Roman Numerals
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  • 1. Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 2. Unit One: Chapter 1 Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 3.
    • After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to:
      • Recognize the symbols used to represent numbers in the Roman numeral system
      • Convert Roman numerals to Arabic numbers
      • Convert Arabic numbers to Roman numerals
  • 4.
    • History
    • Application in apothecary system
      • Grains (gr) combined with Roman numerals
      • x = 10 in Roman numeral expressions
      • Note: “gr” precedes the number in Apothecary system
  • 5.
    • Roman numerals and time pieces
  • 6.
    • May still see in practice
      • Aspirin gr x = Aspirin 10 grains
    • Knowing values helps prevent errors
    • Safety Tip
    • The Institute for Safe Medication Practice (ISMP) at www.ismp.org
      • Recommendation: abbreviations and med errors
  • 7.
    • Arabic system— numbers
      • Numbers not letters (1, 2, 3…)
      • Fractions (¼, ¾)
      • Decimals (0.5, 1.2)
    • Roman Numerals— letters
      • i, v, x used most often
      • Line may be used to prevent interpretation error
      • i, vii, ix
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • When a Roman numeral of lesser value is placed AFTER one of equal value, the numerals are added
    • 25 = xxv (x = 10 x = 10 , v = 5  10+10+5 = 25)
    • Same numeral is never repeated more than three times
    • 4 = iv NOT iiii
  • 10.
    • When a Roman numeral of lesser value is placed BEFORE a numeral of greater value, the numbers are subtracted
    • ix = 9
    • (x = 10, i = 1  10 - 1 = 9)
    • xxiv = 24
    • (x = 10 + x = 10 + iv = [5 – 1] = 24)