedstuffs in Swine
      Plant proteins: soybeans
      Animal proteins: by-products of meat packing industry, fish meal, dried milk products
      Synthetic amino acids
    • Swine Nutrition- Minerals
      Highest Mineral Needs
      Ca and P- usually fed as limestone and oyster shells
      NaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intake
      I- soybean and grain diets deficient, supplement required
      Fe- injected in piglets to prevent anemia- lasts 3 weeks, milk is iron deficient
      Mg- required in growing pigs, present in feedstuffs
      Z- supplemented to prevent parakeratosis
    • Swine Nutrition- Vitamins
      Vitamin A- supplement 2-3 times need because corn has low Vit A and it breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good source
      Vitamin D- absent in most feedstuffs, expose pigs to sunlight or add sun cured hays or fish oils to diet
      Vitamin E – required in all life stages, legume hay, green forage and cereal grains are good sources
      Vitamin K- present in feeds, synthesized by hind gut fermentation but pig must have access to feces. Supplement added to prevent hemorrhaging in newborns
    • Vitamin, Mineral and Additive Source Feedstuffs in Swine
      Mineral- trace mineral salt
      Vitamin- alfalfa meal, fermentation by products, animal protein
      Additives: antibiotics, anthelmintics etc
    • Nutritional Diseases in Swine
      Amino Acid Deficiency: anemia, edema, immunocompromise, impaired growth
      Parakeratosis: Occurs between the 6-16th week of life. From low zinc, high calcium diet; bilateral abnormal keratinization of the skin, forming horny scales; starts as brown spots on underside
    • Swine Feeding Management
      Pre-breeding: gilt is bred at 7-8 mos. Flushing 1-2 weeks prior to breeding increases ovulation and litter size, high antibiotics added to diet
      Gestation: normal nutritional needs for first two trimesters. Majority of growth is in last month. Overweight sows are more likely to crush piglets
      Farrowing: include laxatives to prevent constipation when in farrowing crate; wheat bran or dried beet pulp 10-15% of diet; high antibiotics
      Lactation: nutrient requirements 3-4 times higher than during gestation, produce 2.5 lbs milk per piglet; if feed restricted can suffer bone fractures and paralysis
      Nursing pigs: all nutrients from sow’s milk for first 2 weeks. Must supply iron( injectable) Begin eating dry food at 2 weeks
    • Sheep Nutrition
      Ruminant Herbivores
      Ewe- female of reproductive age
      Ram- intact male of reproductive age
      Lamb- young sheep of either sex
      Wether- neutered adult male
      Mutton- meat derived from adult sheep
    • Sheep Nutrition- Water
      Water is limiting nutrient in many areas
      Water quality is more important to sheep than any other livestock species ( stagnant, odor, high bacterial or mineral content)
      Water intake is influenced by feed, vegetation, protein intake, environmental temperature, amount of rain, dew, or snowfall
    • Water Requirements for Sheep
      1 gallon of water per 4 lbs of dry feed consumed
      More water when air temp is above 70F
      Less intake if water temp is <40 or > 50F
      Lower requirement where there is daily rain, heavy dew or soft, wet snow
      Lower requirement for those eating silage, succulent or range forage
    • Sheep Nutrition- Energy
      Insufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feed
      Energy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, death
      High energy needs:
      • Immediately before and after lambing
      • Flushing ewes and rams for breeding
      • Finishing lambs
    • Energy Source Feedstuffs for Sheep
      Good quality pasture, hay, silage
      Grains: barley, corn, wheat, oats and milo
      Precautions: when feeding wheat grain- lambs susceptible to acute indigestion
    • Sheep Nutrition- Protein
      Usually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumen
      Microbial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambs
      Add extra protein feeds when pastures are mature or when feeding creep rations
    • Protein source feedstuffs for sheep
      Green pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes0
      Urea levels: < 1% of total ration
      No urea in young lambs, creep rations, straw, poor quality hay or lambs on limited feed
    • Sheep Nutriton- Minerals
      Highest Mineral Needs
      NaCl- usually provided ½-1/3 lb per ewe per month
      Ca, P – highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for P
      I- usually provided in salt
      Co- more in legumes than grasses
      Se- small difference between deficiency and lethal toxicity, muscular dystrophy
      Zinc- high needs for normal testicular development
    • Sheep Nutrition- Vitamins
      Vit A- can store excess for 6-12 months
      Vit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problems
      Vit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiency
      Vit K- synthesized by rumen
      Vit C- synthesized by tissues
    • Vitamin and Mineral Feedstuffs in Sheep
      Vitamins- green feeds, germs of seeds, sun-cured hays
      Minerals- leafy legumes, grains, trace mineral and salt mix
    • Sheep Nutritional Diseases
      Enterotoxemia type D- intestinal toxins present in blood; caused by stress and sudden diet changes; vaccinate lambs prior to weaning
      Urinary calculi- common in rams and wethers in drylot; results from Ca/P ration imbalance and decreased water intake
    • Sheep Feed Management
      Pre-breeding: ewe is flushed for 4-6 weeks, 2 weeks prior to breeding and continuing for 2-3 weeks after bred; flushed on either high quality pastures or ¼ to ½ lb of grain or pellets per day; treat for internal parasites and trim hooves
      Gestation- 70% of fetal growth happens in the last 6 weeks of gestation
    • continued
      Late pregnancy feed requirement
      • 50% more feed if single lamb
      • 75% more feed if twin lamb
      • Add grain to high roughage diet, more energy
      Lactation- maximum milk production 2-3 weeks post parturition; feed three times her maintenance requirements; must have increase protein intake to make milk
      Nursing lambs- born with non functioning rumen; colostrum is a must within first 12-18 hours. If no ewe colostrum, can use fresh cow colostrum. Creep feeding used for early weaning and getting lambs to market
    • Goat Nutrition
      Ruminant Herbivore
      Doe- female
      Buck- intact male
      Kid- baby goat, either sex
      Wether- castrated male
      • Inquisitive feeding behavior
      • Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides
    • Goat Feeding Behavior
      Confinement feeding: will pick through offered feed and eat what they want
      This results in 2 important effects:
      Composition of consumed diet differs from formulated diet
      Goats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the diet
      Range feeding: active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses, creating a browse line. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant; goats grazing hilly terrain have higher energy requirements than those on level terrain
    • Goat Nutrition- Water
      • Intake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivity
      • Free access to good quality water
      • More sensitive to water quality, won’t touch fecal/urine contaminated water
      • Lactation increases needs
    • Goat Nutrition- Energy
      Wide variances among breed, productivity, production and size
      Mostly from carbohydrates and low levels of fat, high fat inhibits rumen fermentation
      Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organs
      Consume more dry matter then other livestock species
    • Energy Source- Feedstuffs for Goats
      Forages: alfalfa hay, bermuda grass hay
      grains: corn, sorghum, oats
    • Goat Nutrition- Protein
      Most expensive component of diet
      Needed to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acids
      Unlike fat, excess is not stored
      Vary with developmental stage
      Protein source feedstuffs for goats
      - Soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower meal
    • Goat Nutrition- Mineral
      Ca and P are two major minerals- needed for bone development and milk production
      Mobilize bone stores for high needs
      Phosphorus need is met due to goats high selectivity in diet
      Only salt should be provided free choice
      Lush pasture is deficient in magnesium
    • Goat Nutrion- Vitamins
      Only Vit A is likely to be deficient
      Occurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weather
      Occurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material
    • Goat Nutritional Diseases
      Enterotoxemia type D- can occur after high intake of immature succulent forage. Toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type D
      Urinary calculi- can occur when Ca and P rations are unbalanced