Roman Numerals

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Roman Numerals

  1. 1. Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  2. 2. Unit One: Chapter 1 Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  3. 3. <ul><li>After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the symbols used to represent numbers in the Roman numeral system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert Roman numerals to Arabic numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert Arabic numbers to Roman numerals </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Application in apothecary system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains (gr) combined with Roman numerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x = 10 in Roman numeral expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: “gr” precedes the number in Apothecary system </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Roman numerals and time pieces </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>May still see in practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin gr x = Aspirin 10 grains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowing values helps prevent errors </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tip </li></ul><ul><li>The Institute for Safe Medication Practice (ISMP) at www.ismp.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation: abbreviations and med errors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Arabic system— numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers not letters (1, 2, 3…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractions (¼, ¾) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimals (0.5, 1.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Numerals— letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i, v, x used most often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line may be used to prevent interpretation error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i, vii, ix </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>When a Roman numeral of lesser value is placed AFTER one of equal value, the numerals are added </li></ul><ul><li>25 = xxv (x = 10 x = 10 , v = 5  10+10+5 = 25) </li></ul><ul><li>Same numeral is never repeated more than three times </li></ul><ul><li>4 = iv NOT iiii </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>When a Roman numeral of lesser value is placed BEFORE a numeral of greater value, the numbers are subtracted </li></ul><ul><li>ix = 9 </li></ul><ul><li>(x = 10, i = 1  10 - 1 = 9) </li></ul><ul><li>xxiv = 24 </li></ul><ul><li>(x = 10 + x = 10 + iv = [5 – 1] = 24) </li></ul>

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